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when called upon to do so, are carrying on technical investigations of interest to the State of Montana and are co-operating with other state departments, the industries, and individuals.
UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA.
The University of Nebraska is working toward the establishment of an engineering experiment station by the performance of much experimental work in connection with the industries and resources of the state; by the giving of expert advice, and through co-operation with other state departments. Dean Stout reports that the situation in Nebraska is such as to justify the early establishment of such a Station.
NEW HAMPSHIRE COLLEGE.
Professor Hewitt of New Hampshire College reports that they are making their plans for an Engineering Experiment Station at that institution. Both he and the president are in hearty accord with the idea, and will carry it out as soon as funds become available. Just now they are endeavoring to get into closer touch with the industries of the State so as to make a more detailed study of the needs.
RHODE ISLAND COLLEGE.
For some years the authorities have been endeavoring to interest the industrial interests of Rhode Island in the establishment of a Station. As yet, the results have not been entirely satisfactory. Dean Wales states, however, that he considers this to be a side of the institution which should be developed.
UNIVERSITY OF VERMONT.
In Vermont there is a demand for an Engineering Experiment Station in connection with the development of their natural resources, and their manufacturing industries. The laboratories of the University of Vermont are being used for experimental and investigational work, and the authorities are working in co-operation with the other state departments.
UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON.
A special committee at the University of Washington is now working on a plan for the systematization of their work and the adoption of a co-ordinate policy which will lead to the establishment of an Engineering Experiment Station. Much work of this character is being done in the various departments at the present time.
WEST VIRGINIA UNIVERSITY.
West Virginia University is working toward the establishment of an engineering experiment station in the very near future. In his last biennial report Dean Jones dwelt at some length upon the demand for such work in that State. The real demand arises from the need for co-operation with the state departments, and for special investigations along the lines of public service, roads, geology, mines, etc. At the present time the State Road Bureau, the Board of Health and the Geological Survey are located at the University, and use the University laboratories. Most members of these branches are members of the faculty. Investigational work is also being conducted for the Department of Mines, for the Government, and for the State Geological Survey.
Those institutions carrying on Engineering Experimental work, but laying no plans for a distinct organization.
UNIVERSITY OF IDAHO.
At the University of Idaho the different departments are endeavoring to aid the various interests of the State in every way that their facilities will permit. The mining industry is receiving very close attention, and much research work is being done along this line. They see no opportunity for separate engineering experiment station for some time to come.
UNIVERSITY OF IOWA.
At the State University of Iowa the authorities do not contemplate the establishment of an engineering experiment station. However, they have for years carried on various surveys and investigation.
UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN.
The University of Michigan maintains a hight grade highway experimental laboratory and a sanitary experiment station in connection with its department of Civil Engineering. Both are doing a great service for the State of Michigan along these respective lines. In addition to these two classes of work, the individual members of the instructional staff are actively assisting in the industrial development of the State by the giving of expert advice. They do not plan on establishing an engineering experiment station, but expect to continue their present plans of extending the usefulness of the Department of Engineering to the people and industries of the State.
UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA.
At the University of Minnesota are excellent facilities for engineering experimental work. They have a department of Experimental Engineering, operated as a distinct department with a budget of its own. It is housed in a fine building built and equipped at a cost of something over $100,000. The work is laid out primarily for educational purposes, but the authorities have large schemes for doing experimentation for the various departments of the State of Minnesota and more widely for the people of the United States as a whole. They count on doing much research in addition, without much regard as to the particular community benefited. Special efforts have been put forth in co-operative investigations with the State Highway Commission and the State Board of Control. In conjunction with the Department of Geology a considerable amount of work has been done on the clay products of the State, particularly brick. The available supplies of gravels and broken stone for concrete purposes have been investigated.
NEW MEXICO STATE COLLEGE.
Dean A. F. Barnes of the New Mexico College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts states that they maintain no Engineering Experiment Station and do not look forward to the establishment of one for some time. The State is a new one and the possibilities for industry and manufacturing are just developing. At the present time their instructional work needs all the attention they can give to it, in addition to answering those questions which naturally come to them.
At Clemson Agricultural College there seems to be a need for other things more than an engineering experiment station. Dean Earle reports that a number of technical bulletins have been prepared for distribution through the extension department and that he is endeavoring to prepare others to be sent out through the same channel. Some testing work has been done by the different departments, although this is discouraged, it being thought best to leave this work to commercial laboratories.
CHAIRMAN HASKELL.-I am sure we all regret very much indeed the circumstances which called Mr. Nichols home, and we can assure him that his most excellent paper has been well presented.
The next speaker is Dean A. A. Potter, of the Kansas State Agricultural College.
THE ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION AT THE KANSAS STATE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE.
DEAN A. A. POTTER, MANHATTAN, KANSAS.
The engineering experiment station of the Kansas State Agricultural College was established about three years ago.
The research work which is being carried on or has been completed include:
Tests on a bituminous producer with low grade fuels. 4. Tests on oil engines with low grade fuels.
Traction tests in co-operation with the Office of Public
Tests on farm electric light plants driven by windmills.
Tests on steam and oil traction engines.
Tests on pumps for irrigation.
Tests on paints.
Storage battery tests.
14. Tests on roofing materials.
Tests on belt lacings.
Tests to determine effect of mixture and compression on maximum explosion pressure with various gas engine fuels.
Effect of compression on steam engine economy.
