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Jur old and faithful friend, we are glad to see you. (In all his dressings, characts, tilles, forms, Ang. & Escal. Happy return be to your royal Be an arch-villain : believe it, royal prince, grace!

If he be less, he's nothing; but he's more,
Duke. Many and hearty thankings to you both. Had I more name for badness.
We have made inquiry of you; and we hear Duke.

By mine honesty,
Such goodness of your justice, that our soul If she be mad (as I believe no other,).
Cannot but yield you forth to public thanks, Her madness hath the oddest frame of sense,
Forerunning more requital.

Such a dependency of thing on thing,
You make my bonds still greater. As e'er I heard in madness.
Duke. O, your desert speaks loud; and I should Isab.

O, gracious duke, wrong it,

Harp not on that; nor do not banish reason To lock it in the wards of covert bosom,

For inequality : but let your reason serve When it deserves with characters of brass To make the truth appear, where it seems hid; A forted residence, 'gainst the tooth of time, And hide the false, seems true. And razure of oblivion : Give me your hand, Duke.

Many that are not mad, And let the subject see, to make ihem know Have, sure, more lack of reason.—What would That outward courtesies would fain proclaim

you say?
Favours that keep within.—Come, Escalus; Isab. I am the sister of one Claudio,
You must walk by us on our other hand ; Condemn'd upon the act of fornication
And good supporters are you.

To lose his head; condemn'd by Angelo:

1, in probation of a sisterhood, Friar Peter and Isabella come forward. Was sent to by my brother: One Lucio

As then the messenger ;F. Peter. Now is your time; speak loud, and


That's I, an't like your grace kneel before him.

I came to her from Claudio, and desir'd her Isab. Justice, 0, royal duke! Vail' your regard To try her gracious fortune with lord Angelo, Upon a wrong'd, I'd lă in have said, a maid !

For her poor brother's pardon. O worthy prince, dishonour not your eye


That's he indeed. By throwing it on any other object,

Duke. You were not bid to speak. Till you have heard me in my true complaint, Lucio.

No, my good lord ; And give me, justice, justice, justice, justice ! Nor wish'd to hold my peace. Duke. Relate your wrongs: In what? By whom? Duke,

I wish you now then; Be brief:

Pray you, take note of it: and when you have Here is lord Angelo shall give you justice;

A business for yourself, pray heaven, you then Reveal yourself to him.

Be perfect. Isab. 0, worthy duke, Lucio.

I warrant your honour. You bid me seek redemption of the devil:

Duke. The warrant's for yourself; take heed Hear me yourself; for that which I must speak

to it. Must either punish me, not being believ'd,

Isab. This gentleman told somewhat of my tale. Or wring redress from you: hear me, 0, hear me, Lucio. Right. here.

Duke. It may be right; but you are in the wrong Ang. My lord, her wits, I fear me, are not firm: To speak before your time. — Proceed. She hath been a suitor to me for her brother,


I went Cut off by course of justice.

To this pernicious caitiff deputy.
By course of justice!

Duke. That's somewhat madly spoken.
Ang. And she will speak most bitterly, and Isab.

Pardon it; strange.

The phrase is to the matter. Isab. Most strange, but yet most truly, will I

Duke. Mended again : the matter :-Proceed. speak:

Isab. In brief, -to set the needless process by, That Angelo's forsworn; is it not strange ?

How I persuaded, how I pray'd, and kneeld, That Angelo's a murderer; is't not strange ?

How he resell’d: me, and how I reply'd ; That Angelo is an adulterous thief,

(For this was of much length,) the vile conclusion A hypocrite, a virgin-violator;

I now begin with grief and shame to utter: Is it not strange, and strange ?

He would not, but by gift of my chaste body Drike.

Nay, ten times strange. To his concupiscible intemperate lust, Isab. It is not truer he is Angelo,

Release my brother; and, after much debatement, Than this is all as true as it is strange :

My sisterly remorse' confules mine honour, Nay, it is ten times true; for truth is truth

And I did yield to him: But the next morn betimes, To the end of reckoning,

His purpose surfeiting, he sends a warrant Dike.

Away with her :-- Poor soul, For my poor brother's head. She speaks this in the intirmity of sense.


