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than those to whom the deciduous trees any save lightest sleepers, much visited give shelter. The shore and the great by morning dreams, blend with their waters are haunted by the osprey, while dreams, from time to time, slight realithe inland streams know well the little ties from the outer world. Tree-nesting sand-lark and its tremulous cry. Also, birds, having a natural observatory and in character and in voice the birds are superior point of view, might therefore distinguished in a manner to give a ka- be expected to send out the first notes leidoscopic pleasure to the imagination of an aubade soon taken up by the full through the eye and the ear. The silence chorus, — robins, song sparrows, and we ascribe to the eagle, the volubility others. The wonted four-o'clock mornwhich speaks for itself in the chickadee, ing concert has usually subsided by the the boisterous fusillade of the high-hold- time the sun peeps over the horizon. er's notes, the clever sweetness of the What the birds may be about during the song sparrow's, the drumming of the par- silent interval that succeeds has always tridge from the deep woods, the musical been an interesting question for me; but susurrus of the humming-bird's wings as this musical rest between the early preit hovers at the door of the trumpet- lude and the full song service of the day flower, — these few contrarieties serve to seems to be a matter of general consent illustrate the riches of the inexhaustible and intelligent understanding. With hot antitheses which the birds themselves summer noons is connected the shrill, and their songs present. Seasonal di- rapid, monotonous, and insect-like note visions, also, the mind readily makes: of the little chipping sparrow. In the the bluejay to the stormy stream of the late afternoon the brown thrush mounts March winds, the warbler in the blos- to his favorite high branch, and there for soming orchard, the meadow lark to the a half hour or more continues his delisammer meadows (how like an anthem- cious performance, oblivious of all worlding echo running through some sacred ly cares. In the evening, if you walk sylvan interior is his call!). And in through the dusking fields or by the the autumn, what note so characteristic deeper-shadowed wood borders, an enas the interrupted quavering, plaintive chanted bird flits on before you, lighting syllable of inquiry incessantly repeated now on the fence rail, now on some conby the flocking thistle-birds! Though spicuous stone, and thence throwing out now no thorn blossoms, yet might one a lure of brief, sweet melody touched by reply:

twilight and the dew. This is the ves* Ye 'II break my heart, ye little birds per swallow. Nocturnal voices we do

That wander through yon flowering thorn; not lack, though the nightingale is denied Ye mind me of departed days, –

us. Yet the one most notable voice of Departed, never to return ! "

the night can scarcely be said to be a Those slightly utilitarian lovers of na- popular favorite, for when the whip-poorture who are given to arranging floral will in new countries strays out of the timepieces might advisably take the hint near woods, and in its darkling ignowhich is afforded in the succession of rance and blundering unsuspicion lights bird - songs between dawn and evening in the porch of the settler's house, the dusk, and thereby portion out the hours inmates hear in its song, so full of the of the day. For instance, the time vague conjecture and sombre ruminabetween daybreak and morning-red is tion of the night, only the announcement claimed by the wood pewee's aerial note of an impending death. A voice not moving in undulatory sound through the commonly noticed among voices of the dark treetops (never perchance from dark hours is that of the killdeer. On the earth). This note is silent before moonlight nights, from chosen meadow

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haunts goes a quick, glancing alarum doubtless) darted in at my window, note which belongs to this bird. Other made a rapid circuit of the room, and birds occasionally sing after dark, per out again, I experienced a sense of behaps dreamingly, often with striking ing designated by fate in some pecuregularity, as in the case of a certain liar and occult way. It seemed that the song sparrow whose record I kept for day thus marked with live hieroglyphic several nights in succession. Faithfully should have been fraught with unusual at 9.20 P. M. the little bellman of his significance in its occurrences. I still own precinct rang out a clear · All's think there may have been augury and well!”

import in the behavior of the houseSuch is the impression that the first wren who had all summer, with his famspring days make upon the mind that ily, lived in the little “addition " unthe sunshine “ sounds and sweet airs” der the eaves built for his benefit, and follow one far into the dusk and stillness who but yesterday came to take a hurof the night. I no sooner settle my head ried good-by of other householders. A upon the pillow than I begin to hear quick, silent token at the window, a flip bluebird antiphonies, soft whistling calls of his absurd perpendicular tail, a meansent back and forth through the smoothingful glance from his bright mischievair as I have heard them all day. No ous eye, and he was a-wing, Southtable among these bird-songs of the day bound, a minute eddy in the unceasing that penetrate into the night is that of migratory current that sets in from our

autumnal shore to summer seats of the THE ORIOLE.

