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DEAN BENJAMIN.-Mr. President, I suppose Purdue has at various times received gifts of apparatus with the understanding that the donor should have the benefit of the tests on that apparatus—although I think the locomotive was not given directly; it was given for a nominal price. On the other hand, all of the work that has been done on the locomotive has been published in the proceedings of the Master Mechanics' Association and has become public property. It is not a private gift of technical information to private parties.
I think that at our laboratory we feel free at any time to receive loans or gifts of apparatus for testing purposes, but I should hesitate very much before I should accept a laboratory which would be run under the direction of any private corporation. In all the instances that we have had, the details of testing have been left to us, and the results have become, as a rule, public property.
DEAN STOUT.-If some one here remembers the details of the arrangement existing a number of years ago between the University of Illinois and some of the railroads in respect to the dynamometer car that was used, I think it will appear that that is an instance directly in point. It was used for road work, and my recollection is that it was the joint property of the university and the railroads. Of course it was used on the road, and that meant co-operation in the research work conducted through the medium of that car.
DEAN WALKER.-In the somewhat similar case at the Pennsylvania State College we have a thermal testing laboratory in connection with the engineering school, and one of the manufacturers of insulating materials donated a very substantial amount of such material and possibly some other equipment in connection with the laboratory, with the understanding that we would make for them certain investigations which would be their property; the amount of investigations to be such the charges for which would, if charges were made, equal the amount of the donation. The equipment is open for any educational or investigation work that we wish to make. We may also use it for commercial tests, but with the understanding that if this donor wishes tests made at a certain time and some other commercial organization also wishes tests, that until we have, you might say, paid off the indebtedness, their tests will take precedence over any other commercial tests.
PRESIDENT MARSTON.-In this connection it might be well to call attention to the practice in agricultural engineering by the agricultural implement makers of placing large amounts of agricultural machinery at the disposal of the various land grant colleges, mainly for instruction purposes, but also, in part, as I would suppose, available for experimental use. At the Iowa State College the estimate is that $25,000 worth of such apparatus is kept constantly in the agricultural and engineering department, but replaced from time to time by later machines by the companies which keep it there. I think this practice is quite general. Is there further discussion?
PRESIDENT MARSTON.-I call attention to the meeting this evening at which the Association of American Agricultural Colleges and Experiment Stations will take action on the proposed constitutional amendment providing for merging the Land Grant College Engineering Association with the older association. As I understand it, the proposed amendment creates two new sections of the older association, one of agriculture and one of mechanic arts.
I would suggest that it would be very proper for the members of this association who wish the measure to go through to consult with their presidents and with their brother deans, possibly, on the subject.
At our meeting tomorrow morning we have the adjourned general discussion of the subject of engineering extension, and also a special request has been made that members of the association should make suggestions as to the future of the association, under whatever situ ation we may find ourselves after tonight.
SECRETARY BISSELL.-We have had, I think we may say, three very interesting meetings. The topics have been live ones, and have provoked much discussion and interest. We would like to maintain that record, of course, and we cannot probably forever talk on the same subjects. It would, I am sure, help those who have to frame the programs, to have suggestions from the members as to what the program activities, at least of the association should be.
PRESIDENT MARSTON.-Our first paper this afternoon was to have been by Mr. C. S. Nichols of Iowa. Mr. Nichols came to Washington to read his paper, and went home only after the receipt of a second telegram stating that his wife and boy were very sick. I have just this moment received a telegram from him. He says:
"Both of our sick holding their own. Best of care and hopeful." DEAN SPENCE.-It occurs to me that it would be well for the society to express regret for Mr. Nichols' being called home, and I move you that the president be requested to transmit to Mr. Nichols the regrets of the society and the earnest wish that his family have a speedy recovery.
DEAN BISSELL.-I second the motion.
PRESIDENT MARSTON.-(After a vote.) The motion is carried unanimously, and that will be done.
A motion to adjourn is in order.
DEAN BISSELL.-I move we adjourn until nine o'clock tomorrow morning.
DEAN SPENCE.-I second the motion.
THE PRESIDENT.-The motion is carried.
9:00 A. M.
Friday, November 13, 1914.
