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if all the religious writings in the world oned him away. In 1844 it was Plyhad been obliterated save the Gospel of mouth Church, Brooklyn ; in 1847 it was Matthew he would have been the same Andover; in 1850 it was the chanceltheologian that he was. The religious lorship of the University of New York ; leaders of the world have been non-con- again, in 1850, it was the Union Theotented men, unsatisfied with theology or logical Seminary; in 1851 the Mercer religious life as they found it, and have Street Church in New York; in 1852 led the way to different and, as they the presidency of the University of Michbelieved, to better things. Dr. Hopkins igan; in 1853 a church in Philadelphia ; was a man who feared God and hated in 1858 the Chicago Theological Semiiniquity, but he was a man who saw nary. But Williams College needed him, the good in everything that constituted and he no more thought of abandoning his earthly or spiritual environment. In- it than of abandoning his children. A stead of organizing departures to new re- good workman does not find fault with ligious realms, he planted new germs of his tools. In the struggles of the strugreligious thought; and the tendency of gling college he rose to eminence, and his nature was to teach men that they had at his feet some of the greatest and already possess, or can possess, all of the best of our time and country. spiritual hopes and treasures of the uni- Dr. Hopkins was one of those men verse, if they will but accept what the whose lives it is not easy to portray. great Beneficence has given. Love and We are often confounded, in the records duty were the two great elements of his of human nature, by finding much where theology as of his life and character; we expected little, and by finding noand his theological instruction may be thing where we expected much. General analyzed by saying that it was to teach Sheridan, subjectively the most reserved the individual man to open his heart to and reticent of our generals, for a long the impulses of the one, and to direct his time refused to write his own life, and eyes to the pathway of the other. indeed began by having somebody write

The extraordinary contentedness of Dr. it in the third person; yet we do not Hopkins's nature, and his absolute sub- recall another autobiography of a great mission, as it may be termed, to love soldier which so unconsciously takes the and duty, may be seen in the manner reader into the inmost recesses of the and methods by which he solved the writer's confidence, into his hopes and problem of his own life. Given a young apprehensions, into his petulance and difphysician, appointed professor of moral fidence.

fidence. Dr. Hopkins was frank and philosophy and rhetoric at the age of genial, sympathetic and unreserved; yet twenty-eight, elected president of a poor his writings portray his thoughts, and not and poorly managed college in a remote his life. The death of his daughter was mountain hamlet at the age of thirty- the great, the incomparable bereavement four, the college for thirty years never and sorrow of his life. She was his firstfar from the verge of insolvency, — with born, his companion, critic, counselor, such gigantic improbabilities of success, and friend. Knowing the anguish which what would the ordinary solution be? shook him as he saw her going, day by Undoubtedly, the aspiring young profes- day, down the sharp decline of her last sor would take the first “ better place” illness, and the wonderful tenderness and that came in his way, and leave the sympathetic nature of the man, it is insolvent college to take care of itself. inconceivable to us that in less than a Familiar as we are with the life of Dr. fortnight he could have written of the Hopkins, we confess to astonishment at affliction to his oldest and most intimate the number of “ better places” that beck- friend, and have said absolutely nothing of himself. “I have known no one who each by other influences than his own seemed to me to come nearer to my con- judgment; the third rose to distinction ception of a saint,” is all that escapes in two professions, and to eminence on from the wounded heart of the father the bench of the highest judicial tribuas expressive of his individual loss. It nal in the world. seems as if a writer, to depict his life or The work of President Carter may be himself graphically to other men, must defined as being the exact opposite of have the element of egotism, consciously Boswell's Life of Johnson. It consists or unconsciously, as a large ingredient of one small octavo volume; it is one of of his nature. This ingredient was not a religious series ; it deals chiefly with in Dr. Hopkins. As a matter of judg- the thoughts of a great thinker as exment, he knew accurately what he could pressed in his written words. Within do and what he could not do, and to his these limitations President Carter, we mind, to use one of his own phrases, think, has done his work well. The “ that was all there was of it.” A great greater portion of Dr. Hopkins's writaddress on a great occasion never took ings relates to three abstruse subjects, away his appetite or disturbed his night's — mental philosophy, moral philosophy, rest. When pressed by his children or and the deepest currents of religious his friends to write the story of his thought. Such writings may not be hard early life, he could say, in all sincerity, to understand, but they are easy to be “ Pooh! I went to school and to col- misunderstood. To handle them intellilege, as other boys did, and studied med- gently, and to bring the views of such icine, and was called to a professorship a writer clearly within the vision of the here, and that was all there was of it.” ordinary reader, of the readers of this

