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at all the kind of story we should select self-respecting lad would have explained to to tell a child nowadays. By no means ! the king that he was not the Marquis of Even the little Châteaubriand heard it from Carabas at all; that he had no desire to peasant lips. Yet in after years, when he profit by his cat's ingenious falsehoods, and had fought the battle of life, and fought no weak anıbition to connect himself with it with success, when he had grown gray, the aristocracy. Such a hero would be a and illustrious, and disillusioned, and mel- credit to our modern schoolrooms, and lift ancholy, what should come back to his a load of care from the shoulders of our mind, with its old pleasant flavor of terror modern critics. Only the children would and mystery, but the vision of Count Com- have none of him, but would turn wistfully bourg's wooden leg taking its midnight back to those brave old tales which are constitutional, with the black cat stepping their inheritance from a splendid past, and softly on before ? So he notes it gravely of which no hand shall rob them. down in his Memoirs, just as Scott notes
Mr. Henry James, in one of in his diary the pranks of Whippity Stourie, and Culture. his stories or sketches, I forget the Scotch bogie that steals at night into which, has said that he does not care to talk open nursery windows, and just as Heine, with an intelligent woman ; he prefers a in gay, sunlit Paris, recalls with joy the cultured one. I think there is something dark, sweet, sombre tales of the witch and in the saying. The “intelligent” woman fairy haunted forests of Germany.
may be in a way a more interesting menThese are impressions worth recording, tal specimen, — the intelligent American, and they are only a few out of many which in particular, is wonderfully alive and alert may be gathered from similar sources. and hospitable toward all new ideas, — yet That which is vital in literature or tradi- for purposes of conversational enjoyment tion, which has survived the obscurity and the cultured woman does seem preferable. wreckage of the past, whether as legend, I happen to live in a place which by right or ballad, or mere nursery rhyme, has sur- of population calls itself a city, but which, vived in right of some intrinsic merit of its compared with any of our great cities, own, and will not be snuffed out of exist- is to all intents and purposes a provincial ence by any of our precautionary or hygi- town. As a new-comer, I have been struck enic measures. We could not banish Blue- with the large proportion of intelligence beard if we would. He is as immortal as among women of the upper social strata ; Hamlet, and when hundreds of years shall and I have noted with respect, indeed with have passed over this uncomfortably en- a certain awe, their noble efforts after intellightened world, the children of the future lectual improvement. Their industry puts – who, thank Heaven, can never, with all to shame the mental indolence of a mere our efforts, be born grown up — will still desultory reader like myself. Clubs abound, tremble at the blood-stained key, and re- devoted to the study of history, the drama, joice when the big brave brothers come art, etc., and no idle dabbler in these things galloping up the road. We could not even but must feel herself obliged to bow before rid ourselves of Mother Goose, though she students who write discourses upon varied too has her mortal enemies, who protest themes, which they deliver before assemperiodically against her cruelty and gross- blies of their peers. If they have not taken ness. We could not drive Punch and Judy all knowledge to be their province, their from our midst, though Mr. Punch's dere- reach is sufficiently wide. Yet it happens lictions have been the subject of much seri- that a humble person coming among them, ous and adverse criticism. It is not by such with no pretensions to being well informed, barbarous rhymes or by such brutal specta- is sometimes at a loss for lack of a comcles that we teach a child the lessons of in- mon ground of understanding and sympategrity and gentleness, explain our nursery thy when she alludes to certain things permoralists, and probably they are correct. taining to literature. The trouble seems Moreover, Bluebeard does not teach a les- to be that which Mr. James felt, – that inson of conjugal felicity, and Cinderella is telligence, and even a habit of study, do not full of the world's vanities, and Puss in necessarily imply culture. A lady, whose Boots is one long record of triumphant mental capacity and energy are worthy of effrontery and deception. An honest and all admiration, recently remarked to me
Teeth set on
that style in an author was something to by the mouth of his poet Cleon, who says which she paid no heed, as a matter of no that he has not produced poetry like Homoment or interest to her. Immediately a mer nor music like Terpander, nor carved sort of gulf seemed to open between my and painted men like Phidias and others ; mind and hers. It sometimes appears as he is not great, as they are, point by point ; though the conscientious babit of study in
“But I have entered into sympathy terfered with the spontaneous enjoyment With these four, running them into one soul. of books. Shakespeare, for instance, is
Say, is it nothing that I know them all?" rather an author to be well informed about
- If people universally clung than a genius to be delighted in.
