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II.

bined with inner harmony. General education in touch with the pre-

sent and the past. Cosmopolitanism and patriotism. Goethe on

harmonious education. 2. World-perception and self-expression. The

command of language. The golden mean between frivolous dilettant-

ism and technical professional work. 3. The function of education

in daily life. The harmony between education and our personal ability

and position in life. 4. Moral requisites. 5. The religious basis.

Moral striving versus intellectual culture.

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sciences; liberal-permanent-progressive studies. Humaniora---realia;

idealia-realia. 3. Comenius, Herbart, and Ziller on the categories:

ethical--physical, material--formal. Diagram of the educational

materials.

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ornament and an instrument of power. 2. Difference between the

arcient and the modern conception. 3. The art of language as neces-

sitating the elaboration of the objective content as well of the subjec-

tive thoughts and feelings. The art of language as a key to the inter-

pretation of the classics.

of modern foreign languages. Modern and ancient literatures compared.

2. Linguistic value of modern languages. Modern languages afford

a discipline for the ear and the tongue. Defects in the teaching of

modern languages. Harmfulness of the foreign chattering of children.

Chapter XXII.

The Mother-Tongue...

115

1. Foreign and domestic elements in education. Only the mother-tongue

can afford an opportunity for a deep and full appreciation of poetry.

Folk poetry, especially in the Christian Middle Ages. 2. National

artistic literature. The mother-tongue the mother of tongues. 3. His-

torical grammar. The history of words. Importance of the phonetic

side of the mother-tongue.

III.

The Other Basic ELEMENTS OF EDUCATION.

Chapter XXIII.

Mathematics ...

119

1. Pythagorean estimate of number and language. Contributions of mathe-

matics to the content of education. 2. Relations between mathematics

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and pure science. Being relatively presuppositionless mathematics

can be taught scientifically to the young. Admitting of numberless

combinations it trains both the theoretical and the practical reason.

3. The science of problems. The systematic structure of mathematics

presents an intricate network. The Hindus quoted on the advantages
of mathematics. 4. Mathematics a propædeutic discipline for the
pursuit of science in general and of philosophy in particular. 5. Views
of Plato and Kant. 6. Harmful results of a one-sided study of mathe-
matics. ' It must be supplemented by, and correlated with, other subjects.

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Chapter XXIV.

Philosophy..

127

1. Relation between philosophy and the speculative interest. Philosophy

is a strong element making for enlightenment and is ultimately a moral

force. 2. The direct contributions of philosophy to the educative pro-

cess: deepening of the speculative interest, mental enlightenment, and

a world-view. These three elements as seen in the early and latter
periods of Greek philosophy. 3. Philosophy as related to the school
subjects. 4. The elements of Aristotelian philosophy should be taught
in the schools; their propædeutic value.

education. History widens the mental horizon of the pupils and trains

them to sympathy and devotion. History and poetry compared.

2. The moral and the religious side of historical study. 3. The study

of history a good preparation for the management of public affairs.

It enlightens the mind. The historical sense. The comparative study

of history. 4. Political history and the history of civilization. History

is no school science.

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