He moved in a calm, leisurely, delib- series, and to do so in the brief space erate way, yet performed an immense allowed, is no easy task for a biographer. amount of work. During the six months In a word, the book places before the in which he wrote his work on the Evi- reader clearly and comprehensively, if dences of Christianity he preached every not fully, the thoughts of the man, but Sunday, conducted college prayers at not the man. The anecdotes are few, least once a day, heard two recitations the traits indistinct, the personality meaa day, and carried on the correspon- gre. The chapter entitled The Friend dence and much of the administrative is made up entirely of letters from Dr. work of the college. His house was the Hopkins, and they are letters to a sinhostelry for college visitors. His study gle individual, and relate almost entirely door was never locked. By nature he to a single theme, — the literary work was a student and thinker, a philosopher; of the two men. Of the events in the but he was strong physically, mentally, chapter on the College Rebellion Presimorally, courageous, cool, and ready, and dent Carter was an eye-witness; he there he could have been anything, - a gen- drops into the character of annalist, and eral, a judge, an eminent lawyer, an emi- it is the most living chapter in the book. nent statesman, — anything but a phy. In the intellectual fields — the ethical, siclan. It is an extraordinary fact that, metaphysical, and theological — Presilike one of the greatest of American dent Carter's lines are clear and strong. lawyers, Horace Binney, and one of the His delineation of the views of Dr. Hopgreatest of American jurists, Mr. Jus- kins, of their growth, development, and tice Miller, he chose for his work in life perhaps modification, is admirable. The this profession for which he was not fit- student of other days will find not only ted. Two of these three were diverted that the book revives memories, but that from the path which they had chosen, it discloses views which he did not then

truly perceive. The reader who acquires missionaries in foreign lands, and scholhis first knowledge or impressions from ars in mental and moral science have it will understand why it was that so been supposing, in a vague way, that unobtrusive a man was such a force there was a Boswell lying in wait through among thinking men, and will perceive this long life to record the humorous the strength, sincerity, and simplicity stories, witty rejoinders, shrewd incisive which were the chief elements of his thrusts, the serene wisdom, and the hardnature. President Carter has shown, ly spoken admonitions of a great and with commendable disapproval, how the good man. The Boswell is not here. If office of president is changing, in our he exists, he has given no sign. NeverAmerican colleges, from a moral and theless, while the most we know, biointellectual to an administrative power ; graphically, of Dr. Hopkins is seen and not the least interesting portions of through the cold medium of an intelthe book are those which show his own lectual atmosphere, the radiance of his growth in respect and appreciation from lofty and tender character is felt, if not the time when he entered the college, a portrayed. Mr. Lowell, with the insight

thoughtless boy,” to the time when, as of poetic genius, perceived the fact when the president of Williams College, he he wrote, “ His personal character is a delivered the affecting eulogy at the possession valued by all his countryfuneral services of his teacher, friend, men ;” and, in the words of one of the and predecessor.

ablest governors of Massachusetts, we But the students of Williams, and the may still." claim his long life as a glorigreat army of the American Board, and ous part of our moral public riches.”


WHETHER hymns have a place in lit- if the Dies Iræ and the Stabat Mater erature has been frequently questioned, be admitted within the gardens of the perhaps generally doubted. Dr. John Muse, why should the modest claims of son's objection to devotional lyrics, if Rock of Ages or Lead, Kindly Light be rather confident than well considered, denied consideration ? availed to set the current of opinion. The question is cumbered by the facts Matthew Arnold, who avoided sacred that hymns have a double character, and themes no more in his verse than in his that


which make but the scantiest prose, professed“ very little sympathy” pretense to poetic grace have been valued with the provision offered in the hymn and used for their religious quality. But books. The critics, and literary folk

that the entrance of this element necesgenerally, have maintained this unfriend- sarily involves the exclusion of the other ly estimate, with an exception in favor is surely a large assumption. Recent reof Latin hymns, or some of them. Dis searches have disclosed in the hymns of tance lends enchantment, and perhaps the Greek Church (though nobody but that which is enshrined in a dead lan Dr. Neale has succeeded in translating guage, and yet has managed to keep it them) beauties not inferior to those found self in view for several centuries, is enti in the canticles of Bernard and Adam of tled to vastly more honor than any corre

St. Victor. Some of the German songs sponding efforts in the vernacular ; yet of faith, if not yet classical, are in a way



to become so, dating back to the early worthy, without regard to nationality, years of the Reformation ; and one creed, or sect, but this design has been would think twice before assigning the carried out thus far with amazing indusimportance of Ein Feste Burg solely to try and eminent success. No labor has its historical associations. England, it been spared to get light from all quarters, is true, began much later, if we count to shed it on remote and dubious dark out her somewhat wheezy and rheumatic places, to correct the errors of earlier inpsalm versions; so that Watts and Wes- vestigators, and to fill up the wide and ley may be esteemed parvenus beside numerous gaps they left. The filling up Luther and Notker and John of Damas- of gaps, indeed, has been a main part of

But its age is not the only point the business; but it has not interfered to be considered in a hymn, and with with the exposure of blunders and the in the last century or so Great Britain withdrawal of misplaced credits. has made up for lost time, and come in For instance, " the most complete and a good second to long-industrious Ger- popular account of Latin hymn writers many.

