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Committee to consider and report respecting the Legislative Department:

Messrs. Johnson, Presstman, Kilgour, Carter.
Phelps, Morgan, McCullough,

Committee to consider and report respecting Judiciary Department, embracing Common Law Courts, Courts of Equity, Orphans’ Courts, JMagistrates’ Courts, and Justices of the Peace, and the mode of appointment and tenure of office:

Messrs. Bowie, Randall, Constable, Schley,
*Thomas, Stewart, Brent, Eccleston,
Chrisfield, of Balt., of Charles, Anderson.
Buchanan, Ricaud, Spencer,

Committee to consider and report respecting the affice of JAttorney-General and his

Deputies: Messrs. Shriver, Brewer, Miller, Colston. Dalrymple, Fiery, Cockey, Committee to consider and report respecting future amendments and revisions of the Constitution: . Messrs. Sollers, Jacobs, Gaither, o Welsh.

Fitzpatrick, Sappington, Hardcastle,

Committee to consider and report a proper basis of Representation in the two Houses of the General Assembly, and a proper apportionment of representation in the same:

Messrs. Merrick, Chambers, of Kent, Lloyd, Harbine,
Howard, Gwinn, Ege, John Dennis, Kent.

Committee to consider and report respecting the Regulation of Inspections:
Messrs. Sellman, M, Newcomer, Ware, Chambers,
Hopewell, Fooks, Annan, , of Cecil.

Committee to consider and report such provisions proper to be embodied in a Constitution for the State, as are not embraced in the foregoing resolutions:

Messrs. Jenifer, Dorsey, Blackistone, Johnson,
McLane, Brent, of Balt. Grason.

- Committee of Revision: Messrs. Tuck, Chambers, Grason, Randall, Magraw. JAfterwards added: Messrs. Donaldson, Gwinn.

Committee to consider and report respecting the Militia and JMilitary Affairs:

Messrs. Howard, Shower, Dickinson, Schley.
Hearn, Bond, Stephenson,

Committee to consider and report respecting Education:

Messrs. Smith, Magraw, Chandler, George.

Davis, McCubbin, McMaster,

Committee on Printing: -
Messrs. Stewart, Bowie, Johnson, Ricaud,
of Balt. Randall, Spencer, Weber.

* Mr. Thomas was excused at his own request from continuing a member of this Committee, and Mr. Morgan was appointed in his place.

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WHICH ASSEMBLED AT THE CITY OF ANNAPOLIS, ON THE FOURTH DAY OF
NOVEMBER, EIGHTEEN HUNDRED AND FIFTY, AND ADJOURNED ON THE
THIRTEENTH DAY OF MAY, EIGHTEEN HUND RED AND FIFTY-ONE.

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We, the People of the State of Maryland, grateful to Almighty God for our civil and religious liberty, and taking into our serious consideration the best means of establishing a good Constitution in this State, for the sure foundation and more permanent security thereof, declare :

ARTICLE 1. That all government of right or originates from the people, is founded in com- ment pact only, and instituted solely for the good of the whole; and they have at all times, according to the mode prescribed in this Constitution, the unalienable right to alter, reform, or abolish Right of Reform. their form of government, in such manner as they may deem expedient.

ART. 2. That the people of this State ought state's Rights. to have the sole and exclusive right of regulating the internal government and police thereof.

ART. 3. That the inhabitants of Maryland common Law. are entitled to the common law of England, 2 Md. 429.

and the trial by jury according to the course Trial by Jury, o

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English Statutes,

Acts of Assembly

Charter of the
State.

Right of Reform.

