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Mal. This is the Serjeant,
Who like a good and hardy soldier fought
'Gainst my captivity. Hail, hail, brave friend!
Say to the King the knowledge of the broil,
As thou did it leave it.

Cap. Doubtful long it stood :
As two spent swimmers that do cling together,
And choak their art: the merciless Macdonel
(Worthy to be a Rebel; for to that
The multiplying villanies of nature
Do swarm upon him) from the western ifles
Of Kernes and Gallow-glaffes was supply'd ;
And fortune, on his damned quarry smiling,
Shew'd like a rebel's whore. But all too weak:
For brave Macbeth (well he deserves that name)
Disdaining fortune, with his brandisht steel
Which smoak'd with bloody execution,
Like valour's minion carved out his passage,
'Till he had fac'd the Nave;
Who ne'er shook hands nor bid farewel to him,
'Till he unseam'd him from the nave to th' chops,
And fix'd his head upon our battlements.

King. Oh, valiant cousin! worthy gentleman ! .

Cap. As whence the sun 'gins his reflection, Shipwracking storms and direful thunders break; (1)

So (1) As whence the sun 'gins bis refication, Shi; wracking storms, and direful thunders break;] Mr. Pope has degraded this word, 'gins, against the general authority of the copies, without any reason aflign'd for so doing; and substituted, gives, in the room of it. But it will soon be obvious, how far our author's good obfer. vation and knowledge of nature goes to establish his own reading, 'gins. For the sense is this ima" As from the place, from whence vi the sun begins his course, (viz. the East,) shipwrecking storms « proceed;

&c."-And it is to in fact, that storms generally come from the East. And it must be fu in reason, because the natural and conftant motion of the ocean is from East to West: and because the motion of the wind has the same general direction. Præcipua generalis [Ventorum] caufa eft ipse Sol, qui igneo suo jubare aerem rarefacit & attenuat; imprimis illum, in quem perpendiculares radios mittit, live supra quem bæret. Aer enim rarefaetus multo majorem locum poftulat. Iride fit, ut aer a sole impulfus alium vicinum aerem ma impetu proSidut; cumque Sol ab Oriente in occidentem circymrotetur, præcipuus ab


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So from that spring, whence comfort seem'd to come, (2)
Discomfort swell'd. Mark, King of Scotland, mark;
No sooner justice had, with valour arm’d,
Compellid these skipping Kernes to truft their heels;
But the Norweyan Lord, surveying vantage,
With furbisht arms and new supplies of men
Began a fresh assault.

King. Dismay'd not this
Our captains, Macbeth and Banquo ?

Cap. Yes,
As sparrows, eagles; or the hare, the lion.
If I say sooth, I must report, they were
As cannons overcharg'd; with double cracks, (3)

So eo aëris impulsus fiet versus occidentem.---Quia plerumque ab aëris per Solem rarefactione oritur, qui cum continue feratur ab Oriente in occia dentem, majori quoque impetu protruditur aër ab Oriente in occidentem, Varenii Geograph: -l. i. c. 14, &c. 20. prop. 10. and 15.----This being fo, it is no wonder that storms should come most frequently from that quarter; or that they should be most violent, because here is a concurrence of the natural motions of wind and wave. This proves clearly, that the true reading is 'gins, i. e. begins: for the other reading does not fix it to ibat quarter: for the sun may give its reflection in any part of its course above the horizon; but it can begin it only in one.

Mr. Warburton. (2) So from that spring, whence comfort seem'd to come, Discomfort swelld.) I have not disturb’d the text here, as the sense does not absolutely require it; tho' Dr. Tbirlby prescribes a very in. genious and easy correction :

So from that spring, wbence comfort seem'd to come,

Discomforts well'd.
i. e. ftream'd, iow'd forth: a word that peculiarly agrees with the
metaphor of a spring. The original is Anglo-Saxon peallian, scaturire;
which very well expresses the diffufion and scattering of water from
its head. CHAUCER has used the word in these acceptations.

For whiché might she no lengir restrain
Her Terís, thei ganin fo up to well.

Troil. & Cref: 1. iv. v. 709. I can no more, but here out cast of all welfare abide the daie of my deth, or els to se the fight that might all my wellynge sorowes voide, and of the fode make an ebbe.

Teftament of Love. (3)

I must report they were As cannons overcharg'd with double cracks,] Canaons overcharg'd with cracks I have no idea of : My pointing, I think, gives the easy and natural sense. Masbeth and Banquo were like cannons over


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So they redoubled strokes upon the foe :
Except they meant to bathe in reeking wounds,
Or memorize another Golgotha,
I cannot tell-
But I am faint, my galhes cry for help.

King. So well thy words become thee, as thy wounds :
They smack of honour both. Go, get him furgeons,

Enter Rosse and Angus, But who comes here?

Mal. The worthy Thane of Rolle.

Len, What haste looks through his eyes?
So should he look, that seems to speak things ftrange.

