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to shut down unless cars were forthcoming. He referred me then to his son to arrange it as he would like to have it.

"In short the plan is this: Young Morton will see another operator who has works close and see what they can do to raise money for a teacher, or use their own foreman. They have a building already wired and a motion picture machine installed. Morton was starting out to find sale for coal to be gone about two weeks, after which time they would co-operate with us or say that they could do nothing."

The organization work at this point is proceeding nicely and active class work will be started after the holidays.

"At Decota I found Mr. Cabell ready to go ahead with his part provided they could get a secretary for the Y. M. C. A. suited to the work. As his works and Keely's (Kayford) are located so that Decota could be a center for both, I talked to Keely. The agreement was then made that Cabell write F. C. Benner regarding their secretary and that Keely and I together outline a course such as they could handle."

Interest at this point continues to grow and the lectures given have been well attended. Active class work will be started about January 1st.

Glen White, Sept. 28. "Mr. E. E. White called in his engineers and superintendent also brought around his mine foreman and had each express himself as willing and ready to take their part. He said he would take part himself.”

October 28. "Last Tuesday I ran the motion pictures at Glen White before at least 300 men and boys, all mine workers. We had no women or children present. Mr. White had all his engineers, mine foremen, fire bosses, and officials from both Glen White and Stotesbury to turn out and meet with us. I told them what we were trying to do for them and was a little embarrassed by the applause.

“Mr. White then got up and told them that he would co-operate in any way possible, would teach himself, and would further compensate Mr. Ferguson, the local teacher, for his night work.

(He is now paying Ferguson and his wife $30 each per month extra over the regular teacher's salary.) He also stated that he would pay tuition, board and room rent at the summer school for mining to the one who made the best grade in the work. His manager has agreed to teach ventilation, his mining engineer to teach coal forma. tion and anything else he can. He is even working in the electrician, doctor and bookkeepers and mine foremen.

“I thought of enrolling them right away, but Mr. White asked me to leave the cards with him that he might do this. His argument was that he could talk to the better class individually, answer questions that might be hanging fire and get a better enrollment than I could hope to do, not knowing the men.

“Next day I went down the pit and looked around with him. He has the telephone extended throughout with men at each box. The mine is well lighted and they use the red and plain white lights for signals. I was very much impressed with their system of sprinkling; it consists of a truck containing two turbine pumps, two water boxes fitted with perforated pipes and driven by a six-ton motor. The pumps drive a spray for about forty feet into the break-throughs and literally soak the ribs. I followed along behind and examined the ground covered and to tell the truth it was better done than any sprinkling I ever saw."

With reference to this meeting, the following article appeared in one of the local papers and is similar in tone to the press accounts of meetings held at other points:

"Glen White Holds Eduational Rally. "State University Representatives Arrange for Night School. Professor B. J. Ferguson in charge.

"E. E. White Coal Company taking many forward steps. Including building for emergency hospital, new bath house and a $10,000 building for recreation.

"On Tuesday night, October 20th, 300 employees of the Glen White and Stotesbury operations of the E. E. White Coal Company, assembled in the town hall at Glen White as guests of representatives of West Virginia University and the management of the coal company to fire the opening gun in a campaign for education and uplift which speaks volumes for the future of the men and boys who toil in the mines of West Virginia, and which once more demonstrates the broad and generous spirit which the management of this splendid coal company regards its employees.

"Mr. E. E. WHITE, president and general manager, opened the rally by a heart to heart talk with his men and his boys, telling them of the splendid opportunities knocking at their doors, urging them to take advantage of these opportunities and explaining the part his company intended to take in co-operation with the representatives of the University of West Virginia at Morgantown.

“PROF. ROBERT S. GATHERUM, instructor in mathematics and engineering at the University, explained, in detail the character and objects of the work over which he will have supervision in this section of the New River coal field. A night school will be opened at Glen White for the instruction of all classes of employees, all expenses to be borne by the coal company and to be in direct charge of Professor Ferguson, principal of the Glen White public school. Professor Gatherum stated the objects of his work to be, primarily the uplift of mine workers and generally to assist toward greater efficiency in their calling, to give all opportunity to avail themselves of local instruction and finally to guide the eager and ambitious young men toward a finished education by enrolling as students in the splendid institution which he represents and in which tuition is free to residents of West Virginia.

