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particles, such as, of, to, as, and, 83c. require no force of utter. ance, unless they happen to be emphatical, which is rarely the tale. No person can read or speak well, unless he understande what he reads; and the sense will always determine what words are emphatical. It is a matter of the highest consequence, therefore that a speaker should clearly comprehend the mean. ing of what he delivers, that he may know where to lay the emphasis. This may be illustrated by a fingle example. This fort question, Will you ride to town io-day ? is capable of four

different meanings, and consequently of four different aniwers, , according to the placing of the emphasis. - If the emphasis is

laid upon you, the question is, whether you will ride to town, or another perjon, If the emphasis is laid on ride, the question is, whether you will ride or go on foot. If the emphasis is laid on town, the question is, whether you will ride to town or to ano. ther place, If the emphasis iš laid on to-day the question is, whether you will ride to-day or some other day, Thus the whole meaning of a phrase oftén depends on the emphasis ; and it is absolutely necessary that it should be laid on the proper words.

Cadence is a falling of the voiee ia pronouncing the clofing syllable of a period.* This ought not to be uniform ; but dif. ferent at the close of different sentences.

But in interrogative sentences, the sense often requiresthe · closing word or fyllable to be pronounced with an elevated

voice. Tais, however, is only when the last word is emphati. cal; as in this question : “ Betrayest thou the son of man with a kiss 9 Here the subject of enquiry is, whether the common to. ken, of love and benevolence is prostituted to the purpose of ireachery ; the force of the question depends on the last word, which is thereforc to be pronounced with an elevation of vojee. But to this question, " Where is boaliing then the emphati. cal word is boasting, which of course requires ac elevation of the voice,

* We may observe that good speakers always pronounce upon a certain kcy: for although they modulate the yoice according to the various ideas they express, yet they retain the saine picch of voice. Accent and emphasis require no elevation of the voice, but a more forcible expreffion of the same key. Cadence respects the laft fyllable only of a sentence ; which fyllable is actually pronounced wish a lower tone of voice ; but when words of several fyllables clofe a period, all the syllables but the last are pronounced on the same key

The rest of the sentence. •

The most natural pitch of voice is that which we speak is ordinary conversation. Whenever the voice is raised above this key, pronunciation is difficult and fatiguing. There i a difference between a loud and an high voice. A person may

{peak much louder than he does in ordinary discourse, with. . out an elevation of voice ; and may be heard diltin&rly upon the same key, either in a private room or in a large assembly.

E. RULE IV. Let the sentiments you express be accom_anied with proper tones,

I looks and gestures, By gones I mean the various modulations of voice by which we naturally express the emotions & pallions. By looks I mean the expression of the emotions and passions in the countenance. Getures are the various motions of the hands or body, which correspond to the several sentiments and pallions which the Speaker deligns to express.

All these should be perfectly natural. They should be the i same which we use in common conversacion. A speaker should

endeavor to feel what'he speaks ; for the perfection of reading and speaking is to pronounce the words as if the sentiments were our own.

'If á perlon is rehearling the words of an angry man, he Should assume the same furious looks, his eyes should flash with rage, his gestures should be violent, and the tone of his voice threatening. If kindness is to be exprested, the countenance Thould be calm and placid, and wear a smile-the tone should be mild, and the motion of the hand inviting. An example of the first, we have in these words : “ Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and Eis angels. Of the last in these words : “ Come, je blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world.” A man who should repeat these differ ent passages with the same looks, tones and gestures, would pass with his hearers for a very injudicious speaker.

I'he whole art of reading and speaking, all the rules of eloquence inay be comprised in this concile direction : Let a reader or a speaker express every word as if the sentiments were bis own.' "!

General dire&tions for esčpressing certain passions or sentiments. P

. From the Art of SpeaKING.. " Mirth or laughter opens the mouth, crisps the nose, leftlens the aperture of the eyes, and shakes the whole frams;

Perplexity draws down the eye-brows, hangs the head, cat down the eyes, clofes the eye lids, shuts the month, and pinch.. es the lipstheti fuddenly the whole body is agitated, the per. fon walks about bulily, Itops abruptly,talks 'to himfelf, &c.

Vexation adds to the foregoing complaint, fretting and la. menting. Paty draws down the eye-brows, opens the mouth and draws together the features. ..

Grief is expressed by weeping, kamping with the feet, lifting up the eyes to hoavea, Bc.

Melancholy is gloomy and motionlefs, the lower jaw falls, the eyes are calt down and braft fut, words few and interrupted with fighs.

; ;. Fear opens the eyes and mouth, Shortens the 'nofe, draws down the eye-brows, gives the countenarice an air of wildness ; the face becoines pale, the elbows are drawn back parallel with the sides, one foot is drawn back, the heart beats violently, the breath is quick, the voice weak and 'trembling. Sometimes it produces fhrieks and fainting.

Shame turns away the face from the beholders ; covers it with blushes, 'catts down the head and eyes, draws down the eye. brows, makes the tongue to faulter, or strikes the perfoni duinb.

Remorse casts down the countenance & clouds it with anxiety. Sometimes the teeth gnash and the right hand beats me breaft.