Rofje. God save the King !
King. Whence cam’st thou, worthy Thane ?

Roje. From Fife, great King,
Where the Norweyan banners Hout the sky,
And fan our people cold.
Norway, himself with numbers terrible, (4)
Afifted by that most disloyal traitor
The Thane of Cawdor, 'gan a dismal conflict ;
"Till that Bellona's bridegroom, lapt in proof, (3)
Confronted him with felf-comparitons,
Point against point rebellious, arm 'gainst arm,
charg'd; why? because they redoubled Atrokes on the foe with twice
the fury, and impetuusity, as before.

(4) Norway himself, with numbers terrible,

Afifted by that, &c.] Norway himself affifted, &c. is a reading
we owe to the editors, not to the poet. That energy and contrast of
expression are loft, which my pointing restores. The sense is, Nor-
way, who was in himself terrible by his own numbers, when aslifted
by Cawdor, became yet more terrible.
(5) 'Till that Bellona's bridegroom, lapt in proof,

Confronted b m with self-comparisons,
Print against poizt, rebellious arm 'gainst arm,

Curbing bis lavish spirit.], Here again we are to quarrel with
the transposition of an innocent comma; which however becomes
dangerous to sense, when in the hands either of a careless or ignorant
editor. Let us see who is it that brings this rebellious arm? Why,
it is Bellona's bridegroom: and who is he, but Macbeth.
never believe, our author meant any thing like this. My regulation
of the pointing restores the true meaning; that the loyal Macueth
confronted the disloyal Gowdør, arm to arm.


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Curbing his lavish spirit. To conclude,
The victory fell on us.

King. Great happiness!

Roje. Now Sweno, Norway's King, craves composition : Nor would we deign him burial of his men, 'Till he disbursed, at Saint Colmes-kill-isle Ten thousand dollars, to our gen'ral use.

King. No more that Thane of Cawdor shall deceive Our bosom int'reft.

Go, pronounce his death ; And with his former title


Rolle. I'll see it done.
King. What he hath lost, noble Macbeth hath won.


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SCENE changes to the Heath.

Thunder. Enter the three Witches.

W Here

1 Witch

Here haft thou been, fifter ?
Witch. Killing


Witch, Sifter, where thou?
i Witch. A sailor's wife had chesnuts in her lap,
And mouncht, and mouncht, and mouncht. Give me,

quoth 1.
Aroint thee, witch!-the rump-fed ronyon cries.
Her husband's to Aleppo gone, mafter o'th' Tyger:
But in a fieve I'll thither fail,
And like a rat without a tail,
I'll dol'll do and I'll do.

2 Witch. I'll give thee a wind.
i Witch. Thou art kind.

Witch. And I another.
i Witch. I myself have all the other,
And the very points they blow ;
All the quarters that they know,
l'th' fhip-man's card.
I will drain him dry as hay;
Sleep shall neither night nor day
Hang upon his pent-house lid;



He shall live a man forbid; (6)
Weary sev'nights, nine times nine,
Shall he dwindle, peak and pine :
Though his bark cannot be loft,
Yet it shall be tempest-toft.
Look, what I have.

2 Witch. Shew me, shew me.

1 Witch. Here I have a pilot's thumb, Wrackt as homeward he did come. [Drum within,

3 Witch. A drum, a drum! Macbeth doth come! All. The Weird fifters, hand in hand, (7)


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(6) He shall live a man forbid:] i. e. as under a curse, an Interdiation. So, afterwards, in this play;

By bis own interdiction stands accurs’d. So, among the Romans, an outlaw's fentence was aquæ & ignis inter• dictio. i. e. He was forbid the use of water and fire: which imply'd the necessity of banisment,

(7) The weyward fifters, hand in hand,] The Witches are here speaking of themselves; and it is worth an enquiry why they should stile themselves the weyward, or wayward fifters. This word in its general acceptation fignifies, perverse, froward, moody, obftinate, untra&table, &c. and is every where so used by our Shakespeare. To content ourselves with two or three instances ;

Fy, fy, how wayward is this foolish love,
That, like a testy baby, &c.

Two Gent, of Verona.
This wimpled, whining, purblind, wayzvard boy.

Love's Labour luft,
And, which is worse. All you have done
Is but for a wayward son.

Macbeth. It is improbable, the Witches would adopt this epithet to themselves, in any of these senses; and therefore we are to look a little farther for the poet's word and meaning. When I had the first suspicion of our author being corrupt in this place, it brought to my mind the following passage in CHAUCER's Troilus and Crescide. lib. iii. v. 618.

But O fortune, executrice of wierdes. Which word the glossaries expound to us by fates or destinies. I was foon confirm'd in my suspicion, upon happening to dip into Heylin's Cosmography, where he makes a short recital of the story of Macbeth and Banquo.

These two (fays be,) travelling together thro' a forest, were met by three Fairies, Witches, Wierds, the Scots call them, &c.,

I presently recollected, that this story must be recorded at more length by Holingshead; with whom I thought it was very probable


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