This is most likely ! Isab. O prince, I conjure thee, as thou believ'st

Isab. O, that it were as like, as it is true! There is another comfort than this world,

Duke. By heaven, fonds wretch, thou know'st That thou neglect me not, with that opinion

not what thou speak’st; That I am touch'd with madness: make not im- Or else thou art suborn'd against his honour,

possible That which but seems unlike : 'tis not impos- Stands without blemish: next, it imports no reason,

In hateful practice: $_First, his integrity sible.

That with such vehemency he should pursue But one, the wicked'st caitiff on the ground,

Faults proper to himself: if he had so offended, May seem as shy, as grave, as just, as absolute,

He would have weigh'd thy brother by himself, As Angelo; even so may Angelo,

And not have cut him off: Some one hath set you'on · (1) Lower. (2) Habits and characters of office. (3) Refuted. (4) Pity. (5) Foolish.

(6) Conspiracy.


some cause

Confess the truth, and say by whose advice


Are you a maid? Thou cam'st here to complain.


No, my lord. Isab.

And is this all ? Duke. A widow then ? Then, oh, you blessed ministers above,


Neither, my lord. Keep me in patience; and, with ripen'd time, Drike.

Why, you Unfold the evil which is here wrapt up

Are nothing then:-Neither maid, widow, nor wile? In countenance !-Heaven shield your grace from Lucio. My lord, she may be a punk; for many wo,

of them are neither maid, widow, nor wife. As I, thus wrongd, hence unbelieved go!

Duke. Silence that fellow : 'I would, he had Duke. I know, you'd fain be gone: -An officer ! To prison with her ;-Shall we thus permit To prattle for himself. A blasting and a scandalous breath to fall Lucio. Well, my lord. On him so near us? This needs must be a practice. Mari. My lord, I do confess I ne'er was married ; -Who knew of your intent, and coming hither? And, I contess, besides, I am no maid :

Isab. One that † would were here, friar Lodowick. I have known my husband; yet my husband knows Duke. A ghostly father, belike :-Who knows not, that Lodowick?

That ever he knew me. Lucio. My lord, I know him; 'tis a meddling friar;) Lucio. He was drunk then, my lord; it can be I do not like the man: had he been lay, my lord, 'no better. For certain words he spake against your grace

Duke. For the benefit of silence, 'would thou In your retirement, I had swing'd' him soundly. wert so too. Duke. Words against me? This' a good třiar, Lucio. Well, my lord. belike!

Duke. This is no witness for lord Angelo. And to set on this wretched woman here

Mari. Now I come to’t, my lord: Against our substitute ?-Let this friar be found. She, that accuses him of fornication, Lucio. But yesternight, my lord, she and that In self-same manner doth accuse my husband; friar

And charges him, my lord, with such a time, I saw them at the prison: a saucy friar,

When I'll depose I had him in mine arms,
A very scurvy fellow.

With all the effect of love.
F. Peter.
Blessed be your royal grace! Ang.

Charges she more than me? I have stood by, my lord, and I have heard

Mari. Not that I know. Your royal ear abus'd: First, hath this woman Duke.

No? you say, your husband. Most wrongfully accus'd your substitute ;

Mari. Why, just, my lord, and that Angelo, Who is as tree from touch or soil with her, Who thinks, he knows, that he ne'er knew my body, As she from one ungot.

But knows, he thinks, that he knows Isabel's. Duke.

We did believe no less. Ang. This is a strange abuse: S_Let's see thy Know you that friar Lodowick, that she speaks of ? | face,

F. Peter. I know him for a man divine and holy; Mari. My husband bids me; now I will unmask. Not scurvy, nor a temporary meddler,

(Unreiling. As he's reported by this gentleman;

This is that face, thou cruel Angelo, And, on my trust, a man that never yat

Which, once thou swor'st, was worth the lookDid, as he vouches, misreport your grace.

ing on : Lucio. My lord, most villanously; believe it. This is the hand, which, with a vow'à contráct, F. Peter. Well, he in time may come to clear Was fast belock'd in thine ; this is the body himself;

That took away the match from Isabel, But at this instant he is sick, my lord,

And did supply thee at thy garden-house, Of a strange fever : Upon his mere? request

In her imagin'd person. (Being come to knowledge that there was complaint Duke.

