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accusation against him; to have a copy of the
indictment or charge, in due time (if required)
to prepare for his defence; to be allowed coun-
sel; to be confronted with the witnesses against
him; to have process for his witnesses; to ex-
amine the witnesses for and against him on
oath; and to a speedy trial by an impartial
jury, without whose unanimous consent he
ought not to be found guilty.
ART. 20. That no man ought to be com-
pelled to give evidence against himself in a
court of common law, or in any other court,
but in such cases as have been usually prac-
tised in this State, or may hereafter be directed
by the Legislature.
ART. 21. That no free man ought to be
taken or imprisoned, or disseized of his free-
hold, liberties or privileges, or outlawed, or
exiled, or in any manner destroyed, or deprived
of his life, liberty or property, but by the judg-
ment of his peers, or by the law of the land;
provided, that nothing in this article shall be
so construed as to prevent the Legislature
from passing all such laws for the government,
regulation and disposition of the free colored
population of this State as they may deem
necessary.
ART. 22. That excessive bail ought not to
be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor
cruel or unusual punishment inflicted by the
courts of law.
ART. 23. That all warrants, without oath, or
affirmation, to search suspected places, or to
seize any person or property, are grievous and
oppressive; and all general warrants to search

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Corruption of
Blood, &c.

Militia.

Standing Armies.

Military subject to Civil Power.

Quartering of
Soldiers.

Martial Law,

Judges,

suspected places, or to apprehend suspected
persons, without naming or describing the
place, or the person in special, are illegal, and
ought not to be granted. -
ART. 24. That no conviction shall work cor-
ruption of blood, or forfeiture of estate.
ART. 25. That a well regulated militia is
the proper and natural defence of a free gov-
ernment.
ART. 26. That standing armies are danger-
ous to liberty, and ought not to be raised or
kept up without the consent of the Legislature.
ART. 27. That in all cases and at all times
the military ought to be under strict subordi-
nation to, and control of the civil power.
ART. 28. That no soldier ought to be quar-
tered in any house in time of peace without
the consent of the owner, and in time of war
in such manner only as the Legislature shall
direct.
ART, 29. That no person, except regular
soldiers, mariners, and marines, in the service
of this State, or militia when in actual service,
ought in any case be subject to, or punishable
by, martial law.
ART. 30. That the independency and up-
rightness of Judges are essential to the impar-
tial administration of justice, and a great secu-
rity to the rights and liberties of the people;
wherefore the Judges shall not be removed,
except for misbehaviour, on conviction in a
court of law, or by the Governor, upon the
address of the General Assembly; provided,
that two-thirds of all the members of each.
House concur in such address. No Judge

shall hold any other office, civil or military, or political trust or employment of any kind whatsoever, under the Constitution or Laws of this State, or of the United States, or any of them,

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or receive fees or perquisites of any kind for

the discharge of his official duties. -
ART. 31. That a long continuance in the
executive departments of power or trust is
dangerous to liberty; a rotation, therefore, in
those departments is one of the best securities
of permanent freedom.
ART. 32. That no person ought to hold at
the same time more than one office of profit,
created by the Constitution or Laws of this
State; nor ought any person in public trust to
receive any present from any Foreign Prince,
or State, or from the United States, or any of
them, without the approbation of this State.
ART. 33. That as it is the duty of every man
to worship God in such manner as he thinks
most acceptable to Him, all persons are equally
entitled to protection in their religious liberty,
wherefore, no person ought, by any law, to be
molested in his person or estate, on account
of his religious persuasion or profession, or for
his religious practice, unless under the color
of religion any man shall disturb the good or-
der, peace, or safety of the State, or shall in-
fringe the laws of morality, or injure others in
their natural, civil, or religious rights; nor ought
any person to be compelled to frequent or
maintain or contribute, unless on contract, to
maintain any place of worship or any ministry;
nor shall any person be deemed incompetent
as a witness or juror who believes in the exist-

Rotation in Offices,

Holding Offices.

Presents.

Religious Liberty Oaths of Office.

Disqualification of Ministers and Religious bodies from holding certain property.

3 Md., 119,

ence of a God, and that under his dispensation
such person will be held morally accountable
for his acts, and be rewarded or punished there-
for, either in this world or the world to come.
ART. 34. That no other test or qualification
ought to be required, on admission to any office
of trust or profit, than such oath of office as
may be prescribed by this Constitution, or by
the laws of the State, and a declaration of be-
lief in the Christian religion; and if the party
shall profess to be a Jew, the declaration shall
be of his belief in a future state of rewards
and punishments.
ART. 35. That every gift, sale or devise of
land, to any minister, public teacher or preach-
er of the gospel, as such, or to any religious
sect, order or denomination, or to or for the
support, use or benefit of, or in trust for any
minister, public teacher or preacher of the
gospel as such, or any religious sect, order or
denomination, and every gift or sale of goods
or chattels to go in succession, or to take place
after the death of the seller or donor, to or for
such support, use or benefit; and, also, every
devise of goods or chattels, to or for the sup-
port, use or benefit of any minister, public
teacher or preacher of the gospel, as such ;
or any religious sect, order or denomination,
without the leave of the Legislature, shall be
void; except always, any sale, gift, lease or
devise of any quantity of land, not exceeding
five acres, for a church, meeting house or
other house of worship, or parsonage, or for a
burying ground, which shall be improved, en-
joyed or used only for such purpose; or such
sale, gift, lease or devise shall be void.
ART. 36. That the manner of administering
an oath or affirmation to any person, ought to
be such as those of the religious persuasion,
profession or denomination, of which he is a
member, generally esteem the most effectual
confirmation by the attestation of the Divine
Being.
ART. 37. That the city of Annapolis ought

Administering of .
Oaths.

Rights of the City of Annapolis.

to have all its rights, privileges and benefits,

agreeably to its charter, and the acts of As-
sembly confirming and regulating the same ;
subject to such alterations as have been or as
may be made by the Legislature.
ART. 38. That the liberty of the press ought
to be inviolably preserved.
ART. 39. That monopolies are odious, con-
trary to the spirit of a free government and
the principles of commerce, and ought not to
be suffered. -
ART. 40. That no title of nobility or heredi-
tary honors ought to be granted in this State.
ART. 41. That the Legislature ought to en-
courage the diffusion of knowledge and virtue,
the promotion of literature, the arts, sciences,
agriculture, commerce and manufactures, and
the general melioration of the condition of
the people.
ART. 42. This enumeration of rights shall
not be construed to impair or deny others re-
tained by the people. *
ART. 43. That this Constitution shall not be
altered, changed, or abolished, except in the
manner therein prescribed and directed.
3

Liberty of the
Press.

Monopolies.

Titles of Nobility, &c.

Duties of the
Legislature.

Rights of the
People.

Alteration of the
Constitution.

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