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structor in the college. In some cases, however, the examinations are prepared or approved at the college before they are given to extension classes.
To show better the methods of the Pennsylvania State College in conducting engineering extension work, I am going to give you a little of the history of its development and the methods of co-operation we adopt to suit local conditions.
The Engineering Extension Division of Pennsylvania State College has now finished another year of most successful effort, particularly as regards state-wide activities. Although the School of Engineering in the College has been conducting extension classes most successfully, since 1909, no definite appropriation was made by the trustees of the college for this work until late in the summer of 1913. In 1909 an engineering extension school was established in Williamsport, Pa., "for the teaching of mechanics and other elementary practical branches which underlie industrial processes."* This school was at first entirely supported by the School of Engineering, but it was so successful, and its usefulness so generally appreciated, that it was very soon incorporated into the public school system of Williamsport. About the same time a school for apprentices was established in the Altoona shops of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company. Very soon similar apprentice schools were established by the School of Engineering in the shops of the same company in Philadelphia and Harrisburg. During this period (19091913) the School of Engineering was engaged, however, in many other college extension activities. Probably the most important of these was the giving of a series of "practical lectures upon useful topics relating to engineering and the industries" dealing with the subjects of fuel economy, smoke prevention, and highway maintenance and construction. The “Good Roads" car of the Pennsylvania State College which was sent to all parts of the Pennsylvania railroad system in this state during the winter of 1911-1912 is a pleasant memory of the activities along these lines at that time.
In the fall of 1913 with the assistance of a special appropriation from the funds provided by House Bill No. 1,309, and also a special appropriation from the general budget of the School of Engineering, the organization of engineering extension classes was started in various other parts of the state. This work was very much assisted by the wide spread interest which had been developed in the state as a result of a trip made to the state of Wisconsin during the winter of 1912-1913 by a delegation of influential citizens of Pennsylvania, who had gone there to investigate the educational and legislative methods known popularly as the "Wisconsin idea." The reports of this delegation were published widely in the newspapers, particularly in the eastern part of the state, and there was much discussion as to the applicability of these methods in Pennsylvania. It will be remembered that at least one educator holding a very important collegiate position in another institution in our state, in fact, the president of one of our large universities, stated that “We had nothing to learn from Wisconsin.” At State College, however, we believed there was something to learn, and that we had learned. ACcordingly, it was decided to promote the extension classes of the School of Engineering on the lines adopted in Wisconsin, with practical modifications as might be suggested to suit industrial conditions in Pennsylvania. In distinction from the Wisconsin practice,
* John Price Jackson in Report of the President of the Pennsylvania State College, 1909-1910.
it was decided that none of the money appropriated would be used to pay rent for offices or class rooms, and that the taking of courses by correspondence would not at first be particularly encouraged. Later I shall refer to this again. The work of the Engineering Extension Division has, therefore, been developed along the lines, almost entirely, of actual class work in charge of a competent instructor, which is frequently supplemented by lectures by the faculty of the School of Engineering.
As a result of a prolonged discussion of the merits of the "Wisconsin idea," Philadelphia became a particularly fruitful field for these extension classes, and with the co-operation of the Central Young Men's Christian Association, extension classes of the School of Engineering were started in four large industrial establishments in the city. About the same time equally important engineering extension classes were started in Allentown, Connellsville, Erie, Chester, Harrisburg, Johnstown, Pittsburg, Pottstown, Sunbury and Tyrone. More recently engineering extension classes have also been organized in Berwick, Coatesville, Lancaster Lebanon, Oil City, Scranton, Warren, Wilkes-Barre, and York. Before December 1st a number of other engineering extension classes will be established in the industrial cities and towns in Pennsylvania.
In all this work of organization it was very necessary to keep the expenses, for which the college was responsible, as low as possible. With this object in view, it has been the policy of the Engineering Extension Division to utilize in the greatest possible measure all available existing services. Very many of the engineering extension classes are, therefore, conducted in the various cities and towns in co-operation with some well established organization, preferably one having at its disposal rooms suited for educational purposes.