Know you this woman? intended’gainst lord Angelo,) came I hither,

Lucio. Carnally, she says. To speak, as from his mouth, what he doth know Duke.

Sirrah, no more. Is true, and false ; and what he with his oath, Lucio. Enough, my lord. And all probation, will make up full clear, Ang. My lord, 'I must consess, I know this woWhensoever he's convented. First, for this woman

man; (To justify this worthy nobleman,

And, five years since, there was some speech of So vulgarly4 and personally accus'd,)

marriage Her shall you hear disproved to her eyes,

Betwixt myself and her; which was broke off, Till she herself confess it.

Partly, for that her promised proportions Duke.

Good friar, let's hear it. Came short of composition ;' but, in chief, [Isabella is carried off, guarded; and For that her reputation was dis valued Mariana comes forward.

In levity: since which time of five years,

I never spake with her, saw her, nor heard from her, Do you not smile at this, lord Angelo ?--- Upon my faith and honour. O heaven! the vanity of wretched fools !


Noble prince, Give us some seats.-Come, cousin Angelo ; As there comes light from heaven, and words from In this I'll be impartial; be you judge

breath, Of your own cause.- Is this the witness, friar ? As there is sense in truth, and truth in virtue, First, let her show her face; and, after speak. I am affianc'd this man's wife, as strongly

Mari. Pardon, my lord; I will not show my face, As words could make up vows: and, my good lord, Until my husband bid me.

But Tuesday night last gone, in his garden-house, Duke,

What, are you married ? He knew me as a wife : As this is true Mari. No, my lord.

Let me in safety raise me from my knees;

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Or else for ever be confixed here,

Escal. How! know you where you are ? A marble monument !

Duke. Respect to your great place ! and let the Ang. I did but smile till now;

devil Now, good my lord, give me the scope of justice; Be some time honour'd for his burning throne :My patience here is touch'd: I do perceive, Where is the duke ? 'tis he should hear me speak. These poor informal' women are no more

Escal. The duke's in us; and we will hear you But instruments of some more mightier member,

speak: That sets them on: Let me have way, my lord, Look, you speak justly. To find this practice? out.

Duke. Boldly, at least:-But, 0, poor souls, Duke,

Ay, with my heart; Come you to seek the lamb here of the fox ? And punish them unto your height of pleasure.- Good night to your redress. Is the duke gone ? Thou foolish friar; and thou pernicious woman, Then is your cause gone too. The duke's unjust, Compact with her that's gone! think'st thou, thy Thus to retorto your manifest appeal, oaths,

And put your trial in the villain's mouth, Though they would swear down each particular which here you come to accuse. saint,

Lucio. This is the rascal; this is he I spoke of. Were testimonies against his worth and credit, Escal. Why, thou unreverend and unhallow'd That's sealed in approbation ?-You, lord Escalus, friar! Sit with my cousin ; lend him your kind pains Is't not enough, thou hast suborn'd these women To find out this abuse, whence 'tis derivd. - To accuse this worthy man; but, in foul mouth, There is another friar that set them on;

And in the witness of his proper ear, Let him be sent for.

Tc call him villain ? F. Peter. Would he were here, my lord; for he, And then to glance from him to the duke himsell ; indeed,

To tax him with injustice ?-Take him hence; Hath set the women on to this complaint: To the rack with him:—We'll touze you joint by Your provost knows the place where he abides,

joint, And he may fetch him.

But we will know this purpose :-What! unjust? Duke, Go, do it instantly. [Erit Provost. Duke. Be not so hot; the duke And you, my noble and well-warranted cousin, Dare no more stretch this singer of mine, than he Whom it concerns to hear this matter forth,.

Dare rack his own; his subject am I not, Do with your injuries as seems you best, Nor here provincial:5 My business in this state In any chastisement: I for a while

Made me a looker-on here in Vienna, Will leave you; but stir not you, till you have Where I have seen corruption boil and bubble, wer

Till it o'er-run the stew: laws, for all faults; Determined upon these slanderers.

But faults so countenanc'd, that the strong statutes Escal. My lord, we'll do it thoroughly.-[Exit Stand like the forfeits in a barber's shop, Duke.) Signior Lucio, did not you say, you knew As much in mock as inark. that fríar Lodowick to be a dishonest person? Escal. Slander to the state! Away with him to

Lucio. Cucullus non facit monachum : honest in prison. nothing, but in his clothes; and one that hath spoke Ang. What can you vouch against him, signior most villanous speeches of the duke.