The other northern lands of and their hymns” in English up to Europe have also a record of their own, 1889 is here (page 1526) said to be and France and Italy have done some- the posthumous work of S. W. Duffield, thing.

enriched by the additions of Professor All these various portions of the R. E. Thompson. Now, Mr. Duffield hymnic field are duly considered by Mr. laid great stress on certain discoveries Julian, whose work, though he keeps a of his own, especially the transference careful eye upon the lyrics "contained of Veni Sancte Spiritus from Robert II. in the hymn books of English-speaking of France to Hermannus Contractus of countries and now in common use,” aims Reichenau. On page 1213 we are told to be comprehensive, if not exhaustive. that he “altogether fails to produce anyHe and his co-workers, especially his in- thing that can be called proof in support defatigable assistant editor, Mr. Mearns, of his assertions and conjectures," were not the men to disregard the pre- which indeed was apparent at the time, Reformation era of hymnody, or to slight — and on page 1531 that “the manuwhat has been done in former ages and scripts at St. Gall and at the British foreign lands. Previous treatises have

Previous treatises have Museum were not examined by Duffield, been tolerably sufficient guides for those and are much older and more important whose interest was confined to a single than any of those with which he was achymnal, like Dr. Hatfield's Hymns of quainted.” On page 1526 two lines are the Church or Dr. Robinson's Laudes added as to the qualities which led the Domini, or to the two dozen British col- American student so far astray. The lections covered by Miller's Singers and hymn (page 1214) “is certainly neither Songs; but until now no volume or series by Robert II. nor by Hermannus Conof volumes ever attempted such a range tractus. The most probable author is as this work. It would require a careful Innocent III.” specialist to point out any hymns or wri- This is merely a sample. One may ters that are not included here, and then be vexed at having, through the peculiar the omitted topics would usually be re- construction of the book, to look up a cent, probably American, and of very single subject in two or three different slight importance. Not only has the in- places, but a diligent study of the indices tention been to take in everything note- will point the way to these ; and if the

1 A Dictionary of Hymnology. Setting forth JULIAN, M. A., Vicar of Wincobank, Sheffield. the Origin and History of Christian Hymns New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. of all Ages and Nations. Edited by JOHN

matter be important (especially if it be “What's Hecuba to me, or I to Hecua Latin or German text), the reader, af- ba?” From his point of view, it looks ter hunting far enough, will usually get as if the native English field had not all he wants about it, and may be sure received proportionate attention. He is that research has said its last word on at a loss where to look for old friends, that topic.

among this multitude of strangers; and Mr. Julian has earned the respect of when he finds them, they — or some of scholars by the abundant attention here them — look dwarfed, neglected, and out bestowed on the more classical portion of countenance, as if they had been thrust of his field. Not only is every impor- aside in the crowd, and robbed of part tant Latin hymn annotated by itself, but of their due honors. there are long and learned articles on We fear this supposed charge has some Latin Hymnody (fifteen pages), Trans- foundation in the facts. Not as to the lations from the Latin, Breviaries (ten longer articles ; 'those on Early English pages), Hymnaries, Sequences (twelve Hymnody and that of the Church of pages), the Te Deum (fifteen pages), and England are proportionate to the Latin other special subjects. These are from and German ones, and those which deal several pens, and include lists which with the Baptists, Congregationalists, must be supposed to be exhaustive. The Methodists, Unitarians, etc., appear sufGreek material is handled with equal ficient. Scottish writers (apart from fullness (considering its lesser extent as the paraphrasers) receive more than known in the West), chiefly by the Rev. twelve pages from the loving and allH. L. Bennett. The huge German field gathering hands of Mr. Mearns, and has been looked after by Mr. Mearns, there is a unique paper, the longest in to whose marvelous knowledge few na- the book, on the hymnic history of fortive Germans could add anything, and eign missions, which are almost solely whose minute and careful handling of those conducted by Britons. Enough his diligently accumulated and arranged space is given to Dr. Watts, the Wesstores leaves nothing to be desired. He leys, Dr. Neale, and others of eminent is a Scotchman, and now a curate in fame, but minor writers of at least forBucks. The only other hands that have mer repute and usefulness, not yet forbeen allowed to touch his chosen pro- gotten by their beneficiaries, are often vince are those of Dr. Schaff, in a brief coldly and narrowly handled, so that no survey of the whole Germanic field, and account seems taken of their personalthe Rev. J. T. Mueller, of Herrnhut, ity; to get the facts about them, one who supplies authoritative papers on the must, in some cases, go back to Miller Bohemian Brethren and the Moravians. and other books of far less scope and

For cosmopolite scholars all this is accuracy tnan this. One is tempted to admirable. The plain Englishman or ask, Would they have been treated thus American, who takes his hymns in the if they had written in German or in vernacular, loves them for their uses and Latin? associations, and has hitherto known but To this and other obvious criticisms a few thousand of them, may be moved there is an obvious if partial answer. to complain that here is too heavy a pre- The book is what it purports to be : a ponderance of foreign or ancient matter. dictionary, not a collection of anecdotes ; Two or three hundred Latin and Ger- a history of hymns, and only incidentalman lyrics, he will be apt to say, and ly of their authors, - therefore much some dozen from the Greek, have been more bibliographic than biographic; carrendered into our books and won a place ing greatly for texts, dates, and titles, in our hearts ; for the rest of them, slightly for weddings and funerals ; a

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