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9. Water Supply.
12. Steam Boilers, Engines and Turbines. IV. Industrial Engineering and Education: 1. Industrial Accounts (including Cost and Stores Account
5. Principles of Education. There were two reasons why it was decided to do very little in our extension work by correspondence. In the first place some of our advisers thought that by giving this work by correspondence it would be cheapening engineering education.
In the second place, as you probably all know, there is already a very strong correspondence school in the State of Pennsylvania.
(The author presented specimens of advertising literature used in various localities to stimulate interest in the work. Those interested can doubtless obtain copies by writing to Professor Moyer.- ED.)
PRESIDENT MARSTON.—This is an extremely interesting report from Professor Moyer, and there will later be an opportunity for general discussion of all these papers on extension work. The formal discussion is now in order, and we will hear, first, from Dean Ferris, of the University of Tennessee.
ORGANIZATION FOR ENGINEERING EXTENSION.
DEAN C. E. FERRIS, KNOXVILLE, TENNESSEE.
By her climate, mineral and timber resources, great coal deposits and abundant water power, proximity to the agricultural states bordering on the Atlantic and Gulf, Tennessee is destined to maintain great manufacturing interests. But at this time there is not an educational force in the state of grade between the university and the high school, working for the men who require technical training. Our young men enter the industrial army as privates or a small number by good fortune of both are permitted to train for leadership at the State University. Between these extremes there must be hosts of young men who need a part of the training the university can offer, who cannot afford the time or money to take all.
It is to meet the definite needs of these men that President Ayres and the engineering faculty are endeavoring to offer extension courses in engineering, and by this I wish to include short courses, night classes and correspondence courses.
All our problems are local, and call for solution to meet local needs and possibilities. It was our hope to begin extension teaching this year with men specially selected and detailed for this work. However, shortage of funds made this impossible. Supported by the enthusiasm of members of our engineering faculty who were willing to help launch this new enterprise, we have begun extension teaching in a small way, with no additional funds even to pay printing and postage.
Through the courtesy of the Extension Department of the University of Wisconsin whose books and courses we are allowed to use, about fifteen courses are now available.
At three places the State University teachers meet classes
night each week. The students do their work at home but come together for individual and class instruction. As the work grows as we hope it will, arrangements have been made to call in some of our graduates to assist at these night sessions and to correct student papers.
The real problem has been to put this on a working basis without funds, as everything done this year in the line of extension teaching must be self-supporting. We charge a fee of 50 cents per lesson or assignment. The books and instruction papers will cost about ten cents per assignment. The men taking part in this extension work are paid three-fourths of the amount received in fees. No one considers that this is sufficient pay for the services rendered, but as the younger men are naturally the one who find it possible to take up additional work, they do not look with disdain on the small amount of pay thus secured. No man is taking more than one night each week, and the effort does not appear as a burden, or to interfere with regular teaching. Indeed the university teacher of engineering is always suffering from lack of touch with the world of practice, and to go out among the shop men and learn their needs, their viewpoint and feel their keen desire for learning, the simple theory which to the college man is commonplace, is refreshing. I never get this personal touch without feeling that I have perhaps received more than I have given.
There is much interest in engineering extension among the manufacturers of Tennessee. The State Association of Manufacturers has a strong committee to take the matter to the legislature and urge state support along the general line proposed for agricultural extension made possible by the Smith-Lever bill. The University of Tennessee is making a small beginning. The state papers are talking about it. We are getting as many students as we can carry without special teachers and perhaps best, we are getting some experience that will be valuable when the work takes larger proportions.
PRESIDENT MARSTON.—Dean Ferris has the same problem which confronts us all. The formal discussion will be continued by Dean Scrugham, of the University of Nevada.
DEAN J. G. SCRUGHAM, RENO, NEVADA.
In most of the papers presented here on the subject of engineering extension the underlying idea has been service to the state or of response to a definite demand. We were led into extension work in Nevada by the most impelling of human motives—the instinct of self-preservation.