“The study course will be flexible so that students not wishing to take the full course may choose such a combination of subjects as they believe will be best for them individually.

“The course will be as follows, subject to change, however, as development suggests:

1. Reading.
2. Writing.
3. Arithmetic.
4. Properties of mine gases.
5. Mine ventilation.
6. Geology of coal.
7. Methods of working coal mines.
8. Safety lamps.
9. Physiology.

10. Sanitation. “An excellent program combining instruction with entertainment followed the work of organization. Five moving picture films showing the proper and improper methods of mining alternated with those of comedy and adventure.

“The E. E. White Coal Company now has under construction an emergency hospital for the treatment and comfort of injured employees, and an additional bath house that will accommodate 300 men. Both buildings will be handsomely finished and equipped with steel and enamel lockers as well as other furnishings of the very latest design. The company also has plans under way for a $10,000 public building which will contain a room for lectures, entertainments, and motion pictures, also lodge rooms, reading rooms, bowling alleys and gymnasium."

Interest in the movement at Glen White still grows. The night school has an enrollment of about fifty and the work is well under way. The general lectures are so well attended that it has been found necessary to limit the crowd by issuing tickets up to the capacity of the hall.

"Athens, Sept. 28. “The class here is to go to Princeton to see the moving pictures tomorrow night.” (The class mentioned refers to the Concord State Normal School ted at Athe Thirty-six are enrolled.)

“October 3. “The pictures (motion) were a fair success at Princeton last Tuesday night, but just a little tedious. This was due to the manager running three of his own films before taking up ours.

“The class had several questions to ask regarding them. They had taken their note books along and kept tab on things they did not understand. They kept me busy answering them for two hours. I also spent the recitation period with them Thursday and found they were doing pretty good work."

McAlpin, October 18, 1914. “Although this is Sunday I am going to give you the results of trip to McAlpin. Alex. Laing says he wants the work started just as soon as they can arrange for a local teacher. He is new on the works and does not know anyone at present. Their public school teachers happen to be girls, as is also the case at Eccles. Laing asked for a few days to look up a man capable of doing the work.

Mr. Schutte, the Y. M. C. A. secretary, thinks that it is what is most needed at McAlpin but opposes the idea of charging any fee. He says the Y. M. C. A. has turned over $2,000 more than expenses and it is his idea to use this money for the purpose of paying the local teacher. He said he would take the matter up with Laing right away and let us know as soon as possible. He also spoke of corresponding with you. The Y. M. C. A. is well attended."

The opportunities at McAlpin are excellent. Active work has been delayed on account of the installation of a new steam heating system in the Y. M. C. A. auditorium. Everything will be in readiness for regular classes after January 1, 1915.

“Ramage, October 28, 1914. At Ramage I find the population to be mostly black. Mr. Ramage was called away to attend a funeral so I didn't see him. Mr. Ridenour, the secretary of the Y. M. C. A., says the company is well disposed towards the work and seems to think the Y. M. C. A. can handle it. We had a good turn out and several said they were going to take the work. There is a Negro teacher there, a married woman teaching night school, and Ridenour thinks we can use her in the elementary work.

“Ridenour also preferred to do the enrolling, and he is anxious to help the boys. He is a live wire and as he knew each individual and could talk with each one, it struck me that he could perhaps be more successful than I could hope to be.

“The work at this point is now well organized. The night school has an enrollment of twenty-three and is doing good work. The general lectures are well attended. Mr. Ramage and his associates, with the assistance of Mr. Ridenour, are rapidly changing the appearance of the town from a mining town to that of a summer resort."

“Raleigh, November 7, 1914. “At Raleigh I found the Raleigh Mining Institute, consisting of about 75 members. Supt. White is chairman, Elder is secretary, and Stephenson, corresponding secretary, Hornbrook, instructor.

“Mr. Chilson, the manager, insisted that I co-operate with them at once, but I showed him it would be impossible until we had more men in the field. They hold their meetings Sunday mornings and insisted that I give them a talk some Sunday, anyway, which I have agreed to do. You will probably hear from Chilson soon.