PRESIDENT MARSTON.-I presume most of us were over at the meeting last night at which the proposition for admitting the Land Grant College Engineering Association into the general assocation was not decided. I understand this matter will come up again this morning, and it is quite possible, I think even probable, that satisfactory arrangements will be made by which the mechanic arts work will be recognized inside the general association.
I suppose that, before taking any formal action, we can wait further to see if this is the case. One suggestion, in the form of a motion now on the table, is that we proceed to the election of officers and continuation of the present association, but give authority to the executive committee to effect the merger during the year, if affairs take that turn.
President Demarest is representing the interests of our work over there, and some of the representatives of the agricultural departments also seem very favorably disposed, and I think the outcome will be satisfactory all around.
It seems that there is a provision of the present constitution which can be taken advantage of without any amendment of the constitution, and it seemed last night, in conference between the parties, that that might be taken advantage of.
The first thing on our program this morning is a report of the Executive Committee on the definition of "mechanic arts." The Secretary will read the report.
REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE ON THE DEFINITION OF "MECHANIC ARTS."
Washington, D. C., November 13, 1914.
Land Grant College Engineering Association.
Gentlemen:-Your Committee, consisting of the Executive Committee and President R. A. Pearson, appointed in 1913, to draft definitions of Mechanic Arts and of Engineering, beg leave to report as follows:
We recommend the adoption by the Land Grant College Engineering Association of the following definitions:
As applied to technical education, both in the Morrill Land Grant Act and elsewhere, formerly and also at the present time.
Mechanic Arts is a broad educational term, which includes engineering education as its higher or professional phase, trade school and short course instruction as its collateral and extension phase, and experimental and other technical investigation as its research phase.
Engineering is the Professional Phase of Mechanic Arts.
The engineer is the man who directs Mechanic Arts work. To be qualified to direct he must have a thorough technical education as well as extended experience.
Originally the engineer was considered a mere master mechanic, and not until very recently has engineering been accorded general recognition as a real profession. From 1850 to 1875 such recognition was still disputed by perhaps most liberal arts colleges and universities, but a crusade was in progress in favor of Mechanic Arts education as contrasted with the old, classical Liberal Arts college
Your Committee recommend the adoption of the above definitions as the result of an investigation which is summarized below:
The Morrill "Land Grant Act" became a law July 2, 1862. Its special provisions which bear upon the meaning of the term Mechanic Arts are as follows:
Section 4 * * "the interest of which (fund) shall be inviolably appropriated, by each State which may take and claim the benefit of this act, to the endowment, support, and maintenance of, at least, one college, where the leading object shall be, without excluding other scientific and classical studies, and including military tactics, to teach such branches of learning as are related to agriculture and the mechanic arts, in such manner as the Legislatures of the States may respectively prescribe, in order to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes in the several pursuits and professions of life."
Section 5. * * "An annual report shall be made regarding the progress of each college, recording any improvements and experiments made, with their costs and results, and such other matters, including State industrial and economical statistics, as may be supposed useful; * *
These sections of the Morrill Land Grant Act constitute a definition of mechanic arts education which includes three lines of work: Professional engineering collegiate courses; mechanic arts extension work; engineering experiment station work.
The law was at once interpreted to include engineering, since it calls for College and Professional work, and was used immediately to establish such high grade engineering schools as the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Cornell University.
This received the approbation of the author of the law, Senator Justin S. Morrill, who in 1891, just after the passage of the Morrill Act of 1890, granting additional funds for the same purpose, wrote to Professor E. W. Stanton, of Iowa, as follows: * * * * "It is a joy to me to know that the land grant colleges in nearly every state are fully meeting the original purpose, as well as public expectations, and are offering an American system of liberal education to the great masses of our people formerly limited mainly to the instruction offered by Common Schools and Academies. * * * * * * these colleges were not limited to one or two pursuits or professions of life but included many. Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts should be the foremost to be provided with the best instruction of all the ages, but, having this lead, all other branches of liberal learning should not be arrogantly ignored or excluded, and whatever is included should be taught with absolute thoroughness.