Lucio ? Escal. We shall entreat you to abide here till Is this the man that you did tell us of? he come, and enforce them against him: we shall Lucio. 'Tis he, my lord.—Come hither, goodman find this friar a notable fellow.

bald-pate: Do you know me? Lucio. As any in Vienna, on my word.

Dike. I remember you, sir, by the sound of your Escal. Call that same Isabel here once again ; voice : I met you at the prison, in the absence of [To an attendant.] I would speak with her : Pray the duke. you, my lord, give me leave to question ; you shall Lucio. O, did you so ? And do you remember see how I'll handle her.

what you said of the duke? Lucio. Not better than he, by her own report.

Duke. Most notedly, sir. Escal. Say you?

Lucio. Do you so, sir ? And was the duke a fleshLucio. Marry, sir, I think, if you handled her monger, a fool, and a coward, as you then reported privately, she would sooner coniess; perchance, him to be? publicly she'll be ashamed.

Duke. You must, sir, change persons with me,

ere you make that my report: you, indeed, spoke Re-enler Officers, with Isabella; the Duke, in the so of him; and much more, much worse. friar's habit, and Provost.

Lucio. O thou damnable fellow! Did not I pluck

thec by the nose, for thy speeches ? Escal. I will go darkly to work with her. Duke. I protest I love the duke, as I love myself. Lucio. That's the way; for women are light at Ang. Hark! how the villain would close now, midnight.

after his treasonable abuses. Escal. Come on, mistress: [To Isabella.] here's Escal. Such a fellow is not to be talk'd withal:a gentlewoman denies all that you have said. Away with him to prison :-Where is the provost ?

Lucio. My lord, here comes the rascal I spoke Away with him to prison; lay bolts enough upon of; here, with the provost.

him; let him speak no more. Away with those Escal.' In very good time:-speak not you to giglotse too, and with the other confederate comhim, till we call upon you.

panion. [The Provost lays hands on the Duke. Lucio. Mum.

Duke. Stay, sir ;

a while, Escal, Come, sir: Did you set these women on Ang. What! resists he? Help him, Lucio. to slander lord 'Angelo ? they have confess'd you Lucio. Come, sir ; come, sir; come, sir ; foh, id.

sir: Why, you bald-pated, lying rascal! you must Duke. 'Tis false.

be hooded, must you ? Show your knave's visage, (1) Crazy. (2) Conspiracv. 13) To the end. 114) Refer back. (5) Accountable. (6) Wantons,

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to you.

with a pox to you! show your sheep-biting face, of sacred chastity, and of promise-breach,
and be hang'd an hour! Will't not off?

Thereon dependant, for your brother's life,)
(Pulls off the friar's hood, and discovers The very mercy of the law cries out
the Duke.

Most audible, even from his propers tongue,
Dike. Thou art the first knave, that e'er made. In Angelo for Claudio, death for death.
a duke.

Haste still pays haste, and leisure answers leisure
First, provost, let me bail these gentle three: Like doth quit like, and Measure still for Measure.
Sneak not away, sir ; [To Lucio.] for the friar and Then, Angelo, thy fault's thus manifested :

Which though thou would'st deny, denies thee
Must have a word anon :-lay hold on him.

vantage : Lucio. This may prove worse than hanging. We do condemn thee to the very block Duke. What you have spoke, I pardon ; sit you Where Claudio stoop'd to death, and with like down.

[To Escalus.

haste;We'll borrow place of him :-Sir, by your leave : Away with him.

(To Angelo. Mari.

0, my most gracious lord, Hast thou or word, or wit, or impudence, I hope you will not mock me with a husband! That yet can do thee office?" If thou hast,

Duke. It is your husband mock'd you with a Rely upon it till my tale be heard,

husband : And hold no longer out.

Consenting to the safeguard of your honour, Ang.