In the vast, sparsely populated states, the law of supply and demand is more supreme than elsewhere. If there is no demand for our services we are cut off from the necessary financial nutriment which we deem desirable for our progress and well-being. We deal with a more or less adventurous people. They have come to these wide areas, partly because they were possessed of the spirit of the Argonauts, but chiefly because they were seeking immediate financial betterment. People of this kind are not ordinarily clamorous for higher education, but nevertheless will support it most liberally when it is presented to them in a manner which arouses their interest.
We have the same problems, I believe, in Nevada, Idaho, Montana, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, and probably in all of the inter-mountain districts. We are all well acquainted with the skillfully created demand for agricultural extension which has been engendered through the propaganda of the various agricultural organizations. When I went to Nevada, some eleven years ago, it was a primary necessity to create a local demand for our gradutes if we were to prosper. We had a very small school, only fifteen or twenty mechanical engineering students and practically no demand for their services when they were graduated.
Our first opportunity came in 1904, when the Southern Pacific company built repair shops near Reno, employing some 600 men. Before the shops were completed we took up the matter of an extension school with Mr. Julius Kruttschnitt, then general manager of the Southern Pacific company. Through his courtesy and that of J. F. Dunn, superintendent of motive power, we were supplied with a small shed near the shops in which we were permitted to give instruction. I held a class there twice a week, starting with 36 men, chiefly apprentices. Most of these men apparently did not want to come, but in order to make a showing with their general manager, who had so kindly shown an interest in their education, the foremen practically forced them to attend.
Incidentally, I might digress here to say that I do not believe that the best results can be obtained by night work. History records a good many instances where men have achieved eminent distinction by studying far into the night over dimly lighted lamps, but I am convinced that unless it was something remarkable and unusual, history would not have recorded it. I do not think we can get the desired results from mechanics and apprentices with night work. After nine or ten hours of grueling hard labor, such as they go through, workmen are not in a mentally responsive condition. All of our extension classes are now held during the daylight hours and the results have been eminently satisfactory. Night classes are most useful as an entering wedge, but at first opportunity should be changed to day classes.
On the tenth anniversary of the organization of our extension school we held an apprentice instructor's convention at the University, attended by delegates from each of the Southern Pacific system shops and representatives from the Oregon Short Line, the Union Pacific and the Santa Fe. When we heard the inspiring talks of these men we felt like all the work we had done was more than amply repaid; and I felt a trifle ashamed of myself that we had done so little when the opportunities had been so great. As compared with what had been accomplished on the Santa Fe and other systems through the agency of their apprentice supervision, we felt like crude amateurs.
I shall not take any more time to describe these schools as they have them everywhere now. We went through the bumps some ten years ago, and they were often hard ones. We received no compensation for the extra work and the men were suspicious of anything which had the approval of the management. We had rocks thrown at the instructors and had the classroom windows smashed because of differences of opinion as to what constituted approved work. However, we kept plugging at them and now several hundred interested boys and men are enrolled in the various schools. The University of Nevada still maintains an interest in them in that our shop superintendent is apprentice supervis
one of largest shops. Some of the best University students we have had, have come from these schools. The next line in which we attempted to find an outlet for our energies was with the mines using electric power. They have to have a pretty good electrical foreman in each mine, who is usually paid at least $5 a day, $150 to $200 per month being the customary salary. The mines were sending east for men and we found here a ready outlet for some of our graduates. As a preliminary step we organized a State Electrical Association, consisting of these principal electricians, superintendents and mine managers. It was very difficult to get them interested, but we finally succeeded in doing it. The superintendent and managers were all invited to present papers, and just prior to the meeting we had a vigorous beating of the tom-toms, and notices in the newspapers that superintendent so-and-so and chief electrician so-and-so would give an address. We made it a point to find out what they had done that was specially worthy of notice and asked them to talk on that subject. In this way we have brought to light some very meritorious devices that have been worked up in various plants.
The Journal of Electricity, Power and Gas, of San Francisco, have kindly published most all the proceedings of the meetings, and it pleases these people to have their work brought before the public and appreciated. Each man feels that he is well repaid for attending the meetings and preparing discussions. He becomes something more than a local personage. The benefit to the student is even more marked. In capacity of host, he comes in more or less close personal contact with the visiting employer of technical help. We think that we are serving the best interests of all concerned by broadening their outlook.
