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them, and seeking to pass away the time. I knew this, and made allowance accordingly; but I still wished that they could understand the gravity of such an assembly, and show so much respect to it as to repay the privilege of admission by striving to excite as little attention as possible, and by having the patience to sit still when they happened not to be amused, till some interruption gave them the opportunity to depart quietly. If they had done this, Judge Porter would not have moved that they should be appointed seats in the gallery instead of below; and they would have been guiltless of furnishing a plea for the exclusion of women, who would probably make a better use of the privilege, from the galleries of other Houses of Parliament.” 1

For a long time the rule against the admission of ladies to the floor was often suspended.

Miss Martineau had another complaint to make. “When I was at Washington," she said, "albums were the fashion and the plague of the day. I scarcely ever came home but I found an album on my table or requests for autographs; but some ladies went much farther than petitioning a foreigner who might be supposed to have leisure. I have actually seen them stand at the door of the Senate Chamber, and send the doorkeeper with an album, and a request to write in it, to Mr. Webster and other eminent members. I have seen them do worse; stand at the door of the Supreme Court, and send in their albums to ChiefJustice Marshall while he was on the bench hearing pleadings. The poor President (Jackson) was terribly persecuted; and to him it was a real nuisance, as he had no poetical resource but Watts's hymns. I have seen verses and stanzas of a most ominous purport from Watts, in the President's very conspicuous handwriting, standing in the midst of the crowquill compliments and translucent charades which are the staple of albums. Nothing was done to repress this atrocious impertinence of the ladies. I always declined writing more than name and date; but Senators, judges, and statesmen submitted to write gallant nonsense at the request of any woman who would stoop to desire it." 2

The New York Senate, as far as I have observed, is the only branch of a State Legislature that directly provides in its rules for the admission of ladies to the floor. The rules of the Kansas 1 Retrospect of Western Travel, 1, 180.

2 Ibid., I, 154.

House, but not the Senate, specify “the wives and families of members.' The Missouri Senate by rule provides seats in the rear and at the side of the chamber for wives and families. Doubtless in various other assemblies they are admitted by custom. It is not a wise practice from any point of view.



Abbott, Joseph C., and votes for in- | Alberta, women chosen in, 213.
eligible candidates, 295.

Aldermen, meaning of, 43.
Absence, 616.

Alexander, De A. S., quoted, 649.
Adams, Henry, explains Randolph's Alien and Naturalization bills, 216; and
peculiarities, 644.

the Sedition law, 484.
Adams, John, on single chamber, 25, 32: Allds, Jonathan P., resigns to avoid

favors property as basis for represen- expulsion, 429.
tation, 78; and frequent elections, Allen, Charles A., and disorderly epi-
109, 110, 111; misfortunes brought sode in Ill., 650.
to by special sessions, 137; term of Allen, Ethan, 172.
shortened, 178; citizenship qualifica- Allison, William Boyd, and oppor-
tion helps to defeat, 217; quoted, tunities for gain, 466.
303; criticizes Congress of the Con- Alsop, George, on rustic law-makers in
federation, 304; and the influence of provincial Maryland, 338.
lawyers, 332; on rotation, 348; on Alteration of bills, 459.
salaries, 527.

Alvord, Sir Edward, and writing in the
Adams, John Quincy, and the “Broad House, 635.

Seal” election case, 202; and resi- American Bar Assn., advocates change
dence qualification, 224; on the of date of assemblage of Congress,
power of expelling, 285; accused of

179; Storey's address to, quoted, 389.
corruption, 412, 446, 644; as to ap- Ames, Fisher, defends biennial elec-
pointment of members to office, 444, tions, 112; criticizes First Congress,
445; on the lawyer's duty, 455; ob-

303; a stockholder, 410; as to cor-
jects to the wearing of crape, 601.

ruption, 411; and punctuality, 626.
Adams, Samuel, costume of, 594; and Ames, Oakes, and the Crédit Mobilier
mourning. 601.

affair, 286, 418.
Adjournment, fixing day for, 158; Ammons, Elias Milton, on limiting

effect of on pending business, 164; sessions, 139, 158.

meaning of, 181. See also Periods. Ancient and Honorable Artillery Com-
Administrative legislation, unicameral

pany, 9.
treatment for, 42, 169.

Anderson, Frank M., and arrests for
Admission to the floor, 653.

violating Alien and Sedition laws,
Age qualification, 207.

Agger, E. E., on State activities, 131. Anderson, John, and the power to pun-
Aiken, Rev. Solomon, excluded because ish for contempt, 501.
appointed a chaplain, 269.

