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the ancients, but represents a universal motive in education, though certain other factors may at times overshadow its importance. The subject matter of teaching and learning is not a mere instrument with which we may produce certain results in the individual. On the contrary, it has a value higher and other than a purely personal one, since it represents intellectual treasures that must be conserved by the race and transmitted to future generations. These intellectual treasures are indeed conserved in the human consciousness, but not in the consciousness of the individual, but of the whole human race; and the individual who receives part of them into his consciousness is doing his share of the common duty of all men by assisting to transmit to future generations the inheritance of mankind. This work is moral, but still different from the moral education of the individual; the latter is individualistic-ethical and the former is socio-ethical.

3. Looking broadly at the subject of education, without regarding its individual phases, one can not but perceive the socio-ethical motives influencing the educative process. These motives were more powerful among the Eastern peoples than among the Greeks, because the latter delighted in what was of their own creation and attended less to the conservation and transmission of what they had received from the past.

Roman education, however, was deeply imbued with the socio-ethical tendency. “I reverence,” says Seneca, “the discoveries made in the field of knowledge and the men who have there unearthed treasures of wisdom. I am deeply moved when considering that knowledge and wisdom represent, as it were, the heritage of thousands, and that all of it has been collected and prepared

But we will imitate the wise father of the family and increase what we have received in order to transmit to our children a still greater heritage.' The Roman felt himself called to share his intellectual treasures with other peoples, and hence he converted the achievements of the Greeks into boons of humanity.?

Christianity, being entrusted with the mission to conserve the heavenly gifts and to let all men share in their graces, was well qualified to give a new and deeper meaning to the socioethical motives of education. The latter were almost the only

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1 Seneca, E., 64. 2 Vol. I, 3 Vol. I, p. 176.

p. 161.


motives that influenced the Middle Ages in transmitting the rich inheritance of the past. In modern times, these motives have often been ignored; still, their influence has been felt. For even if the educationist contends that the ends of education are limited to the work to be done in and with the individual, still the world will go on believing that the schools are not only educational institutions, but also conservatories of valuable knowledge and art, and the organs for renewing life and its ideal gifts. There can be no doubt that such is the function of all higher schools. They are the homes of the sciences, the arts, and of all superior ability. They are not merely fitting schools for the learned professions, but are the servants of the whole race: they must serve the interests of general culture and national life; must foster such studies as are necessary to maintain a high standard of intellectual life, and their curricula must be planned accordingly.

We admit that the lad poring over his Latin grammar does not realize that he is serving the interests of the commonwealth, and that he is actively engaged in connecting the past with the present and the future. However, the man who has mastered Latin will understand, to a certain degree, the relation between studies and national life, for he knows that the language of the Romans' is even to-day a social factor whose disappearance might change all our actions and doings. The whole force of the socio-ethical tendency is felt when the value of some ideal boon is forcibly brought home to the consciousness of a people. When the generations of the Cosimos and Lorenzos were thrilled with the glory of the ancient world, then young and old, prince and peasant, men and women-all were actuated by the common desire to unearth the treasure and to make it the property of the nation and the race. When the Germans had come to realize, in the beginning of the 19th century, the splendor of their nationality, they were, one and all, eager to imbue themselves and others with the new intellectual content: the child in the school realized that he was learning for the fatherland, and the university joined with the elementary school in fostering the rediscovered ideals of the nation; and these boons were regarded, not as instruments, but as ends of education. In such periods men recognize what they overlooked, perhaps, amid the drudgery of a workaday world, viz., first, that learning,


I Vol. I, p. 236.

2 Vol. I, p. 244.

research, and teaching must co-operate in uniting by the bond of tradition the successive generations;' and, second, that the subject-matter of these various activities may not be adjusted arbitrarily to the subjectivity of the individual, but must retain a certain substantiality. This view is beautifully expressed by Grimm: “What has been transmitted from the past, may not arbitrarily serve our needs or the views of the present day; on the contrary, it is our duty to guard these treasures so that they may be handed down unimpaired and entire to the most distant future.”2


The Transcendental Tendency of Education.