blessed, named for the halcyon. Again, Throngh orchards tinted with the rose

a touch of glamour was laid upon the In middle May the oriole goes,

hour and the scene, when, looking out His flute-notes trying ever

of the window, I observed that a row of In a sweet but vain endeavor

young trees, whose leaves had been shed To find the full, the perfect close.

some days before, appeared to be reSo that dim voice of many cries,

clothed with leafage, and leafage of a That rules the wind-harp, seems to rise peculiar sharp-cut, purplish description. Unto some height Elysian,

The next instant, however, as though a
Yet, in the chord's division,

sudden autumn gust had swept the trees, Nearing the goal, defeated dies.

this pseudo - leafage rose and fluttered Not only is the time of day kept by into the still air, the winged community, but also baromet “And gathering swallows twitter in the rical conditions are indicated by their

skies! movements, activity or passivity. Will My leaves were only an extensive flock it rain ? Will the winter be a cold one? of these birds, probably in consultation are questions which it is supposed are as to the journey soon to be made towithin the province of the bird to an wards the wooing South. When the air

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Not alone in the days of Aris is finally almost emptied of song and tophanes might the bird boast of be- flight, the imagination has its own ing Apollo's oracle to portent-seeking pleasure in picturing the bird of pasmortals ; for there are yet believers in sage arrived, and in the midst of the the flying omen. Of my own acquaint- new-old environments of its other home. ance is a good old dame for whom the

Yet where its young have been reared casual instraying bird, as well as her must its fuller allegiance always be, and every dream, enters by the horn gate. the seductions of the South shall not For myself, I cannot deny that once stifle the equally strong instinct of rewhen a swallow (in pursuit of an insect, turn, when some months are gone.

swer.

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and - Birds."

[Januar, um doubtless) darted in at my windos, her made a rapid circuit of the room, and

er- out again, I experienced a sense of be ang ing designated by fate in some peru ain liar and occult way. It seemed that the for day thus marked with live hieroglyphie lly should have been fraught with unusual Inis significance in its occurrences. I still l's think there

may

have been import in the behavior of the house rist wren who had all summer, with his faminatily, lived in the little “addition" s” der the eaves built for his benefit, and ess who but yesterday came

augury and

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take a hur ad ried good-by of other householders. A

ar quick, silent token at the window, a tip Ils of his absurd perpendicular tail, a wearzhingful glance from his bright mischier

ous eye, and he was a-wing, Southzy bound, a minute eddy in the unceasing

1892.] John Stuart Mill and the Westminster Review.

The first large flakes of the winter In summer, in the ancient Alue are falling. Looking through their de

A restless brood their ways pursue ;

Small glowing sparks of vital fire, scending cloud, which is as a sort of

They glance about in bird's attire. loose " solid contents,” giving to the

With shrilly cry and whirring wing, unmeasured air the three dimensions, I The sound of winter winds they bring. also seem to see the hyperborean flocks So in and out the swallows fare, which Herodotus had heard of as con

Then fledge, and go I know not where! stantly stirring in the heavens of the far

THE RING OF CANACE. north. Collecting, they brood with soft cold tenderness the empty robin's nest,

(WITH APOLOGIES TO CHAUCER, SPENSER,

MILTON.)
or from the recesses of pine branches
present the "great snowy owl," or Ere the Princess Canace
even lodged among marginal débris and Slept beneath the cypress-tree,

To the bird she loved the best
whipped-up foam glide down the swollen

The sweet lady made bequest
streams as white swans, dissolving with

Of her ring,
inaudible death-song, as befits their kind. Saying, “If with men it stay,
And among these snowbirds of the fancy

It will bring ye grief some day, flies the occasional snowbird of actuality,

When they overhear your words ;

Therefore do I to the birds with the chickadee and the woodpecker,

Leave my ring." for all of whom I

pray there

may
than winter and rough wea-

And the falcon mournfully
ther!

