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And the book is delivered to him that is not learned, saying, read this I pray thee, and he saith I am not learned ;" but the prophets must be studied and understood by both speaker and hearer. The epistles must become indeed, living epistles, known and read of all men."

All this can be done and the pulpit yet retain its dignity and its power, nor let go its simplicity. Religion would then become familiar, not alone in its bare truths and its naked statements, but in its rich and genial nourishment for the soul. The intellect of the most gifted preacher can here find enough to quicken all its energies and task itself to the highest efforts, while yet the church shall not have occasion to mourn over so much wasted strength and misapplied intellect, with brilliancy, that has burned for itself alone, and rhetoric, which has figured with a splendid show, but which has played over the heads of its hearers as harmless as the summer-evening lightning.

If the publication of this work and our own notice of it, shall contribute to restore the bible to its lawful place, and make it what it was designed to be in the hand of the christian teacher and in the heart of the christian hearer, the earnest wishes of the author and our own ardent hopes, will not be disappointed.


Art. IV.-ON THE PHRASE iva trh7790197, that it might be ful


Every tiro in exegesis knows the difficulty attending the quotations in the New Testament from the Old, inasmuch as the original passages often have an entirely different meaning from that which appears to be given them in the quotations. As he advances, he learns that this seeming incorrectness of the writers of the New Testament closely connects itself with the infidelity of learned Europe, and with the depression of christianity in the world.

The specific form of the difficulty is this: The sacred writers of the New Testament, in attempting to interpret and apply certain passages of the Old Testament, have given us an opportunity of testing the correctness of their opinions, as it respects these quotations, the application of which test, it is contended, destroys their claim to inspiration.

It is our lot, as periodical reviewers, to be deeply engaged in the exciting controversies of our own age and community ; still

we can appreciate those great topics which lie at the foundation of our common christianity, from which the wary infidel draws his deadliest shafts, and to which the theologian of every denomination must sometimes return in his calmer moments.

The infidel objection alluded to, rests mainly, although not entirely, on the supposition, that certain formulas or phrases, by which the quotations are introduced, necessarily imply, that such quotations are used as predictions, and of course, that the New Testament writers have acted as interpreters of the Old Testament. If, on the contrary, it can be shown, that such passages are not quoted as predictions, but merely by way of illustration, then the New Testament writers have not attempted to interpret at all, and of course cannot be convicted of interpreting falsely.

These formulas are various, but the fullest and most explicit is as follows: ένα πληρωθή το ρηθέν υπό του κυρίου διά του προφήτου déyortos, “that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the Lord, through the prophet saying."

It is claimed by the objector, in reference to this formula ; (1.) that the passage quoted is said to be spoken by the Lord, from whom all prophecy proceeds; (2.) that it is said to be spoken through a prophet, i. e, a predictor of future events; (3.) that it is said to be fulfilled, the appropriate term for the accomplishment of a prediction ; (4.) that the Greek particle iva always has the telic sense in order that, or to the end that ; (5.) that the subjunctive form of thrpo es requires the rendering might or should be, as if referring to something future, and that this again determines the meaning of iva; (6.) that the gravity and dignity of the subject require this rendering of iva ; and (7.) that the concurrence of so many distinct considerations to one point ought to be regarded as giving to the argument the highest confirmation.

These arguments we shall endeavor to meet. We observe, then,

I. The phrase spoken by the Lord denotes that the words quoted are inspired, and that the analogous example taken to illustrate the case in hand is a sacred one, and worthy of serious attention ; but it does not of itself prove that the passage is a prediction.

II. The phrase through the prophet designates the person from whom the quotation is taken as a prophet, i. e. as one speaking in the name of God, whether enjoining present duty, recording the past, or predicting the future; but it does not follow, that the words of a prophet are a prophecy in the sense contended for.

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III. The phrase to be fulfilled is indeed the appropriate tern for the accomplishment of a prediction; but so is it also for that of a fulfillment by accommodation, as has been proved by two admirable examples, perfectly in point, which have been lately adduced by Dr. Wiseman (Lectures, pp. 344, 345.) from the Syriac. The first is taken from a Life of St. Ephrem, asé.so Liso ? ?

“ And in him (Ephrem) was fulfilled the word which was spoken concerning Paul to Ananias: he is a chosen vessel to me." The other example is from the writings of St. Ephrem himself, where he is speaking of Aristotle,

? 02.1' sóng's Too Liwalo “In him (Aristotle) was fulfilled that which was written concerning Solomon the wise: that of those that were before or after, there has not been one equal to him in wisdom." These examples are the more important, as it is directly said in them, that the passages quoted were spoken of other persons than those to whom they are ap plied by the writers making the quotations.

IV. According to the latest and most distinguished Grecists, as Passow, Matthiæ, Buttmann, and Hermann, the particle iva in classic Greek, so far as it is a conjunction, has only the telic sense, i. e. it always denotes the final cause, end, or purpose. interpreters of the New Testament, as for example Fritzsche, (Evang. Matt. Excurs. I.) contend that ivæ properly denotes the final cause, end, or purpose, and that it always, even in the New Testament, retains substantially this meaning. Tittmann, (De Synon. N. T. II. 32, 33,) however, by advocating a more liberal construction of particles in the New Testament, which he justly regards as the language of common life, has shown successfully, that the telic force of iva is wanting in cases without number, and that in many of these what he calls the ecbatic signification must be applied. This he has done without denying, that the primary import of iva is telic.