In most cases salaries of teachers are not guaranteed. As a general a fee of $5 is charged each student for a course of twenty lessons in these classes. It is undesirable to have more than from fifteen to twenty students in a class and the average number of students in one of these classes at a time is about twelve. By giving the teacher the total amount of fees collected he receives about $60 for twenty lessons, or about $3 per lesson, each of which takes usually about two hours of his time in the classroom.
The details of the method adopted for organizing these engineering extension classes may be said to vary widely in different districts, depending on local conditions. In Philadelphia, for example, classes are conducted in suitably arranged rooms in the shops where the men work. Some of these are day classes, and some are night classes. In some of the day classes, the employer pays the full wage for the time the men spend in these classes. In other cases the company pays for one-half the time the men spend in class. For example, in one case, the men ordinarily quit work at 5:30 p. m. Here the class work begins at 5 p. m., and the men are paid for their time from 5 p. m. to 5:30 p. m., while they spend one-half hour or an hour more on their own time. When the classes are held at night the company pays nothing towards the cost of instruction, but provides the classroom.
Another typical example is the class conducted at Tyrone which is taught by an instructor from the college. This class meets on Friday evenings in a room in one of the storehouses of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company, fairly well equipped for educational work. Since in this case the School of Engineering provides the teacher, the fees collected are used to pay his traveling expenses, and any surplus goes into the general funds. This is a night school conducted
almost entirely for the benefit of the employes in the Tyrone shops of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company. It is conducted on an entirely different basis from the apprentice schools in the shops of the same railroad company at Altoona, Harrisburg and Philadelphia. In these apprentice schools the cost of instruction is paid by the railroad company, and the classes are conducted only during the day, being open to young men only who are serving their time as apprentices in the shops of the company.
The Williamsport school has been referred to before as being the pioneer, established originally at the expense of the college, but which is now conducted in co-operation with the Engineering Extension Division by the school board of that city.
In Connellsville there is still another arrangement. The extension classes there are conducted in co-operation with the West Penn Railway Company, and are intended primarily for its employes. The class meets in the office building of the company, and each member pays his share of the cost of instruction.
A most successful school was started last year at Allentown, where there have been enough students enrolled in the engineering extension classes to make it possible to employ a resident instructor who has had several years of practical experience along mechanical lines and is a graduate of the engineering department of our college. In this case the classes meet in the Stevens' Building in Allentown and are conducted in co-operation with a committee composed of prominent and public spirited citizens of the city. It is planned to extend the work in the Allentown district to nearby towns, such as Catasauqua, Easton and Emaus. The engineering extension classes in that city are being developed particularly with the idea of giving men instruction and preparing them for the textile and cement industries.
In Johnstown the engineering extension classes are conducted in co-operation with the Cambria Steel Co., Loraine Steel Co., Young Men's Christian Association, and the public night schools. By this method of co-operation, it is planned to avoid duplication of courses by the various interests mentioned. Some of the engineering extension classes will be given in the library of the Cambria Steel Co., while others will be given in the Y. M. C. A. Building. The Loraine Steel Co. has offered to pay the fees for instruction of their employes enrolling in our courses, and the Cambria Steel Co. has appropriated $1,000.
I should add that this week engineering extension classes are being organized at the Steelton plant of the Pennsylvania Steel Co. with the active co-operation of the company. The instructors have been appointed by the company and it is likely they will assume the entire financial burden.
The engineering extension classes in Erie were first promoted by the Board of Trade and the Chamber of Commerce. A year ago neither of these organizations had a building of its own, and it was decided to start these classes in the new Young Men's Christian Association Building, which has just been finished. Very ample provision had been made for educational classes in this new building. There has been very great interest in our extension classes in Erie, and the educational secretary of the Y. M. C. A. has entered enthusiastically into the promotion of the work. Besides the usual elementary courses which are offered in other cities, a special course in scientific shop management and accounting has been organized under the direction of Mr. E. P. Selden, a very prominent and public spirited citizen of Erie, and vice-president of the Erie City Iron Works.
