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of the gospel to confound the wisdom and gain men over to the knowledge of the learning of the world by the plain doctrine truth, and bring them out of the crooked of the cross.
paths, and place them in the straight way
that leadeth to life eternal. : He was humble to the lowest step of debasement and condescension, no one ever Nor was his charity to men greater than thinking better of others, or more mean his zeal to God, labouring with all his might ly of himself. And though when he had to to promote the honour of his Master. When deal with envious and malicious adversa at Athens, he saw them involved in the ries, who endeavoured by vilifying his per grossest superstition and idolatry, and son, to obstruct his ministry, he knew giving the honour that was due to God alone how to magnify his office, and to let them to statues and images; this fired his zeal, know that he was not inferior to the chiefest and he could not but let them know the of the apostles; yet at other times, he resentment of his mind, and how greatly always declared to the world that he con they dishonoured God, the great maker sidered himself “ the least of the apostles, and preserver of the world. Nor in the not meet to be called an apostle ;” and, as | course of a most extensive ministry, was he if this were not enough, he formed a word tired either with the dangers and difficulties ou purpose to express his humility, styling he met with, or the troubles and oppositions himself, Elachistoteron, that is, 6 less that were raised against hin. than the least of the saints, nay, the very 'chief of sinners."
• This will easily appear, if we take a sure
vey of what trials and sufferings he underHis repentance and sobriety were re went; some parts of which are thus briefiy markable; for he often abridged himself of summed up by himself; “ In labours abunthe conveniency of lawful and necessary dant, in stripes above measure, in prisons accommodations.
frequent, in death oft; thrice beaten with
rods, once stoned, thrice suffered shipwreck, What he taught to others he practised a night and a day in the deep. In journeying himself; his " conversation was in heaven," often, in perils of water, in perils by his and his “ desires were to depart, and to be countrymen, in perils by the Heathens, in with Christ;" and hence it is very proba- perils in the city, in perils in the wilderness, ble, that he always led a single life, though in perils in the sea, in perils among false some of the ancients rank himn among the brethren: in weariness and painfulness, in married apostles.
watchings often, in hunger and thirst; in
fastings often, in cold and darkness, and beHis kindness and charity were remark- / sides those things that were without, wbich able; he had a compassionate tenderness daily came upon him, the care of all the for the poor, and a quick sense of the wants 1 churches.” An account, though very great, of others. To what church soever he came, yet far short of what he endured. He did not 'it was always one of his first cares to make want solicitations, both from Jews and Gen
provision for the poor, and to stir up the I tiles, and might, doubtless, in some measure, 'bounty of the rich and wealthy: nay, he | have made his own terms, would be have worked often with his own bands, not only been false to his trust, and quitted that to maintain himself, but also to help and way which they so violently opposed. relieve the poor. But his charity to the souls of men was infinitely greater, fearing But alas! those things weighed little no dangers, refusing no labours, going with our a postle, who “ counted not his life through good and evil report, that he might | dear unto him, so that he might finisb his
quent, in des above mentin labours
Jordan, when the Messiah, who had some time before been baptized, came that way.
Upon his approach, the Baptist pointed The Transactions of St. Andrew, from
him out as the Messiah, styling him the his Birth, to his being called to the
Lamb of God, the true sacrifice that was Apostleship.
to expiate the sins of the world. As soon
as the Baptist had given this character of THIS apostle was born at Bethsaida, a Jesus, Andrew and another disciple, pro
1 city of Galilee, built on the banks of bably St. John, followed the Saviour of the lake of Genesareth, and was son to mankind to the place of his abode. John of Jonas, a fisherman of that town. He was brother to Simon Peter, but whe After some conversation with him, Anther older or younger is not certainly known, drew departed, and having found his brothough the generality of the ancients inti ther Simon, informed him that he had dismate, that he was the younger. He was covered the great Messiah, so long expected brought up to his father's trade, at which by the house of Jacob; and accordingly he laboured, till our blessed Saviour called brought him to Jesus. They did not, howhim to be a " fisher of men,” for which ever, stay long with their Master, but rehe was, by some preparatory institutions, turned to their calling. qualified, even before the appearance of the Messiah, ?
