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for redress in the most humble terms: our repeated petis tions have been answered only by repeated injury. A prince whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.

Nor have we been wanting in attentions to our British brethren. We have warned them, from time to time, of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the cire cumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured tuem by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity which denounces our separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, enemies in war, in peace friends.

We, therefore, the Representatives of the United States of America, in General Congress assembled, appealing to the Suprenie Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the name, and by authority of the good people of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent States; that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British crown, and that all political connexion between them and the State of Great Britain, is, and ought to be, totally dissolved; and that as free and independent States, they have full power to levy war, conclude peace, contract alliances, establish commerce, and to do all other acts and things which independent States may of right do. And for the support of this declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our lives, our fortunes, and our sacred honour.


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Massachusetts Bay.
Saml. Adams.
John Adams.
Robt. Treat Paine.
Elbridge Gerry

Rhode Island and Providenco,

&c. Step. Hopkins. William Ellery.


Connecticut. Roger Sherman.

Wm. Williams. Saml Huntington.

Oliver Wolcott.


JANUARY 18, 1777. Ordered:

That an authenticated copy of the Declaration of Inde. pendency, with the names of the Members of Congress subscribing the same, be sent to each of the United States, and that they be desired to have the same put on record. By order of Congress.


President. Attest, Chas. THOMSON,

A true copy.


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[Wzat lato operation first Wednesday in March, 1789. Oringa v. Spocca

5 Wheai. 420.)

SECTION 1. Legislative powers; in whom vested.

SEC. . House of Representatives, how and by whom chosen –
Qualifcations of a Representative — Representatives and direct
taxes, how apportioned - Enumeration - Vacancies to be Alled-
Power of choosing officers, and of impeachment.

SEC. 3. Senators, how and by whom chosen - How classified – State Executive, when to make temporary appointments, in case, etc.- Qualifications of a Senator - President of the Senate, his right to vote – President, pro tem., and other officers of the Senate, how chosen - Power to try impeachments - When President is tried, Chief Justice to preside - Sentence.

SEC. 4. Times, etc., of bolding elections, how prescribed One Session in each year.

SEC. 5. Membership - Quorum --Adjournments-Rules - Power to puoish or expel-Journal-Time of adjourments, how limited, etc.

SEC. 6. Compensation - Privileges -- Disqualification in certain cases.

SEC. 7. House to originate all revenue bills – Veto - Bill may be passed by two-thirds of each house, notwithstanding, etc.Bill, not returned in ten days, to become a law - Provisious as to orders, concurrent resolutions, etc. Sec. 8. Powers of Congress.

SEC. 9. Provision as to migration or importation of certain per 8ons-Habeas Corpus-Bills of attainder, etc.—Taxes, how apportioned – No export duty – No commercial preference -- Money, now drawn from treasury, etc.-No titular nobility - OMicers not to receive presents, etc. SEC. 10. States prohibited from the exercise of certain powers.


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