1. It was to the gods that the ancients traced back the treasures transmitted by teaching and learning from generation to generation. To the same source did they trace back the virtues that are the objects of the educative process. Hence they were consistent in venerating the gods as the first teachers and the patrons of the sciences, the arts, and teaching in general. In the East, where the sacred traditions formed the teaching content, learning and instruction was part of the public worship. The Greeks worshipped Athene, Hermes, Apollo, and the Muses as the divine representatives of the content and ideals of education, and paid divine honors to Ilaideia. Pythagoras, Socrates, and Plato regarded the work of forming the human mind as something divine.

These views and practices were sublimated by Christianity, for it correlated all studies with Christian doctrine as the coresubject and subordinated the educative process, like all earthly things, to the God-given end of man. İt teaches us to regard the mental faculties as gifts of God; and in our modern languages we designate them, as Christ did in His parable (Matthew, 25, 14 ff.), as talents (rálavrov). Christianity considers “edification” (oikodouelv, ædificatio) to be the capstone of the inner structure, and etymologically "edification” implies vaulting the intellectual life with the roof of a temple. In fact, the pedagogy of the Christian Middle Ages recognized neither the desire of knowledge nor its practical usefulness, but only the striving for Christian perfection as an educational motive, and consequently regarded all proper educational activity as divine service. Similar views were entertained in the subsequent periods: that knowledge can be acquired by no other means than by learning, practising, and praying, was the teaching of both Vives and Comenius; and the rule of the Jesuits that all subjects should be so taught as to lead to the knowledge and love of the Creator and the Redeemer, is based on the same principle as the “eloquent and wise piety” which Johann Sturm considered the end of education.

I Vol. I, p. 317.

2 In the dedication of his Deutsche Grammatik to Savigny.

2. Even modern school regulations insist that the religious and moral training be one of the aims of the school. No convincing argument has ever been brought against the old view that if education is to develop the whole man, and not only one or the other of his faculties, it must include religious instruction and religious practices. What a great historian has said of the influence of Christian ideals on modern science, is equally true of their influence on education: “Our age enjoys the pleasure of free movement in its intellectual work, but forgets too readily that these joys are a reflection of that splendor of the supernatural element which the Middle Ages infuse d into science.

Infidelity has been mentioned as being the outstanding characteristic of our age. But this charge is unjust. “The true and abiding spirit of the present,” says one who is familiar with both modern schools and modern life, “is not skepticism and infidelity. These have, it is true, taken hold of certain noisy elements and, therefore, appear on the surface to a dreadful extent, but they have, nevertheless, not affected those men who are solid and fully mature. The real spirit of the modern world is to be sought in the reawakening of the religious sense, and this is reasserting itself everywhere through the strong influence of the interests of the Church and of God. To ignore it... is to ignore, for the sake of the false and modern Zeitgeist, that deeper spirit of the age whose low murmurings are louder and truer witnesses than the fury of the voisiest civilization.”:2


"J. Burckhardt, Die Zeil Constantins, 2nd ed., p. 385. 2 Otto Frick in the article Simultanschulen, Schmid, Enzyklopädie, VIII,

p. 677.

The evergreen of religious consciousness will ever struggle bravely up from among the briers of the materialistic and autonomistic opinions of the day. Serious-minded thinkers of the modern world have often given apt expression to ihe deeper meaning of this religious spirit. Eucken confesses: “Modern education can not, despite its splendid achievements, satisfy the cravings of the human heart, and some inner power forces man to seek in an eternal Being and an infinite Love the peace unspeakable and the salvation of his soul. To express this longing we turn to the words of Peter, ‘Lord, to whom shall we go? Thou hast the words of eternal life (John VI, 69).' Fechner, the founder of psychophysics, says, “Take prayer out of the world, and the bond between God and man shall be torn asunder, and the tongue of the child, telling his needs to his heavenly Father, shall be struck dumb.”

3. The following diagram visualizes the results of our analysis:

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3. Aesthetical: 4. Ethical: 5. Socio

6. Transcendental Cultural Interest, or Interest ethical tendency. tendency. Interest in education in virtue. in the narrower sense.

The spontaneous interest in education (or the instinctive impulse to learn and be active) is aroused by the inherent charm of the intellectual content. The indirect, or practical, interests view this content as a means to an external end. The cultural interest regards it as the artistic material to be employed in the inner formation; and the individual-ethical interest regards it as material for moral formation. The socio-ethical interest considers the intellectual content of education as a good that involves common duties; and the religious interest considers it as a gift from God to be used for God's glory.

The spontaneous


| Rudolf Eucken, Die Lebensanschauungen der grossen Denker, p. 174.

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