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onable amount for the use of apparatus. This work is usually assigned to a research assistant, although any faculty member is at liberty to perform such tests, and make any charges for his service which may be agreed upon between himself and his client.
In view of the extensive work which has been done by the Illinois Engineering Experiment Station, the standing of the State of Illinois as both an industrial and agricultural state, and the apparently large field for technical service for the various interests involved, the following quotation from Acting Director C. R. Richards' report is interesting:
“There is a question in my mind whether there is any demand from outside interests for an Engineering Experiment Station. It affords an opportunity to scientifically train men to contribute something to the stock of human knowledge in so far as it relates to engineering and the constructive arts by carefully planned research work. I doubt, however, if there is a crying demand from men in the industries for such work. Now that the Station is organized, great interest is expressed by our constituents, and we have many requests for information, and for experimental work that we are able to do.
“At the present time we do not co-operate with the other State Departments in investigational work. We have a State Water Survey with headquarters at the University, which handles matters pertaining to water supply, sewage disposal, etc. This is an entirely separate bureau. It is not even under the supervision of the State Board of Health. The State Highway Commission is independent of the University. Personally I feel that there is grave danger from too intimate relations between the Engineering Experiment Station and the various branches of the state government, although we should, of course, be ready to act as scientific advisers when requests are made for such service.”
IOWA STATE COLLEGE.
The Iowa Engineering Experiment Station was established at the Iowa State College in 1904 by legislative action. $3,500 per year was appropriated for the purpose. This amount was increased on two different later occasions to a total of $10,000 per annum, beginning with 1911. The 35th General Assembly further increased the appropriation to $15,000 per annum, beginning with 1913.
Also in 1904 the legislature appropriated a total of $3,000 per year for Good Roads Experimentation work, which amount was later increased to $10,000 per year, beginning with 1911. Until 1913 this amount, originally appropriated for experimentation, was necessarily used for paying the expenses of Highway Commission work, which had been placed upon the College by the Legislature without any further appropriation. The use of the fund for this purpose was on the advice of the Attorney General. The establishment by the State of a separate Highway Commission as a State Department rather than a college department in 1913 left this fund for real experimen. tation, making a total of $25,000 per year for the experimentation work of the Engineering Department of the College, beginning in 1913, of which $10,000 must be used for good roads experimentation.
It was manifestly in the interests of efficiency and the accomplishment of results that both lines of Engineering Experimentation work should be reorganized so as to prevent all duplication and to secure in all lines of work the advantage of concentrated effort.
Consequently a thorough reorganization of the Engineering Experiment Station work was made in 1913. All the Engineering Laboratories,
including the special equipment in both lines of experimentation, are available for work in both. There are many lines of engineering experimentation which have a bearing both on good roads and other engineering interests. The work has now been systematized, securing to all lines the advantage of a strong central organization.
The work is necessarily carried on in a large number of different laboratories and with the co-operation of a number of different engineering departments. In the past this led to considerable confusion and some lack of system and efficiency. In the new organization a carefully planned system has been introduced and much greater efficiency has been secured.
The Station Staff consists of the following persons:
One Director, receiving a nominal compensation for general supervision;
One Assistant to the Director, devoting 11-20 of his time to the Station work, and in general responsible charge of the details of the administration. He also devotes a considerable part of his time to investigational work, including experimentation and the writing of bulletins.
Six Professors, Heads of Departments, receiving only a nominal compensation for their services in supervising and assisting in the Station work of their different departments.
Two Associate Professors, with duties and remuneration similar to the Heads of Departments;
One Associate Professor, devoting two-fifths of his time to the Good Roads Experimentation Work;
One Industrial Engineer, giving one-half time to the Station work, and half time to the Engineering Extension work in connection with the new Technical Service Bureau.
Five Assistant Engineers, specialists in various lines, devoting full time to the work.
Two Laboratory Assistants, devoting full time to the work.
One Laboratory Instructor, devoting about one-eighth of his time to the work.