Tests on road materials.
Tests to determine effect of washing coal.
20. Tests on automobile oils.
No special funds were appropriated at any time by the state legislature of Kansas or by the Board of Administration for the work of the engineering experiment station. We succeeded in completing several research problems, but great difficulty is experienced in securing funds for the publication of the results. Only one bulletin has been published thus far and this was done out of the departmental current expenses.
Practically every member of the teaching force in the Division of Engineering at the Kansas State Agricultural College is occupied during his spare time with some problem of research or advanced study. In some cases the instructors were encouraged to publish the results of their research in the technical press or to present such results at meetings of engineering societies.
There probably will not be a very rapid development of the Kansas Engineering Experiment Station within the next few years, unless a part of the general funds now used by the Agricultural Experiment Station and by the Division of College Extension can be deflected towards the engineering experiment station. There is no doubt, however, that the research work which the various departments are carrying on for the engineering experiment station contributes greatly towards the efficiency of the engineering teachers.
CHAIRMAN HASKELL.-The next speaker is Dean F. E. Turneaure, of the University of Wisconsin.
DEAN TURNEAURE.-I have not much to add about the work of Wisconsin, beyond that already given in Professor Nichols' paper. We have been doing quite a bit of research work there for a good many years. We have published some fifty or sixty bulletins, most of them containing results of research work, but perhaps half a dozen consisting of important special lectures. About six or eight years ago we secured from the regents, from the general university funds, an appropriation of $4,000 per year, to promote the research work. This fund has been gradually increased until it is now about $6,500 per year.
The state legislature has done nothing directly for the engineering experiment station, and we do not expect to ask it to do anything for some time to come.
We are getting quite a little assistance from manufacturers of the state in the furnishing of apparatus and material, and are working in co-operation with three or four national engineering societies on special work for committees. We find, in fact, that some of this committee work is the most profitable, from the standpoint of results, of any that we do. The money allotted to this work is expended for research assistants, draughtsmen, clerks, and other expenses of preparing material for publication. None is paid to instructors. Instructors are, however, generally given a reasonable amount of time for research work where they are so situated as to be able to carry on laboratory investigations. We try not to load them up with instruction to such an extent as to prevent them from working out problems of their own in the laboratory.
Perhaps the laboratory that has done most in recent years along this line has been the hydraulic laboratory. We are fortunately situated in having a rather useful hydraulic laboratory for such work. The materials testing laboratory also has done much good work, and our department of chemical engineering has published results of a large amount of work in the publications of electro-chemical and chemical societies.
We find that the slowness with which our University Bulletins Publications are issued is often very discouraging, and some of our best work has come out in publications of various national societies. After considerable discussion of the subject the faculty recommended to the regents that this research work be organized under the title "Engineering Experiment Station." Such a name it was thought would call more distinct attention to our laboratory facilities on the part of the people of the state who may be interested. It is
evident that that is going to be the case. Possibly later it will enable us to get funds more readily.
CHAIRMAN HASKELL.-Dean D. W. Spence, of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas, will continue the discussion.
DEAN SPENCE.-Mr. President and gentlemen. The duty of engineering experiment stations is no doubt to do research work, but my belief is that there are very few states prepared for that work, and that we can do a great deal of good by having these engineering experiment stations in the different states send out information to the industries of those states.
I am receiving constantly inquiries from different parts of Texas regarding certain points that have been covered in the bulletins of the larger engineering experiment stations of the country; but those bulletins are not available to these people, and the bulletins on the same subject issued by the school in the state itself would be available.
In the south, again, we have a condition which very few of you have here, and that is regarding our finances. The Adams fund and the Hatch fund go altogether to the agricultural experiment stations. The Morrill fund goes to the agricultural and mechanical colleges, and we have to divide that up with a similar college for the Negroes. That cuts our appropriation in Texas down just exactly one-fourth. We give to the Negro school, which is under the control of the same board of directors as the agricultural and mechanical college, onefourth of the Morrill fund, which throws us back absolutely on state support. And I think that is true of all the southern institutions. They have very little money for work of this character.
In Texas we have been for years doing work more of a commercial nature than anything else, although we got very little out of it.
One of the most important tests we have made was in connection with the Galveston causeway, a test of the simple connections of the rods tying one side of the causeway to the other. It took us about thirty-six hours to make some tests which showed conclusively that the elongation due to these connections was more than the concrete piles could stand. The data that we got would have made an interesting bulletin, if we had been in a position to issue it at that time.
Other questions are coming before us all the time. So this last year the staff of the engineering faculty got together and concluded that, without any money at all, we would organize the Texas Engineering Experiment Station. We are all pretty well crowded with our teaching work, but we thought that we would put in our time, our spare time, on questions that came up, and possibly the legislature that meets this year might give us some help, so that from that we could go on and after a while amount to something in the way of research work; but we do not expect in the next two or four years to do anything in the line of research work that will amount to very much. It would surprise you, doubtless, too, that the first question that was presented to me after it was advertised over the state that we had formed this experiment station was the question of our getting laws passed. One of the first questions that was sent to me came from the oil fields. They want laws passed covering the drilling and control of oil wells. They do not know how to go about it. They know what they want to accomplish, but they do not know what else they want. They have sent that to me to get up for the next legislature, the laws governing the drilling and control of these wells.
It is true of all of the United States, I think, and I know it is true of the west, because I lived out there for some years, that the