We are now prepared to go further and say, that iva, in its primary and leading import, is a demonstrative or article, prefixed to a clause, much in the same way, that an article is prefixed to a noun, (compare Quart. Christ. Spect. Vol. ix. p. 118,) and that the telic and ecbatic senses are both secondary or derived. Our reasons for this opinion are,

1. The etymology of the particle. Passow tells us that Iva is derived from the old personal pronoun i or is, corresponding to Lat. is, and correlative to Gr. tis. Matthiæ and Buttmann also notice this old pronoun. But neither of these writers make use of this derivation for illustrating the meaning of iva. The latest investigations, however, in comparative philology lead to the conclusion, that iva is the plural neuter of a Sanscrit pronominal root i, the vestiges of which are still seen in Latin, Teutonic, and Lithuanian, as well as in Greek. According to this, iva is equivalent, in its primary import, to Gr. őri, Lat. quod, and Eng. that.

2. The analogy of kindred particles which have the telic signification, as Gr. öqga, (probably compounded of 8 and qpa, comp. róqpa,) Lat. ut, ( = Gr. on, Eng. That; also is, &ore, and önus, (which according to Passow are old accusative forms from the relative os.). The significations of Lat. ut and Eng. that, run nearly parallel with those of the Greek particle.

3. The actual uses of ivæ in the New Testament, as compared with the theory of the relations, (see Quart. Christ. Spect. Vol. ix. p. 117 ff.) and exhibited in the following table.

A. Before the nominative clause,

(a) denoting the subject; as, Mat. 5: 29 ovuqéget yvo got, Iva απόληται εν των μελών σου, και μη όλον το σώμα σου βληθή εις γέενναν, “for it is profitable for thee, that one of thy members were destroyed, and thy whole body were not cast into hell.” This is more simple than to render it with Fritzsche, "for it is profitable for thee, (scil. to pluck out thy right eye, and to cast it from thee,) in order that one of thy members may perish, and thy whole body not be cast into hell." Verse 30. 10: 25 αρκετών των μαθητή, να γένηται ως ο διδάσκαλος αυτού, «let it be sufficient for the disciple, that he were as his master.” This is better than to render it with Fritzsche, “let it be sufficient for the disciple, (scil. not to be above his master,) in order that he may be rendered equal to him ;" or with Wahl, "let it be sufficient for the disciple, (scil. to know this,) in order that he may learn to be like his master.” 18: 6 συμφέρει αυτώ, ίνα κρεμαστή μύλος ονικός επί τον τράχηλον αυτού, και καταποντισθη εν τω πελάγει της Salmoons, “it is profitable for him, that an ass-millstone were hanged about his neck, and he were drowned in the depth of the sea.” Better than, with Fritzsche and Wahl, to suppose a species of attraction, and to render it thus, “it is profitable for him, that an ass-millstone be hanged about his neck, in order that he may be drowned in the depth of the sea." Mark 9 : 12. και πώς γέγραπται επί τον υιόν του ανθρώπου, ένα πολλά πάθη, και εξου

devwl1; "and how is it written concerning the son of man, that he should suffer many things and be set at nought ?” John 11: 50 συμφέρει ημίν, ίνα είς άνθρωπος αποθάνη υπερ του λαού, και μη Slov to lovos unbantar, “it is expedient for us, that one man should die for the people, and the whole nation perish not." This is better than with Wahl to suppose a species of attraction. 16 : 7 ovuqiqet vuiv, iva tyo dnéhfw, “it is expedient for you, that I should go away.” This is better than with Fritzsche and Wahl to render, “it is expedient for you, (scil. that I go unto him that hath sent me,) in order that I may go away;" or with Wahl in the minor edition of his Clavis, “it is expedient for you (i. e. you ought to desire) that I may go away." 1 Cor. 4: 3 εμοί δε εις ελάχιστον έστιν, ίνα υφ' υμών ανακριθώ, but with me it is a very small thing, that I should be judged by you.” This is better than with Fritzsche, “but with me it is a very small thing (i. e. I easily permit) that I may be judged by you;” or with Wahl,“ but with me it is a very small thing, (scil. to present myself before you,) in order that I may be judged by you.” Rev. 6: 11 xul købé en avroīs, iva avanaiourtat Ětı xgóvov, “and it was said unto them, that they should rest yet for a little season.” 9:4. Comp. Lat. accedit ut, convenit ut, expedit ut, mos est ut, aequum est ut, etc.

So, the way being prepared by the demonstrative pronoun, ούτος, αύτη, τούτο, Luke 1: 43 και πόθεν μοι τούτο, ένα έλθη ή μήτηρ TOŨ nuplov pov zpós ue; “and whence is this to me, that the mother of my Lord should come to me?” This is more simple than to render as Fritzsche has done, “and whence is this to me, (i. e. who hath commanded,) that the mother of my Lord should come to me?"

(b) denoting the predicate; as, John 4:34 &uòv Bõuú totiv, ένα ποιώ το θέλημα του πέμψαντός με, my meat is to do the will of him that sent me." This is more simple than the explanation of Fritzsche, “my meat consists in the endeavor to do the will of him that sent me."

So, the way being prepared by the demonstrative pronoun, ούτος, αύτη, τούτο; as, John 6: 29 τούτό εστι το έργον του θεού, ένα πιστεύσητε εις ον απέστειλεν εκείνος, « this is the work of God, that ye believe on him whom he hath sent.” Verse 39. 15: 12. 17:3. 1 John 3:11, 23. 2 John 6.

B. Before the dative clause,

(a) denoting a sharing or participation in an attribute or property of a thing, (dativus commodi, seu incommodi;) as, Mat. 8: 8 ουκ ειμι ικανός, ίνα μου υπό την στέγην εισέλθης, “I am not ht that thou shouldest come under my roof,” i. e. I am not fit for

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