Of the total salary roll only $1,500 per year is paid to the eight men other than the Directors whose duties are largely of an administrative character. Every effort is being made to secure actual results in the way of tests and scientific investigations of the largest possible extent with the money expended.
All of the above men and also all of the engineers, professors and instructors in the Division of Engineering are at the service of the Station in connection with the work of the Technical Service Bureau. When they and the members of the regular Station Staff are sent out under the auspices of the Technical Service Bureau work, they are paid only their actual traveling expenses.
However, the greatest part of the work of the Station is being done by the men employed on full time or a large part thereof, and it is becoming necessary to depend mainly upon men of this character. Experiment Station work requires continuous service on the part of those engaged in it to secure the best results.
The work of the Station has naturally followed three very distinct lines, i. e.: Tests and analyses, technical investigations, and expert advice.
Tests and Analyses. The entire Staff and equipment of the Station are available to the industries, local governments and individuals of the State for the purpose of making tests.
The Station has excellent facilities for testing and analyzing samples of cement, concrete, brick, building tile, sewer pipe, drain tile, asphalt and other paving materials, iron, steel, wood, stone, gravel, sand, clay, paints, oils, fuel, water-in fact any of the materials used in manufacturing or construction—and in addition is prepared to make tests of steam engines, boilers, furnaces, pumps, gas engines and electrical appliances. During the past few years the Board of Control of State Institutions has been buying its coal on specifications, and has had the Station analyze a sample from each car delivered to institutions under their control. These institutions use approximately 100,000 tons of coal annually.
The amount of this work has been growing steadily. During the biennial period, 1912-14, the Station performed over 1,200 purely commercial tests and analyses on such materials as clay, cement, concrete materials, building materials, reinforcing, wire, road and paving materials, pipe and tile, ores, pitch, asphalts, oils, silicates, water, coals, paint, iron, steel, gypsum, limestone, etc. This is entirely in addition to a much larger number of laboratory tests incidental to research and investigational projects.
Where such tests and analyses are made for private parties low charges are made, just covering the actual cost of the work. Where such work is of a public nature, such as for State, County or Municipal governments, no charge is made for the time of the regular staff or use of equipment. The municipality having the tests made is expected to pay all transportation charges.
Technical Investigations. As one of its most important functions the Engineering Experiment Station has undertaken for many years, and will continue to undertake in the future, research and investigations of interest and value to the industries and people of Iowa, as need therefore may arise, and in so far as the funds available will permit. To date thirty-seven bulletins have been published on such subjects as: Sewerage and Sewage Disposal; Tests of Iowa Common Brick; Tests of Dry Press Brick Used in Iowa; Steam Generation with Iowa Coals; Hydraulic Dredging; Good Roads Problem in Iowa; Tests of Cement; State Railroad Taxation; Incandescent Lamp Testing; Steam Pipe Covering Tests; Assessment of Drainage Districts; Tests of Iowa Limes; Holding Power of Nails in Single Shear; Effect of Coloring and Water Proofing on Strength and Permeability of Cement Blocks; Improvement of Cement Mortar by Grading the Size of Sand; Determination of Proper Proportions for Mortar and Concrete; Effect of Clay and Reground Cement on Permeability of Concrete and Cement Mortars; Tests of Patent Compounds for Waterproofing Concrete; Change in Volume of Concrete During the Hardening Period; Coefficient of Roughness in Tile Drains; Sanitary Examination of Water Supplies; Sewage Disposal Plants for Private Houses; Electric Power on the Farm; Disintegration of Concrete from Excessive Hydrogen Sulfid; Study of Iowa Population as Related to Industrial Conditions; History of Road Legislation in Iowa; Costs of Producing Power in Iowa with Iowa Coals; Determination of Internal Temperature Range in Concrete Arch Bridges; Theory of Loads on Pipes in Ditches, and Tests of Cement and Clay Drain Tile and Sewer Pipe; A Topographical Survey of the Spirit and Okoboji Lakes Region; House Heating Fuel Tests; The Use of Iowa Gravel for Concrete; Illuminating Power of Kerosenes.