Something more than a year after, Jesus,
passing through Galilee, found Andrew and S John the Baptist had lately preached Peter fishing on the sea of Galilee, where
the doctrine of repentance; and was, by be fully satisfied them of the greatness and - the generality of the Jews, from the impar divinity of his person, by a miraculous
tiality of his precepts, and the remarkable draught of fishes, which they took at his strictness and austerity of his life, held in command. He now told them that they great veneration.
should enter on a different series of labours,
and instead of fish, should, by the efficacy In the number of his followers was our 1 and influence of their doctrine upon the apostle, who accompanied him beyond ! heartand conscience, catch men; commanding them to follow him, asd accordingly
on the same
of king Mithridates ; here
Galatia; a the faith of Chisine Sea, into bulls
ing them to follow him, as his immediate He next came to Synope, a city situated disciples and attendants ; and accordingly on the same sea, and famous both for the they left all and followed-lim.
he met with his brother Peter, and stayed with him a considerable time. The ipha
bitants of Synope were mostly Jews, who CHAP. II.
partly from a zeal for their religion, and
partly from their barbarous manners, were The Transactions of St. Andrew, from our
exasperated against St. Andrew, and enterblessed Saviour's Ascension, till his
ed into a confederacy to burn the house in Martyrdom.
wbich he lodged.. But being disappointed
in their design, they treated him with the FTER the ascension of the blessed
most savage cruelty, throwing bim on the A Jesus into heaven, and the descent of
ground, stamping upon him with their feet, the Holy Ghost on the apostles, to qualify
pulling and dragging him from place to them for their great undertaking, St. An.
place; some beating bim with clubs, some drew, according to the generality of ancient
pelting him with stones, and others, to writers, was chosen to preach the gospel in
satisfy their brutal revenge, biting off his
flesh with their teeth; till apprehending they Scythia, and the neighbouring countries.
had entirely deprived him of life, they cast
him into the fields. But he miraculousAccordingly he departed from Jerusa
ly recovered, and returned publicly into lem, and first travelled through Capadocia,
the city ; by which and other miracles he Galatia, and Bithynia, instructing the inha
wrought among them, he converted many bitants in the faith of Christ, and continued
from the error of their ways, and induced his journey along the Euxine Sea, into the
them to become disciples of tbe blessed desarts of Scythia. An ancient author tells - us, that he first came to Amynsus, where, - being eutertained by a Jew, he went into
| Departing from Synope, he returned to the synagogue, preached to them concern
| Jerusalem ; but he did not continue long in ing Jesus, and from the prophecies of the
that neighbourhood. He returned again to Old Testament, proved him to be the
the province allotted him for the exercise Messiah, and Saviour of the world. Having
of his ministry, which greatly flourished converted many here, he settled the times
through the power of the divine grace that of their public meetings, and ordained them
attended it. priests.
He travelled over Thrace, Macedonia, He went next to Trapezium, a maritime Thessaly, Achaia, and Epirus, preaching city on the Euxine Sea ; from whence,
the gospel, propagating Christianity, and after visiting many other places, he came to then confirming the doctrine he taught with Nice, where he stayed two years, preaching signs and miracles. At last he came to and working miracles with great success. Petrea, a city of Achaia, where he gave his After leaving Nice he passed to Nicodemia, last and greatest testimony to the gospel *and from thence to Chalcedon, whence he of his divine Master, sealing it with his sailed through the Propontis, came by the / blood. Euxine Sea to Heraclea, and afterwards to Amastris. In all these places he met with Ægenas, proconsul of Achaia, came at the greatest difficulties, but overcame them this time to Petrea, where observing that by an invincible patience and resolution. multitudes had abandoned the Heathen reli
gion, and embraced the gospel of Christ, 1 As he was led to the place of execution, he had recourse to every method both of walking with a cheerful and composed mind, favour and cruelty, to reduce the people to the people cried out, that a good and innotheir oid idolatry. The apostle, whom no
cent man was unjustly condemned to die. difficulties or dangers could deter from per
On his coming near the cross, he saluted it in forming the duties of his ministry, addressed
the following manner; “I have long dehimself to the proconsul, calmly putting him
sired and expected this happy hour. The in mind that being only a judge of men, he
cross has been consecrated by the body of ought to revere him who was the supreme Christ hanging on it, and adorned with his and in partial judge of all, pay him the divine members as with $0 many inestimable honours due to his exalted majesty, and
jewels. I therefore come joyfully and triabandon the impieties of his idolatrous wor umphing to it, that it may receive me as a ship: observed to him, that if he would re disciple and follower of him, who once nounce his idolatries, and heartily embrace
hung upon it, and be the means of carrying the Christian faith, he should, with him and