Edge. to hereditary beliefs, progress Far be it from me to seem to depreci- would manifestly be impossible ; yet, accusate that discipline of mind resulting from tomed though we are to moral and intelthorough and systematic study, in which I lectual differences between parent and child, confess myself lamentably deficient ; still, I it gives us a sense of incongruity when a cannot but think that there is a certain dis- man zealous in one cause has a son equally tinct gain to be derived from what is called zealous in the opposite camp. It was long desultory reading, from the practice of believed, and Schiller has immortalized the browsing in a library and imbibing litera- legend, that Don Carlos sympathized with ture for the simple pleasure of it.
the revolt in the Netherlands, so cruelly In a novel I once read, one of the char- repressed by his father, Philip II.; but in acters, a dilettante gentleman, was spoken reality that deformed, gluttonous, half-inof contemptuously as a man who was always sane prince, anxious to escape from paterreading "books about books." To neglect nal control, envied Alva the task of drathe rich originals of literature for books or gooning the Flemings into submission. If periodicals full of slight comment upon William the Silent's elder son, seized as a them, criticism, so called, would be a mis- hostage by the Spaniards, grew up a motake indeed, but books about books have rose, bigoted Catholic, environment obvitheir uses notwithstanding. Have not John ously overcame heredity. Still, there are Morley and Matthew Arnold something to numerous cases in which environment and tell us about authors beyond what we should heredity put together have proved powerhave discovered for ourselves ?
less. Richard Cromwell is said to have been Thoughts, opinions, knowledge, it has a gay young Cavalier, drinking success to been said, are sensibility to ideas and facts. Charles I. at the very time when his father I do not know that culture is possible for was in the field against him. Milton's every one ; the native “sensibility” must brother Christopher did not side with his be in him. Receptiveness toward facts is father and brother, and became at last a much more common than toward ideas. judge under Charles II. Christina of SweNo doubt the acquisition of knowledge is den, daughter of the great Protestant hero, a genuine pleasure to some persons, but, Gustavus Adolphus, became a Roman Cathspeaking generally, one would be inclined olic. Benjamin Franklin's son was a loyalto say that it is the “literature of power ist. Wilberforce, a Protestant of the Prorather than the literature of knowledge testants, had four sons, three of whom bethat offers the most rare and varied de- came Roman Catholics, while the fourth, lights. Among the unfailing joys of life Bishop of Oxford and Winchester, was so Mr. Lowell placed “spring, and the most opposed to his father's school of thought as poignant utterances of the poets.” Culture constantly to be charged with Romish leanin art implies sensibility to æsthetic ideas, a ings ; that bishop's only daughter, moreover, capacity for emotion as well as for thought, joined her uncles. The Coleridges were a and is of course not gained wholly or chief- thoroughly Protestant family, but one of ly from books. Next to the good man's the poet's nephews is a Jesuit. The Brights joy in deeds of goodness, I suppose there is have been Quakers for centuries, but John none comparable to the true artist's joy in Bright's sister, with her Quaker husband, creation, - one of the few things worth Frederic Lucas, became a Romanist. Dr. envy ; but for the great majority of us Arnold of Rugby was a decided Protestant ungifted ones there is consolation in the and Philistine, a matter - of - fact radical; thought which Mr. Browning has expressed his son, Matthew Arnold, wrote philippics
against Philistinism ; another son was for for independence had all loyalist fathers. a time a Roman Catholic, and that son's When Dr. Johnson told a young lady condaughter is the author of Robert Elsmere. vert to Quakerism that people should keep Lord Sidney Godolphin Osborne, famous for to the church in which they had been the S. G. 0. letters in the London Times, brought up, she asked whether he would thundered against ritualism and Romanism; have said this to the first Christians. He his son is a priest at the London Oratory. was silenced ; but had he been prepared for Prévost-Paradol, the agnostic or theist who so prompt a retort, he would doubtless have fought bravely with the pen for liberty in argued that an individual and isolated conFrance, accepted the Washington embassy version is not on the same footing as a great from the apparently liberalized empire, and movement, a “swarmery,” as Carlyle, borcommitted suicide on discovering that he rowing a Germanism, styles it. It is one had been deluded, left two daughters who thing to join a new party or church; it is have both taken the veil. The eldest son of quite another to adopt an opinion of long Eugène Bersier, the most popular Protes- standing which is repugnant to your parents tant pastor of this generation in Paris, first or kindred. This latter phenomenon is married a Catholic, and then became a what I am now discussing, and how is it to Catholic himself. The Rev. Charles Voy- be accounted for? One reason is that the sey, expelled from the Church of England mother may have had latent leanings, or for heresy, now a free-thought minister in that the mixture of two lines of descent London, has two daughters who have both may have exercised a peculiar influence. become nuns. Bradlaugh, who refused to Atavism may likewise be invoked. Yet take the Christian oath on entering the probably the chief cause lies elsewhere. House of Commons, had religious parents, Children are keen observers, and if there is and has a brother who is a Scripture reader. any narrowness in the parent's creed, politThe two great English cardinals of this cen- ical or religious, they are sure, sooner or tury, Newman and Manning, were sons of later, to discover it. Children very strictly stanch evangelicals. It reminds us of Ma- brought up often go wrong morally ; if they caulay’s taunt that the Tories could not pro- have too much moral fibre for this, they duce leaders, but from Strafford to Pitt (he go astray theologically. The fathers have would have added Beaconsfield) had to bor- eaten sour grapes, eaten them with a relish, row them from the Whigs. Of Newman's and the children's teeth are set on edge. two brothers, Francis first turned to agnosti- The Wilberforces were certainly repelled cism, and then swung half back to Unitarian- by the austerity of the so-called Clapham