O my dread lord, I thought your marriage fit; else imputation, I should be guiltier than my guiltiness,

For that he knew you, might reproach your life, To think I can be undiscernible,

And choke your good to come: for his possessions When I perceive, your grace, like power divine,

Although by confiscation they are ours, Hath look'd upon my passes:? Then, good prince, We do instate and widow you withal, No longer session hold upon my shame,

To buy you a better husband. But let my trial be mine own confession;


O, my dear lord,
Immediate sentence then, and sequent death, I crave no other, nor no better man.
Is all the grace I beg.

Duke. Never crave him; we are definitive.
Come hither, Mariana : Mari. Gentle my liege, -

(Kneeling, Say, wast thou e'er contracted to this woman? Duke.

You do but lose your labour: Ang. I was, my lord.

Away with him to death.--Now, sír, [To Lucio.] Dike. Go, take her hence, and marry her instantly.

Mari, o, my good lord!-Sweet Isabel, take Do you the office, friar; which consummate,

my part;
Return him here again :-Go with him, provost. Lend me your knees, and all my life to come

Ereunt Angelo, Mariana, Peter, and Provost. I'll lend you, all my life to do you service.
Escal. My lord, I am more amaz'd at his dis Duke. Against all sense do you importune her:

Should she kneel down, in mercy of this fact,
Than at the strangeness of it.

Her brother's ghost his paved bed would break, Duke.

Come hither, Isabel : And take her hence in horror.
Your friar is now your prince: As I was then Mari.

Advertising, and holy to your business, Sweet Isabel, do yet but kneel by me;
Not changing heart with habit, I am still Hold up your hands, say nothing, I'll speak all.
Attorney'd at your service.

They say, best men are moulded out of faults ;

0, give me pardon, And, for the most, become much more the better That I, vour vassal, have employ'd and pain'd For being a little bad: so may my husband. Your unknown sovereignty.

O, Isabel ! will you not lend a knee? Duke.

You are pardon'd, Isabel : Dike. He dies for Claudio's death. And now, dear maid, be you as free to us.


Most bounteous sir,
Your brother's death, I know, sits at your heart;

And you may marvel, why I obscur'd myself, Look, if it please you, on this man condemn'd,
Labouring to save his life"; and would not rather As if my brother liv'd: I partly think,
Make rash remonstrance of my hidden power, A due sincerity govern'd his deeds,
Than let him so be lost: 0, most kind maid, Till he did look on me; since it is so,
It was the swift celerity of his death,

Let him not die: My brother had but justice,
Which I did think with slower foot came on, In that he did the thing for which he died :
That brain'd my purpose: But, peace be with him! For Angelo,
That life is better life, past fearing death,

His act did not o'ertake his bad intent,
Than that which lives to fear: make it your comfort, And must be buried but as an intent
So happy is your brother.

That perish'd by the way: thoughts are no subjects,

Intents but merely thoughts. Re-enter Angelo, Mariana, Peter, and Provost.


Merely, my lord.
I do, my lord.

Duke. Your suit's unprofitable; stand up, I say: -
Duke. For this new-married man, approaching I have bethought me of another

fault :here,

Provost, how came it, Claudio was beheaded Whose salt imagination yet hath wrong'd

At an unusual hour ? Your well-defended honour, you must pardon


It was commanded so. For Mariana's sake: but as he adjudg'd your

Duke. Had you a special warrant for the deed? brother

Prov. No, my good lord; it was by private mes. ( Being criminal, in double violation

Drike. For which I do discharge you of your office (1) Service. (2) Devices. (3) Following. (4) Attentive. (5) Angelo's own tongue.

(6) Reason and affcction.


Give up your keys.

Let him be whipp'd and hanged. Prov.

Pardon me, noble lord : Lucio. I beseech your highness, do not marry I thought it was a fault, but knew it not; me to a whore! Your highness said even now, I Yet did repent me, after more advice :

made you a duke: good my lord, do not recom-
For testimony whereof, one in the prison pense me, in making me a cuckold.
That should by private order else have died, Duke. Upon mine honour, thou shalt marry her.
I have reserv'd alive.

Thy slanders I forgive; and therewithal
What's he?

Remit thy other forfeits :--Take him to prison: Pror.