Courage steady and cool, opeds the countenance, gives the whole' form an erect and graceful air. The voice is firm, and the accent ftrong and 'articulate. .

Boasting is loud and bluftering. The eyes ftare, the face'is red and bloated, the mouth pouts, the voice is hollow, the arms akimbo, the head nods in a threatening manner, the right fift Sometimes clenched and brandilhet. ?

*Pride affumes a lofty look, the eyes open, the mouth pout. ing, the lips pinched, the words now and Itiff, with an air of importance, the arms akinibo, and the legs at a distance, or tai, king large strides.

Authority opens the countenance, but draws down the eyes brows a little, foas to give the person an air of gravity.

Coromanding requires a pereinpory tone of voice and a fevere look,

Inviting is expreffed with a smile of complacency, the hand with the palm upwards, drawn gently towards the body.

Hope brightens the countenance, arches the eye-brows, gives 'the eyes an eager withful look, opens the mouth to half a mile, bends the body a little forward.

Love lights up a smile upon the countenance ; the forehead is fmoothed; the eye.brows arched, the mouth a little open and Imiling, the eyes languishing, the counsenance affumes an enger wishful look, mixed with an air of fatisfaction. The accents are foft and winning, the tone of tbe voice Aattering

Wonder.opens the eyes, and makes them appear prominent The body is fixed in a contracted tooping posture, the mouth is open, the hands often raisedo Wonder at firit strikes a per fon dumb; then breaks forth into.exclamations,

Curiosinj opens the eyes, and mouth, lengthens the neek, bends the body forward, and fixes it in one poltore, &c.

Anger is expreffed by rapidity, interruption, noise and trepis dation, the neck is ftretched out, the head nodding in a threat. ening manner. The eyes red, staring, rolling, Sparkling : the eye brows drawn clown over them, the forehead wrinkled, the noltrils Etretched, every vein fwelied, every muscle Itrained. When anger is violeat, the mouth is opened and drawn towards the cars, afhewing the teeth in a goalhing poiture ; the feet stamping, the right hand thrown out, threatening with a clenched fitt, and the whole frame agitated.

Peenisonofs is exprefled in nearly the fame manner, but with more modeiation, the eyes a squini upon the object of displease ure; the upper lip drawn disdainfully. .

Malice secs the jaws, or gnashes with ile teeth ; sends flash es from the eyes, draws the mouth towards the cars, clenckes the fift, and bends the elbows.

'Envy is expressed in the same manner ; but more moderately, Aversion turns the face from the object; the hands spread out to keep it off. i . : Jealousy shews itself by reftteffness, peevilhaess, thoughtfulnels, anxiety, absence of mind. It is a mixture of a variety of paffions, and affumes a variety of appearances.

Contempt affumes a haughty air; the lips closed and pouting. Modely or bumility bends the body torward, caits down the cyes. The voice is low, the words, few, and tone oi utterance submissive. EXAMPLES FOR ILLUSTRATION.

Interrogation or questioning, One day when the moon was under an eclipse, she complaina od taus to the sun of the discontinuance of his favors.

My dearest friend, said she, why do you not shine on më ai you used to do? Do I not shine upon the said the fun .; I am very sure that I intended it. O ng ! replies the moon; but I now perceive the reason, I see that dirty planet ihe earth bas got betwixt us.

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Dodfley's Fables. Life is fhor: and uncertain ; we have not a moment to lofe. Is it prudent to throw away any of our time in tormenting our selves or others, when we have little for honeft pleasures? For. getting our weakness, we Air up mighty enemies, and fly to wound as if we were invulnerable. Wherefore all this bugle and noise? The beit ufc of a short life, is to make it agreeable to ourselves and to others. Have you cause of. quarrel with your servant, your master, your king, your neighbor ? forbear a moment : death is at hand, which makes all equal..

What has a man to do with wars, tumults, ambushes? You would deftroy your enemy? You lose your trouble ; death will do your business while you are at reft. And after all, when you have got your revenge, how fhort will be your joy or his pain! While we are among men let us cultivate humanity ; let us not be the cause of fear or pain to one another. --Let us delo pise injury, malice and detraction, and bear with an equal mind such tranfitory evils. While we speak, while we think, death comes up and closes the scene, : : Art of Thinking

Then let us haste towards those piles of wonder That scorn to bow beneath the weight of yearsi Lo! to my view the awful mansions rife, The pride of art, the fleeping place of death). Frenedu:

- Voy.

. Let this auspicious day be ever facred ; No mourning, no misfortunes happen on it; Let it be marked for triumph and rejoicing ; : , Let happy lovers ever make it holy, . Choose it to bless their hopes and crown their wishes : This happy day, that gives me my Califta... Fair Penitenka

Then is Oreftes bleft? My griefs are Aled ! Fled likr a dream ! Methinks 1 tread in air ! Surprising happiness ! unlook'd for joy! Never let love despair,! The prize is mine ! Be (mooth, ye seas, and ye propitious winds, Blow from Epirus to the Spartan coast ! Difreft Mothera

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