the other was a ne'er-do-weel. The sect. Observing behind the scenes all the children of English Quakers — most of the pettinesses of one faith, sons perceive only Gurneys, for instance — frequently become the glittering outside of the other. OccaEpiscopalians, and William Howitt's wife, sionally they turn back to the paternal fold; like Bright's sister, was a convert to Rome. in many cases, we may be sure that even if The Duc de Nemours became a legitimist, they remain in their new fold, they end, regarding his father, Louis Philippe, as a conscious of not having found perfection usurper. When, however, heirs apparent there, by mentally rendering justice to the are in political opposition to their fathers, old faith. Now and then they box the reit is generally from affectation rather than ligious compass, trying one sect after anfrom conviction. George IV., as Prince of other, and perhaps eventually becoming Wales, fraternized with the Whigs, and if their own church. he had not been in his teens during the A narrow patriotism induces the same American war probably would have pro- reaction as a narrow creed. One extreme fessed adiniration for Washington, but on begets another. Nationality cannot, indeed, becoming regent he retained his father's be shaken off as easily as church or party, Tory advisers.
but spread - eagleism and anti - patriotism A great political or religious convulsion cross swords; as in the subjoined faithful necessarily involves a real or an apparent report of a French table d'hôte scene, the change of creed. Strictly speaking, the climax of several days' disputing over first generation of Protestants had all Cath- American and European climate, hotels, olic fathers, and the Americans who fought bread, cheese, oysters, and whiskey :
A. “I have never been so well treated ancing value. I rejoice to remember how as in my own country.”
passionately that prince of friends, Edmund B. “Well, I have been all over the world, Burke, sustained these views, not only when and have never been so swindled anywhere he could not help it, as the fighter of his as at New York."
friends' battles, but when more intellectual A. “ I hate to hear people run down their conviction and temerity were required to own country. You say things you know make him lay down the law as to what his are not true.”
friends must do for him. After his quarB. “What have I said that is n't true?” rel with Single-Speech Hamilton he writes :
A. “That you have been cheated at New “I shall never, therefore, look upon those York more than anywhere else.”
who, after hearing the whole story, do not B. “Well, so I have."
think me perfectly in the right, and do not A. “It's downright silly of you.” consider Hamilton an infamous scoundrel,
B. “I hate to hear anybody continually to be in the smallest degree my friends, or growling against the country they are in." even to be persons for whom I am bound
A. “You never hear me growling." to have the slightest esteem, as fair and just B. “I see we are getting into deep water.” estimators of the characters and conduct of “ Love
men. Situated as I am, and feeling as I Friendship's League, Of. was the text of a little plaint re- do, I should be just as well pleased that fensive and cently made in the Club. The they totally condemned me as that they
Contributor rose to protest should say there were faults on both sides, against such a demand, but on me the chief as I hear is (I cannot forbear saying) the and grateful effect of his protest was to affected language of some persons. bring to my mind with new clearness much
One might as well spend that is to be said in its favor.
Industry. one's time, like Domitian, catchPut in this form it has a slightly ungen- ing flies as trying to tell the Club anyerous sound, but in this day, when the ties thing new about protection, trusts, or between men are generally so much more bines.” The members, however, may have loosely knit than when personal fighting overlooked one branch of human activity, and peril played a greater part in making to which, as it primarily concerns the mind, us esteem the virtues of gratitude and fidel- their special consideration is due. ity, it nevertheless seems to me to need It was revealed in an editorial corresponunabashed emphasis. Of course it can be dence, which “the party of the first part propounded in a thousand misplaced and opened with the announcement, " This letter puerile ways, but for myself, I am chiefly is from a Puzzler, who wants to take charge anxious that it shall never be through cow- of the Puzzle Department of the Weekly ardice, nor laziness, nor stupidity, nor any
Visitor," so to call the periodical admeanness of soul that I refuse help in a dressed. The Puzzler went on to say that friend's fight.
he has been an “active Puzzler” for years, I observe that some or all of these unde- is a member of the Eastern Puzzlers' sirable things are often at the root of the League, and enjoys a wide acquaintance ready assertions that it takes two to make with Puzzlers at large. a quarrel, and that both sides are always to All this opened an alluring vista of blame. Doubtless, as human beings, both knowledge in unfamiliar fields. The idea sides always lack perfect wisdom, but there of men separating themselves from the are plenty of quarrels where the overwhelm- world as “ Puzzlers,” and rejoicing in the ing wrong comes from one party and is distinction, was new.
