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THE five first Figures, representing characteristic Portraits of the principal Races or Varieties of the Human Species, are copied from Engravings in the first Part of BLUMENBACH's Delineations of Objects in Natural History.

I. CAUCASIAN VARIETY. Jusuf Aguiah Efendi, a Turk, formerly Ambassador from the Porte at the Court of London. II. MONGOLIAN VARIETY. Feodor Iwanowitsch, a Calmuck,

sent when young by the Empress of Russia to the Hereditary Princess of Baden, educated at Carlsruhe, and afterwards a celebrated Engraver in Rome.

III. ETHIOPIAN VARIETY. J. J. E. Capitein, a Negro, who received Holy Orders in Holland.

IV. AMERICAN VARIETY. Thayendaneega, a Chief of the Mohawks, or Six Nations, whose Statement respecting one of the physical Characters of his Countrymen is quoted from the Philosophical Transactions.

V MALAY VARIETY. Omai, a Native of Ulietea, one of the Friendly Islands, brought to England in 1773, and carried back by Cook in his last Voyage.

VI. Skull of a Georgian Woman.

VII. Skull of a Calmuck.

VIII. Skull of a Negro; from a Specimen in the Collection of Mr. ABERNETHY.

IX. Comparative View of the Georgian, Negro, and Tungoose Skulls, according to the Norma verticalis of BLU


X. Skull of a Carib, from a Specimen in the Hunterian Collection. XI. Skull of a Carib with the Forehead artificially flattened, from a Specimen belonging to Mr. CLINE.

XII. Comparative View of the Skull in young Subjects of the Caucasian, Mongolian, and Ethiopian Varieties.

The first five Figures are now re-engraved, in a superior manner, on che plate, and form the Frontispiece.








Reply to the Charges of Mr. Abernethy; modern History and Progress of comparative Anatomy.

GENTLEMEN!—I cannot presume to address you again in the character of Professor to this College, without first publicly clearing myself from a charge publicly made in this theatre;— the charge of having perverted the honourable office, intrusted to me by this Court, to the very unworthy design of propagating opinions detrimental to society, and of endeavouring to enforce them for the purpose of loosening those restraints, on which the welfare of mankind depends.*

Physiological Lectures, exhibiting a general view of Mr. Hunter's Physiology, and of his Researches in comparative Anatomy; delivered before the Royal College of Surgeons, by J. Abernethy, F.R.S. See particularly Lect. 1, 2, 6, and 7: the passages and pages are too numerous to be particularized. Had the author been content with pronouncing his attack from the chair of the College, I should have been satisfied with defending myself in the same place. The publication of his charge has made it necessary for me to publish my reply.

The apparent contradiction between the allotted subject of these Physiolo gical Lectures,-human anatomy; the professed topic. Mr. Hunter's knowledge of comparative anatomy; and their actual contents, anatomical, physiological, ethical, controversial, abusive, &c. &c.; is only to be reconciled by a consideration of the real motives, which may be discovered without a very deep research. That the few remarks on life, published in my Introduction to comparative Anatomy and Physiology, should have been the sole occasion, and have furnished so much of the subject of these Lectures, was an honour altogether unexpected and unwished on my part. If it should be thought that I do not show a proper sense of so distinguished a compliment, by bestowing in return so short a notice on the Physiological Lectures, more particularly when nearly all the opinions and facts they contain would afford ample matter for discussion, my apology must be want of room, and not being yet fully convinced that the pretended Hunterian theory of life is the most important subject that can be entertained by the human mind. This slowness of belief must be pardoned in a modern sceptic.

Not to fatigue his audience by too much of one thing, however good, the author judiciously interspersed his views of the so called Hunterian doctrine, and his series of anathemas against the designs, principles, and character of


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