Incidentally, we have utilized the motion picture to a good deal of advantage for outside instruction. Various manufacturing companies of the country have loaned us films, and we have purchased a projecting machine from a moving picture theater for a low price. By the use of this outfit we have interested a large number of people in subjects taught at our engineering schools. However, the most effective opening which we have had to bring us in contact with presidents and superintendents and other high industrial officials, has been in the propagation of the safety movement. Possibly it is “slopping over" to a certain extent, but we found it absolutely the most effective method of interesting the highest industrial officials. I got the idea here last year at a conference in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, organized by one of the founders of this association. After reading over the papers delivered there and noting the remarkable public interest displayed, I took the matter up with the governor of our state, requesting him to call a similar conference to meet at the University of Nevada. We have had a great many accidents around the metal mines and there have been many lives lost. Incidentally I might add that Nevada is almost entirely an industrial state, and its chief industry is mining. Some of the companies employ as many as 2,000 men, and the hazards are rather numerous. In spite of the fact that we have the most sparsely populated state in the Union, when the conference met we had some 600 people in attendance. Mr. Julius Kruttschnitt, Chairman of the Executive Board of the Southern Pacific, sent one of his chief clerks out from New York to represent him, and the road spent about $2,000 in erecting a booth and making an exhibit in our gymnasium, illustrating the industrial safety methods of the Southern Pacific Company. With the assistance of the State Industrial Commission, the State Mine Inspector, and other agencies of government, we brought pressure to bear on practically every corporation in the state until they promised to send one or more representatives to the conference. The idea, of course, primarily was selfish-we wanted to interest them in our engineering school, but we had something to offer them in return. We were presenting discussions on industrial safety and of methods whereby they could save money and the lives of their employes.
The papers presented have been published, and they cover quite a wide range. All were live topics of general interest to the people of the state. The railway brotherhoods of the West had been agitating for a law requiring 1,500 candle power head-lights (measured without a reflector) on every locomotive in operation, and more than 1,000 locomotives were affected in our district. These head-light sets, I think, cost some $300 apiece, making a necessary expenditure of $300,000 on the part of the railways concerned. I put this down as one of the subjects to be offered for discussion at the conference.
Immediately there was a remarkable response from the railway brotherhoods. They sent in their legislative representatives from a great many lodges, mostly very able and interesting men. The management of the railways were even more interested; they sent their leading mechanical officials to represent them in the discussions. The Sou rn Pacific kindly loaned us special trains and locomotives and a portion of the conference was devoted to practical tests and demonstrations.
At the conclusion of the conference the engineering students were able to provide a big banquet for the visitors and we had all the eloquent speakers in the neighborhood on hand, who were apparently glad of an opportunity to display their oratorial talents. The affair went off with a great deal of snap and made everybody want to come again.
In order to further propagate the safety movement, we organized a state industrial association with the governor of the state at the head. This association is made up of most of the mining, railroad and power companies operating in Nevada, and they each pay from $5 to $25 a year to support it. The Southern Pacific, the Western Pacific, the Nevada Consolidated Copper, the Goldfield Consolidated mines, and similar large companies all pay $25, scaling down to $5 for labor organization membership. Each one sends a representative to the committee meetings. The recommendations of this committee along certain lines will probably be adopted by the state legislature in the framing of laws. I am pleased to say that they accept the advice of the University engineering school in formulating such measures.
We have apparently secured a marked decrease in the loss of life and property in the state. This is, of course, entirely due to the efforts of various companies involved and not to be credited to any special group of persons.
The United States Bureau of Mines loaned us a car with two trainers for the organization of first aid and mine rescue work. We later corresponded with Major Patterson, the officer in charge of the Red Cross first aid, and he loaned their instruction car with trainer for use in the railroad shops and power plants.
We started out after the University closed in June, with systematic first aid work in every shop, power plant and mine in the state. I might say that I have never spent a more pleasant or interesting vacation in my life. We really got the men interested and made them feel that the State University was interested in their lives and their work. The Fourth of July is often the occasion for one grand round of alcoholic hilarity in the big camps. At Ely there are nearly 2,000 foreigners, chiefly employed in the Nevada Consolidated Copper Company pits and smelters; at this point we held a district contest between nine teams as celebration of the nation's