Andrew, John A., opposes residence
Alabama, continuity of Senate in, 62; qualification, 224; on salaries, 549.

frequency of elections in, 113; terms Andrews, John, and costume of Sam
of Senators in, 120; frequency of ses- Adams, 595.
sions in, 124, 125; business at special Andrews, William, expelled, 278.
sessions in, 136; session limits in, 142: Anglin, Speaker, resigns by reason of
forbids passage of revenue bills in business relations with Canadian
closing days of session, 160; no prop- government, 256.
erty qualification in, 234; religious Anne, Queen, censorship under, 474.
tests in, 244; clergymen in, 249; di- Annual elections. See Terms.
rects disqualification for dueling, Annual sessions. See Sessions.
262; lobbying in, 370; solicitation by Appointment, of Senators, 68; to office,
employees in, 390; witnesses in, 509; 436.
patronage in, 580, 581; absence in, Argentina, one chamber in, 33; conti-
624; admission to the floor in, 655. nuity of Senate in, 63; terms in, 102,
120; limit on sessions in, 140; pro- religious ceremonies in, 602. See also
perty qualifications in, 231.

Argument, how to present, 381.

Attendance, 616.
Aristides, and the ruin of Solon's Con- Augustus, decrees that Senate shall
stitution, 78.

assemble twice a month, 154: raises
Aristocracy, and democracy, in early the property qualification, 228.
Mass. Bay, 6, 48, 345.

Austin, James T., opposes property as
Aristotle, cited by Webster in defence basis of representation, 77; com-

of property as basis of representation, ments on Hamilton's views as to ten-
82; but opposes it as qualification for ure of office, 117; opposes religious
office, 228; on the characteristics of tests, 245; on the reading of news-
democracy, 344.

papers, 6.33.
Arizona, single chamber proposed in, Australia, two chambers in, 33; conti-

34; has smallest House, 88; effect of nuity of Senate in, 63; election of
session limit in, 143; age require- Senators in, 70; terms in, 102; salaries
ment in, 210; imposes educational in, 546.
test, 213; lobbying in, 384; appoint- Austria, two chambers in, 33; indirect
ment to office in, 449; arrest in, 495; election in, 66; terms in, 102; pro-
salaries in, 529; odd rule as to refer- visions for convening in, 177; dis-
ences in, 646.

solution in, 190; contested elections
Arkansas, single chamber proposed in, in, 205; age qualifications in, 212;

35; continuity of Senate in, 62; dual office-holding in, 270; substi-
chooses biennial elections, 113; quad- tutes in, 297; arrest in, 492.
rennials proposed in, 114, 124; busi- Autograph albums, 658.
ness at special sessions in, 136; limit- Aylesbury election case, 193.
ing sessions in, 142, 533; hour of ad-
journment in, 190; contested elec- Backus, Rev. Isaac, against religious
tions in, 200; age requirement in, 210; tests, 243.
citizenship qualification in, 218; no Bacon. Lord, cited by Webster in de-
property qualification in, 234; reli. fence of property as basis of repre-
gious tests in. 244, 245; clergymen in, sentation, 82; differentiates proroga-
249; and dueling, 263; expulsion in, tion and adjournment, 162; defence
283; witnesses in, 509; salaries in, of, 455.
534; perquisites in, 567; hour of Bailey, William B., alleges Congress to
meeting in, 613.

be misrepresentative, 336.
Arnold, Benedict, 309.

Baker, Edward B., and appointment of
Arrest, and privilege, 488, 489.

members to office, 447.
Asgill, John, expelled by reason of a Baldwin, Abraham, thinks second
book, 474.

branch should represent property,
Ashby, election case of, 193.

75; challenged to a duel, 260.
Ashfield, Mass., votes for one chamber, Baldwin, Nahum, on farmer members,

Asquith, Herbert Henry, on carrying Baldwin, Judge Simeon E., opinion of

bills over, 163; and attendance, 619. as to the Connecticut charter and two
Assaults, and contempt, 509.

chambers, 17; on power of Legis-
Assembling, 174.

lature to convene itself, 175; on sal-
Assembly, the name of, 22.

aries, 548.
Assistants, in Mass., 4, 50; in R.I. and Baldwin, Rev. Thomas, on religious
Conn., 51.

tests, 245.
Association of the Bar of the City of Balfour, Arthur James, objects to long

New York, and the Socialist mem- sessions, 152.
bers, 290.

Baltimore, Lord, receives complaint of
Astor, Lady, clected to Parliament, 213. frequent elections in Md., 108.
Athens, Senates in, 44; age standards Bancroft, George, quoted, 30.

in, 211; property qualification in, Bank officers, disqualified, 254.
228; bribery in, 400; oaths in, 433; Bankrupts, excluded, 257.

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