Heard the lady Canace,

And the falcon nothing spake, Withdrawing from the snowy prospect But her dusky flight did take to the fireside, reminiscence mingles with

With the ring ; the present, and the long-past summer

And her brood the falcon taught confers mysteriously with the powers of

How with fate the gift was fraught.

Many an age has slipped away; the dead of the year, and still a bird

In the falcon's line this day
shall interpret for me.

Goes the ring!
CHIMNEY-SWIFTS.

Hidden in some lonely nest,

Safe from pillage it may rest,
In winter, up the chimney go

Or, by fledgy plumes o'erspread,
Bright covies from the fire below,

Strung upon a magic thread,
As curling flame and glancing spark

Flies the ring!
Are hurried through the passage dark.

Others hunt with falcon — ho!
The draft that bears them to the skies

I to hunt the falcon go!
Lends whirring wings and shrilly cries.

All the wings in the wide air,
They seek the frosty starlit air ;

All the songs, could I ensnare
They fledge, and go I know not where !

With that ring!

Edith M. Thomas.

migratory current that sets in from our autumnal shore to summer seats of the blessed, named for the haleyon. Again, a touch of glamour was laid upon the hour and the scene, when, looking out of the window, I observed that a row of

be no

other enemy

young trees, whose leaves had been shed some days before, appeared to be me clothed with leafage, and leafage of a peculiar sharp-cut, purplish description

The next instant, howerer, as though a sudden autumn gust had swept the trees this pseudo - leafage rose and Huttered into the still air, And gathering swallows twitter in the

skies!" | My leaves were only an extensive Hock ? of these birds, probably in consultation

as to the journey soon to be made tor wards the wooing South. When the air is finally almost emptied of song and flight, the imagination has its own pleasure in picturing the bird of pas

JOHN STUART MILL AND THE LONDON AND WESTMINSTER

REVIEW.

sage arrived, and in the midst of the new-old environments of its other home. Yet where its young have been reared must its fuller allegiance always be, and the seductions of the South shall not stifle the equally strong instinct of me turn, when some months are gone.

In the summer of 1834, the party of tance of their convictions made it necespolitical reformers in England “who sary for them to have, as an organ of thought themselves, and were called by their own, the exclusive command of a their friends, the philosophic Radicals” quarterly periodical. The most notable came to the conclusion that the impor men of this party were James and John

son had

Stuart Mill, George Grote, Arthur Roe- about £100 a number. John Robertson buck, Charles Buller, and Sir William continued as editor until 1840, when Mill Molesworth. Personal circumstances, gave the Review to Mr. Hickson, on the which are fully detailed in John Stuart stipulation that the old name, WestminMill's Autobiography, had justified these ster Review, should be resumed. Durgentlemen in withdrawing their supporting this period, 1836–40, many letters from the Westminster Review, which were received by John Robertson from had been founded in 1823 by Jeremy John Stuart Mill, which, read by the Bentham for the diffusion of his own light of subsequent events and elucidatadvanced theories and doctrines. Sired by Mill's Autobiography, are singuWilliam Molesworth, the member for larly interesting reading to the present East Cornwall, was a young man of generation, and are here printed for the twenty-five, full of ardor for political, first time. ecclesiastical, and colonial reform. He The first letter of note was sent to very generously resolved to supply the Boulogne, France, where John Robertfunds required to start the London Re

gone

for a brief holiday : – view, four numbers of which were accordingly published, and sufficiently ex

July 12, INDIA) HOUSE], 1837. hibited the distinctive characteristics of DEAR ROBERTSON, —... I have had the party. The experience of a year, a letter from Tocqueville which shows however, taught the proprietors both of that we can scarcely have his book bethe London and of the Westminster Re- fore our April number, and one from Niview that the direct rivalry of two peri- sard, alluding to a previous letter, which odicals, neither of which had ever paid I never received, coming into our plans, its own expenses, was, financially, far and having no doubt of his being in time from desirable, and Sir William Moles- for this number. I send you a letter to worth again came forward and bought him. the Westminster Review from its pro- I do not think I can write anything prietor, General Perronet Thompson, for worth having about Whewell this time. £1000. The four numbers of the Lon- Blackie's I do not think will do, for an don Review were added to those of article on Menzel is an article on Goethe, the Westminster, and the periodical was of whom Menzel is the great literary henceforth called the London and West- enemy. Moore, if favorable, is not minster Review.