me safe to my Master, being the instrument the members who had believed in the Son
on which he redeemed me." of God, receive, eternal happiness in the Messiah's kingdom. The proconsul a :)- '
After offering up his prayers to the throne swered, that he himself should never em of grace, and exhorting the people to conbrace the religion he mentioned ; and that stancy and perseverance in the faith he had the only reason why he was so earnest with
delivered to them, he was fastened to the him to sacrifice to the gods, was, that those
cross, on which he hung two whole days, whom he had every where seduced, might,
teaching and instructing the people in the by his example, be brought back to the an
best manner his wretched situation would ciept religion they had forsaken. The apo admit, being sometimes so weak and faint btle replied, that he saw it was in vain to
as scarce to have the power of utterance. endeavour to persuade a person incapable
In the mean time great interest was made of sober counsels, and hardened in his own
to the proconsul tospare his life, but the apoblindness, and folly; that with regard to
stle earnestly begged of the Almighty, that bimself, he might act as he pleased, and if
he inight now.depart, and seal the truth of he had any torment greater than another,
bis religion with his blood. His prayers were he might heap that upon him; as the great
heard, and he expired on the last day of er constancy he shewed in his sufferings for Christ, the more acceptable he should be
November, but in what year is uncertain. . to his Lord and Master. Ægenas could I There seems to have been something pehold no longer; and after treating him with culiar in the form of the cross on which he very opprobrious language, and shewing suffered. It was commonly thought to him the most distinguished marks of con have been a cross decussate, or two pieces tempt, be passed sentence on him that he of timber crossing each other in the centre, should be put to death.
in the form of the letter X, and hence
usually known by the name of St. Andrew's He first ordered the apostle to be scourg cross. ed, and seven lictors successively whipped his naked body; but seeing his invincible His body being taken down from the patience and constancy, he commanded him cross, was decently and honourably interred to be crucified; but to be fastened to the by Maximillia, a lady of great quality and cross with cords instead of. nails, that his estate, and who, Nicephorus tells us, was death might be more lingering and tedious. wife to the proconsul,
the apostle vely whiplible
Constantine the Great afterwards remov. , in order to rebuild it, by Justinian the Emed his body to Constantinople, and buried + peror, the body of St. Andrew was found it in the great church he had built to the | in a wooden coffin, and again deposited in honour of the apostles; but this structure | its proper place. being taken down some hundred years after, 1
Saint James the Great.
mount; and when the holy Jesis was to
undergo bis bitter agonies in the garden, The Transactions of St. James the Great, .as preparatory sufferivgs to his passion,
from his Birth to the Ascension of the | James was one of the three taken to be a Son of God. .
spectator of them. Nor was it the least
instance of that particular honour our Lord MTHIS apostle (who was surnamed the conferred on these apostles, that at his call.
1 Great, by way of distinction from ano. ing them to the apostleship, he gave them ther of that name) was the son of Zebedee, Å new name and title. Simon he called and by trade a fisherman, to which he ap Peter, or a rock; and James and John, plied himself with remarkable assiduity, and who were brothers, Boanerges, or the son* was exercising his employment, when the of thunder. Saviour of the world passing by the Sea of Galilee, saw him, with his brother, in the Some think that this name was given ship, and called them both to be his disci- | them on account of their loud and bold ples. Nor was the call in vain ; they cheer. 1 preacbing the gospel to the world, fearing fully complied with it, and immediately left no threatenings, despising all opposition, all to follow him : readily delivering them - and going on thundering in the ears of a selves up to perform whatever service he drowsy and sleepy world; rousing and should appoint them.
awakening the consciences of men with the
earnestness and vehemence of their preachSoon after this he was called from the ing, which resembled thunder, as the voice station of an ordinary disciple to the apo- | of God powerfully shakes the natural world stolical office, and even honoured with some and breaks in pieces the cedar of Lebanon. particular favours beyond most of the apo Others think it relate to the doctrine they stles, being one of the three whom our Lord | delivered, teaching the great mysteries, and made choice of as his companions in the promulgating of the gospel in a more promore intimate transactions of his life, from found and lofty strain than the rest. which the rest were excluded. Thus, with Peter and bis brother John, he attended But however this be, our blessed Sa. his Master when he raised the daughter of viour, doubtless, alluded by this term to Jairus from the dead; he was admitted the furious and resolute disposition of these to Christ's glorious transfiguration on the two brothers, who seem to have been of a No. 22.