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The mingled breath of the sea and the in and out of the past. I recall with heather makes a medium that it is a joy vividness the very waits and changes of to inhale, and all the land is picturesque the return and our pleased acceptance and noble, a happy hunting-ground for of everything. We parted on the morthe good walker and the lover of grand row, but I met Mr. Lowell a little later lines and fine detail. Mr. Lowell was in Devonshire - 0 clustered charms of wonderful in both of these characters, Ottery! — and spent three days in his and it was in the active exercise of them company. I traveled back to London that I saw him last. He was, in such with him, and saw him for the last time conditions, a delightful host and a prime at Paddington. He was to sail immediinitiator. Two of these happy summer ately for America. I went to take leave days, on the occasion of his last visit to of him, but I missed him, and a day or Whitby, are marked possessions of my two later he was gone. memory: one of them a ramble on the I note these particulars, as may easily warm wide moors, after a rough lunch be imagined, wholly for their reference at a little stony upland inn, in company to himself - for the emphasized occacharming and intimate, the thought of sion they give to remembrance and rewhich, to-day, is a reference to a double gret. Yet even remembrance and reloss; the other an excursion, made part- gret, in such a case, have a certain free ly by a longish piece of railway, in his relief, for our final thought of James society alone, to Rievaulx Abbey, most Russell Lowell is that what he consisfragmentary but most graceful of ruins. tently lived for remains of him. There The day at Rievaulx was as exquisite as is nothing ineffectual in his name and I could have wished it if I had known fame — they stand for delightful things. that it denoted a limit, and in the happy He is one of the happy figures of litabsence of any such revelation altogether erature. He had his trammels and his given up to adventure and success. I sorrows, but he drank deep of the full, remember the great curving green ter- sweet cup, and he will long count as an race in Lord Feversham's park - prodi- erect fighting figure on the side of optigious and surely unique ; it hangs over mism and beauty. He was strong withthe abbey like a theatrical curtain - out narrowness; he was wise without bitand the temples of concord, or whatever terness and bright without folly. That they are, at either end of it, and the appears for the inost part the clearest lovable view, and the dear little dowdy ideal of those who handle the English inn parlor at Helmsley, where there is form, and he was altogether in the moreover, a massive fragment of pro- straight tradition. This tradition will faner ruin, a bit of battered old castle, surely not forfeit its great part in the in the grassy préau of which (it was a world so long as we continue occasionperfect English picture) a company of ally to know it by what is so solid in well-grown young Yorkshire folk of both performance and so stainless in charsexes were making lawn-tennis balls fly acter.

Henry James.


All best good things that befall men come occasionally in the glance of a bird's eye,

from us birds, as is plain to all reason ; so open yet so subtle, and occasionally For first we proclaim and make known to them

in the markings upon its coat of imbrispring and the winter and autumn in season,

cated plames, an emphasis has been Bid sow when the crane starts clanging for given to the suggestion of a remote com

Afric in shrill-voiced emigrant number, mon ancestor for my lovely subject and And calls to the pilot to hang up his rudder for the reptilian cousin that never exagain for the season and slumber.

changed its scales for plumes, or the ooze Thus are we as Ammon or Delphi unto you

of the ancient strand for the realms of Dodona — nay, Phæbus Apollo ; air. But if a varied adaptability and For as first ye come all to get auguries of birds, varied locomotive powers were taken as even such is in all things your car

indications of superior organism, I know riage, Be the matter a matter of trade, or of earning

not, then, why the bird should not stand your living, or any one's marriage. at the head of all created orders, - the And all things ye lay to the charge of a bird, one family to whom, in its range, is that belong to concerning prediction :

given right of way by earth, water, air ; Winged Fame is a bird, as you reckon; you sneeze, and the sign 's as a bird for con

and ability also to walk or run, to wade, viction!

swim, or dive, and the consummate gift . . Then must it not follow of flight. Until man shall learn to fly That we are to you all as the manifest godhead should be boast preëminence ? that speaks in prophetic Apollo ?”

Exclusion from the privilege of speakARISTOPHANES, Grand Chorus of Birds. (Translated by Swinburne.)

ing with learned intelligence and author

ity regarding the names conferred upon I.

the birds by the student must also be WITH the desire to record certain accepted. Ignorance or aptitude, it is fond and unscientific observations with all the same to the birds, happily I reregard to our winged friends and neigh- member. They have no concern in any bors came the fanciful persuasion that this design would be furthered could the QUESTION OF NOMENCLATURE. writer obtain, for scriptorial purposes,

Said an eagle's quill. Then, as if to satirize

For crumbs that friendly sparrow one,

came." an ambition so overweening, there was

“ You mean the hair-bird, there ? ', “No," placed in my path one of the longer fea

said a third, thers from a humming-bird's wing. The * Spizella Socialis is his name." omen was accepted, and although the of- (Poor Chippy ate his crumbs, and naught de

murred.) fered pen (penna) was impracticable to my hand, it was preserved, to remind Technical disputations of this sort are me that the Chorus of Birds must be most absurd ; yet, on the other hand, it left to Aristophanes, and to Ruskin all could be wished that an acquaintance defining of the spiritual mystery con- with birds by sight and a recognition of tained within that exquisite embodiment their individual notes, with some knowof beauty, the bird. No less to the sa- ledge of their popular names, were more vant must be left the consideration of general among those who have the opits specific description and curious data portunity for such pleasant intimacy. of a biological character. But in pass- There are but some half dozen birds in ing, somewhat unwillingly I recall that the average farmer's range of practical