worth doing; if unfavorable, Peacock John Stuart Mill, largely aided by should do it, and it should not be in the his father, was the real, while General same number as Southey. ... Thompson was the ostensible editor, as If I had known you meant to write the acknowledged holding of such a po- to Harriet Martineau, I should have sition was incompatible with an India wished for a consultation first, as the House appointment. On the death of manner of doing it is of considerable inJames Mill, in June, 1836, John Stuart terest to me personally. She and I are Mill associated with himself as editor a not upon terms, and I know her too well young Scotchman named John Robert- to make it likely that we ever shall be. son, whose articles on Bacon and Shake- I am therefore desirous, 1st, that she speare, in the London Review, had at- should not be identified with the Review tracted a good deal of favorable notice. more than its interest requires ; 2d, that After the issue of the first number under all communications with her should take the new editorship, Sir William Moles- place through another medium than worth abandoned the proprietorship to mine ; 3d, that nevertheless she should Mill, having become tired of a loss of not think, as she is exactly the person to think, that her connection with the but I have never found that a FrenchReview is in spite of me, – that I would man's promise to do anything punctualprevent it if I could, but am unable. ly could be depended upon. They pro

If I knew exactly how you have writ- mise everything and do nothing. They ten to her, I should know how to com- are not men of business. Guilbert is port myself with a view to making the better, being half an Englishman. Do other impression. There is a letter for you, however, decide. you from her at Hooper’s : have you The sheets of Mignet will be a catch. left any instructions with Hooper about Those of Hugo not, because he is exforwarding letters? I have read her hausted and effete. Châles is a humbook, and like it less than I expected. bug, whom I showed up in a letter inI like all the feeling of it, but not the tended for the National, but published thought; but I should think an article in the Monthly Repository, and the bare by her on Miss Sedgwick's writings, such idea of his reviewing George Sand is as you suggest, would be interesting and enough to make one split. I would not aseful to us.

give a farthing for the opinion of GaleBesides the letter to Nisard I send bert, or anybody connected with his reyou one to Guilbert ; if he is not in town view, about writers, for they are mere he is at Saint-Germain, and you should milksops themselves; and Hugo's opingo to him there. Those will be the most ions, like most French literary men's useful letters to you. Both Guilbert and opinions of one another, are affairs of Nisard speak English well; Guilbert ex- coterie and puffery. I thought your Stacellently, and Nisard is married to an tistical Society article was for the JanEnglishwoman. I do not know any. uary. I of course defer to you about body else who is likely to be in town all questions of timing. But I differ except the D'Eichshals : Adolphe is too from you about geology not being called busy to be of any use to you, and Gus- for. I think the zoölogical speculations tave you can always, if you like, call connected with geology are quite in seaupon and use my name; he is the ex- son just now, and Nichol, I am sure, St. Simonian author of a book on Greece would do it with originality and well, (and the East generally) which he wants judging from his articles for us, both reviewed, but which will scarcely do for of which were written when ill or in a us. ... I advanced £25 to Bisset on hurry. You may think him not a popumy own account, not for the Review. I lar writer, but you will think quite difdo not wish to have anything more to ferently when you read his Architecture do with the Review in that capacity. ... of the Heavens.

I saw Dickens yesterday ; he reminds The falling off to be guarded against me of Carlyle's picture of Camille Des- in substantial merit and originality does moulins, and his “ face of dingy black- not arise from our having lost any of our guardism irradiated with genius.” Such writers, but in our not using them. I a phenomenon does not often appear in do not understand the false position you a lady's drawing-room.

speak of, nor do I know what friends of Yours ever,

J. S. MILL. ours we have attacked. Written, as you

see, in a great hurry, and just as one On July 28 Mill again writes to Rob- chatters in walking quick from the Inertson, who had by that time left Paris, dia House to Hooper's. and after mentioning how vexed Guil

Ever truly,

J. S. MILL. bert was to have missed him goes on :

This third letter was also sent to Guilbert's offer, however, promises fair, France :

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