Arrangements have been made for the professor of industrial engineering in the college to go to Erie once a month to give lectures on this subject, supplementing thus the regular work of this class. A number of the most prominent manufacturers, managers and superintendents in the city are members of this class.
A somewhat similar arrangement is to be made at Warren where the engineering extension classes are to be organized in co-operation with the city Board of Trade with the idea of developing this kind of educational work for shop men, and after showing the advantages of such classes, it is hoped that they will be supported by the board of education of the city.
At present there is only one person devoting his entire time to the Engineering Extension Division of the College, and this man has been assigned to the promotion of practical engineering classes for shop men in the eastern part of our state. Although he has been in the employ of the college only a very few months, he has done remarkably good work in organizing classes in Berwick, Philadelphia and West Chester.
In addition to the above the plans of the Extension Division for the future include the establishment of engineering extension schools at the Western Penitentiary in Pennsylvania. It is believed that the kind of practical industrial education given in the courses developed by the Extension Division should be particularly useful to the "honor" men at this penitentiary.
The Extension Division of the School of Engineering in co-operation with the Extension Department of the School of Agriculture is actively promoting the establishment of model rural schools, particularly of the one-room class in which vocational education is an important part of the course of study. Considerable progress has been made in the organization of such schools in co-operation with the normal schools at Edinboro and Loch Haven. There should be a score of such schools in our state conducted under the supervision of the extension departments of the college. The Engineering Extension Division also visited from time to time the normal schools in the state, advising them particularly in regard to their courses in the manual arts.
It is probable that the School of Engineering could perform no better service for the benefit of the industries of the state than to provide practical demonstrators to travel about the state and give practical demonstrations in boiler rooms of modern machines and firing. It is generally conceded that there is no part of the industrial establishment receiving so ttle attention as the boiler room. Such demonstrators should be provided with draft gauges, water meters, steam flow meters, pyrometers and thermometers. With the help of these instruments they can show immediately the improvement in operation due to closing up the holes in the setting through which air is leaking. The requirements for better combustion and the suitableness of the grate and coal which is being used. Important educational work can also be done for the industrial population of the state with the help of moving pictures of the kinds which are now available.
In discussing organization I should probably give you an idea of the “talking points" used in our advertising literature. One of these pamphlets starts off as follows:
“The essential idea back of this extension work is to give an opportunity for an education to all the people of the state. The Pennsylvania State College through the generous aid of the last Legislature
has entered upon a systematic campaign of extending industrial education to working people in their homes.
Every employed man knows he needs a certain training for the job higher up. Every executive realizes that his most serious problem is the inefficiency of his employes. We all regret that too many children, by force of circumstances, must drop out of school before they have sufficient schooling.
Briefly, it is necessary to bring together the school and the industries—to unite the theory of the teacher with the practice of the shop—to combine thinking with physical work-in other words to put brains (but not theory alone) into our daily tasks. The real object of this movement is to teach men who are earning their daily wages the "why" as well as the "how;" to do away with rule of thumb methods and to make men more useful and consequently more valuable.
The following courses of study in practical engineering for shop men are offered through the various “centers” of the Engineering Extension Division. As a rule there are twenty lessons for each subject or course in each of the outlines, and a man working conscientiously can complete one of the longer courses of study in three or four years. I. Mechanical Engineering:
1. Shop Applications of Arithmetic.
14. Locomotive Operation. II. Electrical Engineering:
1. Shop Applications of Arithmetic. 2. Shop Applications of Algebra, Geometry and Trigonometry. 3. Shop Sketching. 4. Practical Electricity. 5. Electrical Wiring. 6. Dynamo-electric Machinery. 7. Alternating Current Machinery. 8. Advanced Alternating Current Machinery. 9. Electric Traction. 10. Steam Boilers. 11. Steam Engines and Steam Turbines.
12. Gas Engines and Gas Producers. III. Civil Engineering:
1. Shop Applications of Arithmetic.