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bird's song


observation, the robin, sparrow, mead- assumption that all things there relate ow lark, blackbird, crow, and quail. themselves to him and to his capacity

It is, of course, the poet's special pre- for enjoying them. Some time must rogative to claim comradeship and kin- he overhear that the flowers bloom for ship with the singing ones whose lyrics themselves, and not, primarily, for him ; are flung about the air “in profuse and as to the birds, it may chance there strains of unpremeditated art,” and die will be conveyed to him some bit of curwith no commemorative record of the rent and humiliating public sentiment written character ; for what is so futile like the following: as the attempt to render a bird's song

“ They say," said the wren to the thrush, by the use of musical notes, or to ven- " I know, for I build at their eaves, ture its interpretation, even, in any col- They say every song that we sing on the wing, location of human words? However, I

or hid in the leaves, do not go so far in the matter of repre

Is sung for their pleasure!

And you krow 't is for Love and ourselves hension as does a lady of my acquaint- that we sing!” ance, who thinks it a “positive wickedness" in the small boy when he attempts

Did they say," said the thrush to the wren,

“I'm out of their circle, I own, — a whistled mimicry of her favorites. It

Did they say that the songs they sing were is to overlay a violet with sugar or to

not for themselves alone, gild refined gold, when one sets out to

But to give us pleasure ?" poetize the melody or movement of a “Why, no,” said the wren, “they said no such But may I say that I

thing!" have a half sympathy with those youthful friends of the Muse who are found Were it required to give on the moguilty of solecisms in their sweeping im- ment a symbol for the universal principle pressment of ornithological subjects from of wholesome hunger, natural avidity, afar? True, we cannot have skylarks I would but cross my two forefingers afloat on the sea of air that sweeps our as indicating the young bird's ever open Western prairies, nor can we have night- mouth. Indeed, I should not be suringales singing where the whip-poor-will prised to learn that some ancient picis head chorister; yet does it seem to ture-writing had anticipated this hierome that the poet and the idealist have a glyphic suggestion. That the suggestion prescriptive right to all the birds there is justifiable any one will bear witness are (and to those that are not, as the who has attempted to bring up “by doves of Dodona, the birds that few from hand” a kidnapped or a foundling bird. Memnon's funeral pyre, the phenix and The quantum of food consumed daily the dodo, and the little bird that sings by an under-fledgeling (if I may so call one's soul away in Arabia Deserta). the infant bird not yet at all able to The true lover and diviner of birds will shift for itself) is something startling ; keep an eye on those which share his and the matter of “providing,” even for own habitat, and an ear cognizant of a giant adoptive parent, is by no means their songs; yet, as he is true poet, will a light task, if the constant appeal of he own a quenchless sense of pleasure the open and accusing mouth is to be in those unheard songs that are sweeter, duly regarded. How long before the in the land of Keats and Shelley. A baby bird gets the coöperative use of the bird of passage itself, his soul follows bifid beak! A human child could not the lure of voices and flight beyond his be more awkward in learning to feed itown horizon. Still, a special betrayal self ; but then, the poor bird-child has, awaits that idealist who in the midst as it were, a knife and fork for its mouth. of nature takes up with the pleasing In my experience, the care of a young bird is accompanied with a grotesque thered founders of a home so readily sense of tenderness, as of nurse Glum- desert it, not only in case of actual disdalelitch for little Gulliver, in the fos- turbance, but sometimes on mere suster-parent's feeling towards this downy picion of a too interested surveillance. nestling, — this mere feathered egg so This resentful abandonment of domestic long retaining the contour of the walls hopes does not, somehow, comport with of its brittle prison. There is nothing the devotion and toil which characterize to parallel the supreme and pathetic con- the bird-parents' rearing of their young ; fidence of the young bird in the hand nor, to my knowledge, does any other which feeds it, and which might crush it creature behave in a like fashion. on the instant if that hand would. Such pleasing -- Auguries of Innocence" have

THE DESERTED NEST. in this way been shown me as nearly to cause forgetfulness of the annexed

Now all the young leaves stirred in soft an

rest menace:

As Morning bastened to the thrush's nest. * A robin redbreast in a cage

Her best loved thrush's nest in sylvan nook Puts all heaven in a rage.”

