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“ Among the various branches of science, which consitute the education of
American citizens, that of government is highly important and necessary-At pre-
sent, too little attention is paid to this kind of education. While the governments
of Rome, Sparta and Athens, are induttriously taught; while the inititutions of Ly.
curgus and Solon form iinportant features of public education, the conftitutions of
our own country are scarcely read-Our youth in schools and colleges will be enconia
raged to devote fome of their time to this necessary science, by finding it fimplified
and methodized.”-

Smith's Comparative view of the Constitutions.

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JANUARY 25, 1924


DE it remembered, that on the third day of March, in the twenty-ninth year of the Independence of the United States of America, Noah Webster, jun. of said district, Esq. hath deposited in this office, the title of a book the right whereof he claims as author, in the words following, (viz.) " Elements of Useful Knowledge, Volume II, containing a Historical and Geographical Account of the United States : for the use of Schools, by Noah Webster, jun." in conformity to the act of the Congress, of the United States, entitled, An Act for the encouragement of learn. ing, by securing the copies of maps, charts, and books, to the authors and proprietors of such copies, during the times therein mentioned. CH's DENISON, Clerk of the District

of Connecticut, Conneticut, ul. Distriæ Clerk's Office. The foregoing is a true copy of Record, .

Teft, CH's DENISON, Clerk,


THIS volume of the Elements of Useful Knowledge, begins with a continuation of the history of the United States, from the commencement of the Revoa lution, and brings it down to the adoption of the present conftitution, and the organization of the government in 1789. It then proceeds to exhibit the prefent condition of the United States, and of the several states, as separate governments. To avoid the repetitions which occur so frequently in geographical defcriptions, I have first given a general view of those things which are common to all the states ; and arranged, under the head of each state, descriptions of things which are peculiar to each. This plan, though from the nature of things it cannot be rendered perfect, has nevertheless enabled me to compress many parts of the work into a smaller compass than usual, and to avoid in part that tedious fameness which characterises treatises of this kind.

The brief view given of the constitutions of the feveral states, will, it is presumed, be well received ; as nothing can be more proper for the instruction of youth, than a correct epitome of the principles on which the local governments are founded. The object of the citizens of the several states, is, to secure life, property and rational freedom ; and an exhibition of the various modes by which the citizens of different sections of the union, have attempted to secure these invaluable bleffings, must be no less entertaining than

useful. The constitutions, being the work of the ableft statesmen in the United States, ought to be viewed with respect, and studied with attention.

This volume completes the view of the United States -which, as being of most importance to the youth of this country, Occupies a larger portion of the work, than will be appropriated to a description of the other parts of the earth. The two first volumes are closely connected, and ought to be used together ; but the succeeding volumes will be more distinct, and may be separated without inconvenience to the reader.

New Haven, 1804.

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Se&tion 1. Of the remote Causes of the Revolution.

THE first planters of New England were all dissenters

from the church of England, who declined to conform to its ritual and ceremonies, and by their opposition, called down upon their heads the vengeance of archbishop Laud. To get rid of such turbulent subjects, was rather to be desired, than dreaded, by the king and court. But within a few years, the numerous emigrations from England alarmed the government, and order's were issued to stop the failing of ships bound to America. These orders however, were temporary, and most or all those men departed from England, who wished to settle in a country, where they might be exempt from arbitrary governinent. As the plantations increased, and became respectable, the court of England began to be alarmed with the apprehenfion, that the colonies would become wholly independent of the parent state.

2. Measures taken to prevent the Independence of the Colonies. With a view to secure the dominion of England over the colonies, in ecclesiastical as well as civil affairs, king Charles the first granted a commission, dated April 10, 1634, by which he empowered the two archbishops, with

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