In addition to the above might be mentioned a few of the investigations which are still under way.
Load Distribution on Various types of Highway Bridge Floors. Effect of Moisture and Storage Conditions on Strength of Cement.
Compression Tests of Concrete made from Graded and Ungraded Aggregates. Effect of Retempering on Strength of Concrete. Effect of Sulfated Water on Concrete.
Study of Run-off, Ground Water Flow and Effect on Crops of Farm Drainage.
Effect on Roads and on Run-off Through Culverts of Highway Drainage.
Highway and Rural Economics.
Corrosion Tests on Iron, and Comparative Value of Various Kinds of Iron and Steel for Culverts.
Efficiency Tests of Manufacturing Plants.
Tests, Power Costs and Use of Oil Engines in Electrical Central Stations.
Comparative Tests of Automobile Oils.
Design, Construction and Operation of Municipal Sewage Disposal Plants.
Tests of Concrete Pipe with Various Types of Reinforcement.
Thus it is seen that the investigations undertaken by the Iowa Station are of an original character, having as their principal object the solution of Iowa problems. They serve the double purpose of supplying an immediate much needed solution of a local problem, and also incidentally adding something to the common store of technical knowledge.
Expert Advice. The Iowa Station renders valuable service by giving expert advice along engineering and industrial lines such as operation and maintenance of light, heat, gas, power and pumping plants; factory and shop lighting; choice of power and drive for shops; methods of firing; utilization of waste products, selection of materials and types of construction, etc.
There is very often a time in the early stages of any proposed engineering improvement, before an engineer has been selected, when the authorities are greatly in need of such preliminary technical advice and information as can be supplied only by absolutely impartial and thoroughly competent engineers, who can speak with the recognized standing of the employees of the Engineering Experiment Station. This preliminary service has been found to encourage the usual employment of private or salaried engineers to prepare detailed designs and to supervise construction.
Thus the service is extended to State, County and Municipal officials in connection with the various problems which arise.
Technical Service Bureau. To further systematize and extend the service rendered by the Engineering Experiment Station to Iowa industries, municipalities, counties, state departments and individuals, there has been established a Technical Service Bureau, in co-operation with the Department of Engineering Extension, and in charge of a thoroughly competent and experienced Industrial Engineer. It is planned to conduct what will amount in time to a regular census of the State, so far as concerns industrial organizations, and State, county and municip officials and departments to which service can be rendered. All such service is to be systematized with a thorough system of records and reports co-ordinated with that of the regular Station work.
KANSAS STATE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. The Engineering Experiment Station at this institution was established in 1911 in response to a demand for investigations of the natural resources of Kansas. The Station is as yet, on account of lack of funds, composed of certain members of the industrial staff, who devote all their available time to the work. The men work in close co-operation with the Agricultural Experiment Station, as the problems of Kansas are for the most part directly related to agriculture.
The Station performs tests on oil engines, fuels, gas producers, concrete materials, lubricating oils, etc.; is carrying on investigational work with gas producers and traction engines, concrete construction and road materials, and renders expert advice to other State departments, to municipalities and to individuals.
Manuscripts for several bulletins have been prepared, but are being temporarily held on account of insụfficient funds for publication. They hope to publish several of them this coming winter.
UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS.
This Station was organized in 1908, first, to correlate and group together in a more systematic way the results of scientific investigation that had before been done under the various departments; second, to foster, enlarge, and direct this work, especially along lines of value to the State, and third, to supervise the publication and distribution of the results of engineering and industrial research work.
No special appropriation is made for the work. Its support lies with the separate engineering departments. All members of the instructional staff available for such service are included in the Station Staff.
Considerable work of practical value has been done, including investigations of Kansas building stone, of Kansas stone for macadam roads, of paving brick, of effects of repeated stresses on concrete, of the shearing strength of concrete, of the properties of hydraulic cements, of the purification of sewage, of variations in the flow of sewage, of the waters of the State, both surface and underground, of