Right of Suffrage,

of that law, and to the benefit of such of the
English statutes as existed on the fourth day
of July, seventeen hundred and seventy-six,
and which, by experience, have been found ap-
plicable to their local and other circumstances,
and have been introduced, used and prac-
tised by the courts of law or equity, and also
of all acts of Assembly in force on the first
Monday of November, eighteen hundred and
fifty, except such as may have since expired,
or may be altered by this Constitution, subject,
nevertheless, to the revision of, and amend-
ment or repeal by the Legislature of this State;
and the inhabitants of Maryland are also en-
titled to all property derived to them from or
under the charter granted by his Majesty
Charles the First, to Caecilius Calvert, Baron
of Baltimore. -
ART. 4. That all persons invested with the
Legislative or Executive powers of govern-
ment, are the trustees of the public, and as
such accountable for their conduct; where-
fore, whenever the ends of government are
perverted, and public liberty manifestly en-
dangered, and all other means of redress are
ineffectual, the people may, and of right ought
to reform the old or establish a new govern-
ment. The doctrine of non-resistance against
arbitrary power and oppression is absurd, sla-
vish and destructive of the good and happiness
of mankind. -
ART. 5. That the right of the people to par-
ticipate in the Legislature is the best security
of liberty, and the foundation of all free gov-
ernment; for this purpose elections ought to

be free and frequent, and every free white male citizen having the qualifications prescribed by the Constitution, ought to have the right of suffrage. ART, 6. That the legislative, executive and judicial powers of government ought to be forever separate and distinct from each other; and no person exercising the functions of one of said departments, shall assume or discharge the duties of any other. ART. 7. That no power of suspending laws, or the execution of laws, unless by or derived from the Legislature, ought to be exercised or allowed. ART. 8. That freedom of speech and debate or proceedings in the Legislature, ought not to be impeached in any court of judicature. ART. 9. That Annapolis be the place for the meeting of the Legislature; and the Legislature ought not to be convened or held at any other place but from evident necessity. ART. 10. That for the redress of grievances, and for amending, strengthening and preserving the laws, the Legislature ought to be frequently convened. ART. 11. That every man hath a right to petition the Legislature for the redress of grievances in a peaceable and orderly manner. ART. 12. That no aid, charge, tax, burthen, or fees, ought to be rated or levied, under any pretence, without the consent of the Legislature. ART. 13. That the levying of taxes by the poll is grievous and oppressive, and ought to be abolished; that paupers ought not to be assessed for the support of Government, but

Separation of the Departments of Government.

2 Md., 341,

do, 429.

Suspension of
8.W.S.,

Freedom of
Speech.

Seat of Govern-
Islent,

Meeting of Legislature.

Right of Petition.

Levying of
Taxes.

Poll taxes oppressive.

Paupers not to be taxe d.

Taxation accord-
ing to actual
worth.
Fines, &c.

Sanguinary
Laws,

Retrospective
Laws.

Attainder.

Right to have justice.

Trial of facts where they arise.

Criminal Prosecutions.

every other person in the State, or person
holding property therein, ought to contribute
his proportion of public taxes, for the support
of Government, according to his actual worth
in real or personal property; yet fines, duties,
or taxes may properly and justly be imposed
or laid, on persons or property, with a political
view, for the good government and benefit of
the community.
ART. 14. That sanguinary laws ought to be
avoided as far as is consistent with the safety
of the State; and no law to inflict cruel and
unusual pains and penalties ought to be made
in any case, or at any time hereafter.
ART. 15. That retrospective laws, punishing
acts committed before the existence of such
laws, and by them only declared criminal, are
oppressive, unjust and incompatible with lib-
erty; wherefore, no ex post facto law ought to
be made.
ART. 16. That no law to attaint particular
persons of treason or felony, ought to be made
in any case, or at any time hereafter.
ART. 17. That every free man, for any injury
done to him in his person or property, ought
to have remedy by the course of the law of
the land, and ought to have justice and right,
freely without sale, fully without any denial,
and speedily without delay, according to the
law of the land. .
ART. 18. That the trial of facts where they
arise, is one of the greatest securities of the
lives, liberties, and estate of the people.
ART. 19. That in all criminal prosecutions,
every man hath a right to be informed of the

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