His name is Barnardine. And see our pleasure herein executed. Deke. I would thou had'st done so by Claudio. Lucio. Marrying a punk, my lord, is pressing to Go, fetch him bither; let me look upon him. death, whipping, and hanging;

Exit Provost. Duke. Sland'ring a prince deserves it.Escal. I am sorry, one so learned and so wise She, Claudio, that you wrong?d, look you restore.As you, lord Angelo, have still appear'd,

Joy to you, Mariana !— love her, Angelo; Should slip

so grossly, both in the heat of blood, I have confess'd her, and I know her virtue.And lack of temper'd judgment afterward. Thanks, good friend Escalus, for thy much goodness:

Ing. I am sorry, that such sorrow I procure : There's more behind, that is more gratulate.“
Ind so deep sticks it in my penitent heart, Thanks, provost, for thy care, and secrecy;
That I crave death more willingly than mercy: We shall employ thee in a worthier place :-
'Tis my deserving, and I do entreat it.

Forgive him, Angelo, that brought you horne

The head of Ragozine for Claudio's;
Re-enter Provost, Barnardine, Claudio, and Juliet. The offence pardons itself.- Dear Isabel,

I have a motion much imports your good;
Duke. Which is that Barnardine ?

Whereto if you'll a willing ear incline, Prov.

This, my lord.

What's mine is yours, and what is yours is mine :-Duke. There was a friar told me of this man:- So, bring us to our palace; where we'll show Sirrah, thou art said to have a stubborn soul, What's yet behind, that's meet you all should know. That apprehends no further than this world,

[Exeunt. And squar'st thy life according. Thou’rt condemn'd; But, for those early faults, I quit them all; And pray thee, take this mercy to provide For better times to come: -Friar, advise him; I leave him to your hand.-What muflicd fellow's

The novel of Giraldi Cinthio, from which Shakthat?

speare is supposed to have borrowed this fable,

may be read in Shakspeare Illustrated, elegantly Pror. This is another prisoner, that I sav'd, That should have died when Claudio lost his head ; quirer to discover how much absurdity Shakspeare

trunslated, with remarks which will assist ihe inAs like almost to Claudio, as himself.

has admitted or avoided.

[Unmuffles Claudio. Duke. If he be like your brother, (To Isabella.] modelled the novel of Cinthio, or written a story

I cannot but suspect that some other had newfor his sake Is he pardon'd; And, for your lovely sake,

which in some particulars resembled it, and that Give me your hand, and say you will be mine,

Cinthio was not the author whom Shakspeare imHe is my brother too: But fitter time for that.

mediately followed. The emperor in Cinthio is By this, lord Angelo perceives he's safe:

named Maximine: the duke, in Shakspeare's enuVethinks, I see a quickening in his eye:

meration of the persons of the drama, is called VinWell, Angelo, your evil quits? you well :

centio. This appears a very slight remark; but Look that you love your wife; her worth, worth since the duke has no name in the play, nor is ever

mentioned but by his title, why should he be called yours.

Vincentio among the persons,

but because the name I find an apt remission in myself: And yet here's one in place I cannot pardon ;

was copied from the story, and placed supertiuYou, sirrah, [To Lucio.) that knew me for 'a fool, ously at the head of the list, by the mere habit oi a coward,

transcription? It is therefore likely that there was One all of luxury, an ass, a madman;

then a story of Vincentio duke of Vienna, different Wherein have I so deserv'd of you,

from that of Maximine emperor of the Romans. That you extol me thus?

of this plav, the light or comic part is very natuLucio. 'Faith, my lord, I spoke it but according ral and pleasing, but the grave scenes, if a few pas. to the trick:* If you will hang me for it

, you may, The plot is rather intricate than artsul. The time

sages be excepted, have more labour than elegance. hut I had rather it would please you, I might be of the action is indefinite: some time, we know not whipp'd. Duke. Whipp'd first, sir, and hang'd after.

how much, must have elapsed between the recess Proclaim it, provost, round about the city;

of the duke and the imprisonment of Claudio; foi If any woman's wrong'd by this lewd fellow

he must have learned the story of Mariana in his (As I have heard him swear himself, there's one

disguise, or he delegated his power to a man alWhom he begot with child,) let her appear,

ready known to be corrupted. The unities of actior. And he shall marry her: the nuptial finish’d,

and place are sufficiently preserved.

JOHNSON. (1) Consideration, (2) Requites. (3) Incontinence. (4) TI ghtless practice. I (5) Punishments. (6) To reward.

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