She bent her lovely head to overlook ; I shall not shirk the confession that in She started back, then sorely grieved she stood, several instances I have been accessory

For time it was, full time, the wide-mouthed

brood to the taking of young birds from the Their wondrous prison should have broken parent nest, but the nemesis that fol

through. lowed up the act was in each case dis. Instead, she saw four eggs impearled with

dew: tinct and unsparing. I shall not soon

Alas, alas! the tears that Night had wept, forget the accusation levied at me when,

Big-hearted, helpless Night, as past she crept, stooping with lighted lamp, I beheld, And felt with groping fingers, kind bat chill, resting halfway down the stairs, one of The treasure that almost had caught the thrill these detained innocents. It had some- Of airy life, but, brooding love withdrawn, how managed to escape durance, but, Now rests with all sweet chary hopes fore

gone. benighted on its way to freedom, it had halted, and, with head under wing, and I have spoken of subtlety in the glance apparently having trustingly committed of a bird's eye as betokening a remote itself to Providence, it awaited the light, kinship in primeval time with the sauto continue its righteous quest. I had, rian kind. But my heart misgives me inoreover, a poignant fancy that, before when I think of the alleged (and pergoing to sleep, it had put up a prayer haps actual) charming of the bird by (in the bird's way) soliciting forgiveness ophidian witchcraft, and also when I for its enemy. Again, helping a friend reflect upon the defenselessness of the to secure a young thrush, it was my lot bird, how devoid it is of predatory arts ; to experience what a bird's curse is like, neither lying in wait for its victim, after - a note not to be forgotten, rapid, gut- the manner of feline nature, nor delighttoral, instinct with hate, denunciatory, ing in the prolonged pangs of the feefrom the very soul of the mother-thrush bler creature it may have caught. Even it came. My companion declared that the acknowledged birds of prey are not its equivalent sound and meaning in chargeable with this relish for playful human vocables could be approximated cruelty. Such craft, for instance, as only by the line,

any of our familiar song-birds may dis“Gr-r-r! there, go, my heart's abhorrence ! ”

play is directed merely towards the pro

tection of itself or its offspring : it feigns While speaking of nests and traits of dead that you may not regard it as bird nature, one questions why the fea- "worth your while ;” it trails an unhurt

wing, with pitiful cries, to lead you away A sudden fright, — he Autters back, from its nest. These devices do not im- And if the door is closed, alack!

“ I can't get in!” the rover cries, press us as real cunning, but rather as

And round his prison home he pries. the artless arts of the infantine and inexperienced. In view of the multiplied Poor Robin Rover! I divine dangers that beset the bird from the Whose lot so closely matches thine : nest, its lover could almost complain

A cage-bird from my birth am I,

Whom Nature's subtle wires defy; that, by some oversight, Providence had

Yet of the cage am I full fond. left it as unpossessed of strategy as of Perchance the seeming vast, beyond, strength against its foes.

Is otherwise than I assume, It may

well be that the instinct of the No world, but some four-cornered room! fowler is not to be rooted from the hu- And great, perchance, were my dismay,

If Heaven should let me out some day! man breast. I do not exactly know why

I'd futter back, - and better so; we should wish to catch birds and tame

Of freedom what may cage-birds know? them, but true it is of the most of those interested at all in the subject and But the same bird that in the foregoquite literally true — that " a bird in the ing points the moral of a fable, upon his hand is worth two in the bush." I do actual introduction to the out-door world not know why we should wish to tame appeared well aware of having come into them any more than we should wish to his heritage ; and I shall not forget the tame the west wind, or the sunset, or glance of the round, innocent, inspective Fancy herself! Beautiful, fugitive, elu- eye, for the first time turned upon the sive things, birds in a cage are no more vast orb of the sky, — two disks of unthe creatures they were than a wood- conscious speculation thus opposed to flower is of the woods when in a vase on each other. While I was speaking about the mantelpiece. Essentially, the wings “ Auguries of Innocence ” I should have are the bird ; and captive song cannot mentioned a token of this sort which not make up to the imagination what is lost long ago came under my observation. when the bird's free flight is foregone. From a last year's robin's nest which the Yet there is a distinct though rather un- storms had thrown to the ground was accountable pleasure in holding in one's trailing a tatter of newspaper. The rain hand this slight creature of paradox (so had effaced the type thereon to illegitimorous yet so fearless, so helpless yet bility, with the exception of a paragraph so defying), - this soft, wild, mysterious noting an appointment for a meeting of ranger that no word could stay nor cord the Society for the Prevention of Crubind but the moment before. Whoever elty, in a neighboring city. Had the cherishes a cage-bird has by him what former nest-holder been interested in serves as a perpetual symbol of the hu- that meeting? Had he attended it, in man spirit, environed, ignorant-content- a public-spirited way, and in behalf of ed or ignorant - protesting; usually, in the whole bird community entered his the bird's case at least, ignorant-content- protest against some crying evil of the ed, if the bird was in its infancy de- hour? prived of liberty. Poor Robin of the ruddy breast,

It is but to think of the widely dif(Unwitting captive from the nest,)

ferentiated individuals of the feathered Cage-bound, for freedom never pines.

tribe, to give a delightful diversity to But when a leisure hour inolines,

any landscape held in the mind's eye. I ope his door; he ventures out, And half in wonder, half in doubt,

The grass-lands have their own broods, A perilous journey takes around

the forests theirs ; nay, more, the deniThe wide, wide world these four walls bound ! zens of the pine grove are often other


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