"Since this visit a course of study has been arranged with Professor Gatherum in charge. This is the only point where work of a University grade is possible."

Stotesbury. The coal company is erecting a splendid building which will include an auditorium, amusement hall, gymnasium, and will be in readiness to organize extension classes in a short while.

Interest at Other Points. Professor Gatherum has visited by invitation a number of communities not mentioned and such visits have almost been invariably followed by urgent requests for extension service. Similar requests are coming from parts of the state not visited. At present we have on file about twenty-five applications in favorable communities which we are unable to grant.

The movement is on trial and the results so far indicate success. If successful there will be little difficulty in securing sufficient appropriations to extend the service to all parts of the state.

PRESIDENT MARSTON.-In accordance with

the motion already passed, we will adjourn until 2:30 this afternoon. There will be time for general discussion on this subject tomorrow morning.

Further, the members of the association will bear in mind that an opportunity will be offered tomorrow, although not announced on the program, for the members to present suggestions about the future of the association. We will know by that time whether we are to be a section of the other organization or not. We will now proceed to the White House.

GENERAL SESSION.

2:30 p. m. The session was resumed at 2:30 o'clock p. m., Dean E. E. Haskell, of New York, in the chair.

CHAIRMAN HASKELL.—We have for our topic this afternoon that of Engineering Experiment Stations, and the first paper is by Mr. C. S. Nichols, of the Iowa State College, who conducted quite an extensive correspondence and investigation to obtain the data from which his paper was prepared.

I think you all know the kind of work he was engaged in, because you received letters from him, and a similar letter was sent to every engineering college in the country, whether land grant college or not, and he has summarized these data.

Mr. Nichols came to Washington on purpose to read his paper, but after arriving here he was called back by a telegram from Iowa, stating that his wife and child were sick. In his absence Dean Turneaure, of Wisconsin, has agreed to present his paper, which gives the results of Mr. Nichols' investigation.

ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATIONS AND ENGINEERING

EXPERIMENTATION WORK.

MR. C. S. NICHOLS, AMES, IOWA.

The object of this paper is to point out, briefly, a few reasons why engineering educational institutions, receiving financial aid from national or state governments, should perform systematic experi. mentation work along engineering and closely allied lines; also to report, in more or less outline form, on the work of this character as it is being carried on in the United States.

Ever since engineering took its stand among the recognized professions, and engineering instruction was introduced into the techni. cal and professional educational institutions, more or less research has been carried on in connection with the instructional work. In the early days (and to a limited extent the same is true as yet) this work was of an intensely scientific character, intended to evolve, supplement, prove or disprove some theory of interest to only a small body of highly trained scientists.

With broadening of the engineering field, however, and the realization on the part of engineering educators that engineering courses should include the practical as well as the theoretical, investigations have naturally come to include some of the practical considerations involved. Instead of concentrating entirely upon the evolution of theories, investigators have also turned their attention to the application of such theories to the everyday, intensely practical work of the engineer. The principles inyolved are in turn made still more practical, and adapted to the commonplace problems of everyday life. While the necessity for highly scientific research still exists, even to a greater extent than formerly, the broader field of applica. tion of results occupies the attention of the rank and file of technical men who must serve the masses in their every day life, in the home as well as in the industries.

Only through co-operative measures can any marked economic, social or industrial improvement be effected in any community. A man living continually and entirely to himself shrivels in mind, body and soul. Personal contact and exchange of ideas, man with men, broadens one's vision, helps him to forget his troubles for these greater ones of his more unfortunate fellows, and fires him with enthusiasm to better the conditions of life as he finds them. This is the history of every great movement. Senator Morrill and his colleagues, through personal observation and the influence of their constituents, became impressed with the need for educational institutions open to those young people throughout the United States who found it impossible to attend the institutions of higher learning as organized and conducted at that time. The various states in turn co-operated with the federal government in the establishment of these colleges, and the people of the states have continued to co-operate in their upbuilding, and in their maintenance.

The Land Grant Colleges filled a long felt want in higher education in the United States. Not only have they opened their doors to all who wanted to take advantage of the opportunities offered,

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