Their industry gave suffered by the other, and I take it that it promise of proving an interesting infant. is the part of friendship to discover it when Investigation, especially with reference to this is the case, and to make the discovery the League, was undertaken, and its results known. Indeed, I think the simple, warm are hereby given to a portion of mankind not love of justice might do so much, and that Puzzlers. The Eastern Puzzlers' League is friendship should hardly wait for so im- an actual organization of “the best Puzzlers perative a demand upon its championship. living east of the Mississippi," and of proved Ardent fidelity in friendship may lead to ability to make “puzzles up to the stanwrong, but it is itself a good of overbal- dard.” It holds semi-annual conventions
on July 4 and December 25. If their fes- to the lower (and to the lowest) grades of tivals are not red-letter days, it is plainly the genus. In fact, Genius should not look not the fault of the Puzzlers. Yet the askance at the claims that Talent makes proper pride evinced in their choice of on the ground of its restive sensibilities, nor dates extends no further, for pride of place should Genius or Talent in one field of art
at least of inherited name — plays no deride the whimsical exactions of individpart in the Puzzlers' conventions. All uals in another field. If the great and only personality, if they claim any such as the Byron, through some allusion to merely world knows it, is abandoned at the doors mundane topics while he was in the anguish of these august sessions. According to an of composition, could be rendered so misauthentic report of the Eastern Puzzlers' erable as to throw his watch into the fire, League's seventeenth convention (and thus why may not other artists, of greater or we may see how the world wags), the mem- less degree, plead the peevishness attributbers of the body appear under such names ed to the genus ? Shall not we, moreover, as Arty Fishel, B. Ver, F. Aitchell, Kos- endeavor to find justification ? An instance ciusko McGinty, and Nick R. Bocka. A from Thackeray sets us in the right direcreport is read by Maud Lynn. Barnyard tion. When, interrupted by the maid askreads another, and it is ordered to be print- ing him something about onions or butter, ed in the Eastern Enigma, the official organ the French cook lifted his dainty fingers of the League. Officers are elected, all un- from the piano keys, and remonstrated pader their puzzling pseudonyms. Anonyme thetically with the interrupter, these were suggests “ the advisability of instituting a his words : “ Every great artist has need of puzzleistic exhibit at the World's Fair.” A solitude to perfectionate bis work !” The committee is appointed to report upon this little maid who stood thus rebuked doubt. subject, and the convention adjourns. less had never heard of Kalulah, and so
The seriousness of the whole affair is ap- did not know that other senses than the palling. Yet one into whose ken the new one of hearing could be attuned to harplanet swims cannot refrain from light con- mony ; for it was the fantastic author of jectures. The convention report gives but this now unfamiliar romance who therein a hint of the strange life of “puzzledom.” devised a scheme by which the olfactory as
“ Are only the persons capable of making well as the auditory nerve could be em“ puzzles up to the standard” banded to- ployed for high artistic purposes, creative gether ? Have not the consumers of the or interpretative. article, like the producers, their League ? Quite outside the pale of the humanities, Following the Puzzlers into their daily and in the exercise of arts not recognized lives, one hopes they may be still B. Ver as legitimate, Genius cries out to us, in its and Nick R. Bocka to friends and kins- various straits and dilemmas. In illustra
When Arty Fishel led his wife, if tion, there occurs the case of the celebrated he has one, to the altar, did he say, “I, pickpocket, who, on being arrested for the Arty, take thee, Hannah (or what you will] performance of his function, somewhat surto be my wedded wife," thereby making prised the judge by asking to see the coat her Mrs. Fishel ? Do they see “charades” from which the pocket - book had been in trees, "squares” in the running brooks, taken. The coat was produced, and was “ rebuses" in stones, puzzles in everything ? seen to be cut and slashed with a reckless
Who can tell ? When some Stockton disregard that showed the novice. The enters these untrodden paths, and writes a Napoleon of pickpockets," as he delighted Puzzler story, the world will rejoice and to call himself, turned upon the judge a be wiser. Till then the puzzle industry, face crimson with anger. “I considers though without benefit of tariff it appears zis von grand insult ! Ven I does a job, to thrive, must remain an infant unknown I does it up! I makes no such botch as outside the Club.
zis !” On the ground of inherent probaA Plan for
- It is, perhaps, an open ques- bilities, or as tribute to artistic excellence tion whether the genus irritubile in his own sphere, the indignant adept was
vatum should be indulged in its discharged. But æsthetic irascibility, erirritability ; but the indulgence, being grant- cept “in high places,” rarely receives such ed, should be freely accorded by the higher appreciation and indulgence.
the Minor Artist.