The Cornell University, with its abundant endowments, is able to cover a very broad field, and to a long procession of learned pursuits and professions of life it offers the highest instruction to numerous and diverse classes. * * *""
The use of the grants for engineering instruction was also approved by Congress, as was demonstrated by the granting of additional appropriations for the same purpose in the Morrill Act of 1890. The best educational opinion of the times interpreted the law to include engineering. * * Scientific schools not classical col
leges are established by the act. The terms of the law, the explanations of its author, the intent of its supporters, unite in showing this beyond a doubt. Mathematical, physical and natural science, the investigation of the laws of nature are to be the predominant study." (North American Review, October, 1867.)
Besides engineering, for the "professions," the Land Grant Act calls for the "practical" education of the "industrial classes" in the several "pursuits" of life. However, experience in technical education has universally demonstrated that the trade school is necessarily local in character, and that attempts to establish a central trade school to serve a state always fail. Very recently, however, the Land Grant Colleges are successfully meeting this part of their obligation to the state and nation through the development of engineering and trade school extension work.
The Land Grant Colleges are now meeting the obligation laid upon them in Section 5 of the Land Grant Act to conduct and report technical investigations helpful to the industrial classes and the State by the development and formal organization of engineering experiment stations.
Present day practice interpreting the meaning of mechanic arts education is strongly in favor of a very broad and liberal meaning. "How much the phrase mechanic arts can be said to include is a matter which would be very difficult of determination. Perhaps the readiest way would be by an integration of all the subjects taught in departments of mechanic arts in the various universities. seems to us that perhaps applied science comes reasonably near in its scope to the phrase in question,* * * If it is a question of whether certain subjects are wrongfully placed in the department of mechanic arts, we should say that present day usage sanctions the inclusion of almost anything in the nature of science or handi
craft in such a department. Letter from G. & C. Merriam Company, publishers of Webster's Dictionary since 1843. 20, 1913.
The United States Commissioner of Education has ruled officially that the following subjects may be included under the head of mechanic arts in the reports of the treasurers of the Land Grant Colleges. (Federal Laws, Regulations, and Rulings affecting the Land Grant Colleges of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, 1911.)
Schedule B. Instruction in mechanic arts.
1. Mechanical engineering. 2. Civil engineering.
3. Electrical engineering.
4. Irrigation engineering. Mining engineering. Marine engineering.
7. Railway engineering.
8. Experimental engineering.
In addition to the above subjects a large number of others are listed in the government regulations (in four other schedules) which are also taught to Mechanic Arts students. Manifestly the exact subjects which should be taught under the head of Mechanic Arts must vary with progress in such arts.
The term Mechanic Arts is not derived from the word “Mechanics” as used to mean artisans, but goes back to its use in connection with the laws of mechanical science, as distinguished from the laws of grammar, logic, philosophy, etc., which the ancients thought higher; an opinion not admitted by the moderns.
A correct, concise definition of Mechanic Arts as arts is:
The Mechanic Arts are those arts which are characterized by applications of the science of mechanics.
The use of the term Mechanic Arts in standard literature dates back to Francis Bacon, 1561-1626. The term was first applied to machine devices. (Letter from the Lexicographer, Literary Digest, 1913.)
"The Mechanick Art is a Science which contemplates about the quantities of moving Forces, and the times in which the motion is made." Mechanick-Powers. Venturus Mandey and James Moxon, London, 1696.
"Most of what are usually called the Mechanic Arts are partly mechanical and partly chemical." Webster's Dictionary, 1848. (Copyright date, 1847-on title page, 1848.)
"Journal of the Franklin Institute of the State of Pennsylvania, for the promotion of the Mechanic Arts, devoted to Mechanical and Physical Science, Civil Engineering, the Arts and Manufactures, and the Recording of American and other Patent Inventions." Title of the Journal for 1857. Philadelphia.
"Mechanics, Applicate or Applied, is a term which, strictly speaking, includes all applications of the principles of abstract mechanics to human art, * * Encyclopedia Brittanica, 1857, American
Reprint. Little, Brown & Co., Boston.
"The mechanic arts are those which comprehend the means of promoting and facilitating the necessities of existence." The American Encyclopedia, 1859-63.
"Mechanical Art is most easily distinguished from fine art by the character of its products: those of fine art represent ideas, those of mechanical art answer purposes; the former result in a gratifica