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REPORT ON ALLEGHENY PORTAGE.
of much consideration, in an estimate of the relative value of either improvement.
Under these circumstances, powerful steam engines (should steam be the power adopted), will be required at planes No. 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, west of the summit; but if the trade be a regulated trade, the gravity of descending trains will be nearly or quite sufficient east of it.
Such a result may be attained in two ways. Either the privilege of transportation may be leased for a term of years, to individuals or a company, who should transport at fixed rates, or it may be effected by agents of the commonwealth at specified rates for toll and transportation.
Fourthly-By the interruptions to a continued communication between the east and west, which might be anticipated on this part of the line.
These would arise from two causes: 1st, From the peculiar liability of a canal presenting so large an amount of lockage in a short distance, to derangement; and 2dly, the obstruction of navigation by ice at a later period in the spring and at an earlier period in the fall of the year, than on other parts of the route. This last effect would result not only from the greater elevation of this part of the line, but the peculiarly confined character of the Conemaugh valley in this distance.
I am aware of the preference which will always be given in Pennsylvania to public highways, on which the fullest competition may have play, and that very plau The subject, however, is submitted with due defer- sible objections may be made to either of the plans sug ence to the better judgment of the board. Should it be gested. It is believed, however, that one or other their opinion that the advantages of pushing canal nav- disposition of the portage, at any rate for some years to igation west of the Allegheny to the highest practica- come, is recommended by considerations of paramount ble point, preponderate over the disadvantages here weight. 1st, By the diminished amount of power reexposed, it may be expedient to adopt the location of quired for any given amount of business, should the the rail road only as far as plane No. 4 west; and to proposed rail road be a public highway, five steam encause a particular estimate of the expense of a feeder gines averaging seventy horse power each, at an annual from the South branch, and a canal the remaining dis-expense in fuel, wear and tear, and attendance of $15, tance to Johnstown to be made before coming to a de-000, or other stationary power equivalent to them, will finite decision. be required in addition to those stated to be necessary The eastern termination of the rail road appears to be west of the summit; and at least one-third more horse a matter of much less doubt. A basin immediately a power will be necessary on those portions of the rail bove Frankstown, would be more easily supplied with road on which it is employed. To understand this rewater from the Juniata below the junction of the Bea- mark, it will be necessary to advert to the circumstance ver dam and south west branches, but would possess no that a horse can for a short time sustain a stress of which other recommendation. The situation is represented he would not be capable for a series of hours. Should as peculiarly unhealthy, and the only building ground transportation on the contemplated rail way be effected would be either a very low flat or steep hill side. by lessees or agents of the commonwealth, horses ope Should the point at which canal navigation will termi- rating in relays would be used on the short levels of the, nate east of the mountain, be as it is believed it will be road, whilst locomotive engines would be employed on in time, a large and flourishing depot, some better ac- the longer. On these short levels a horse would be cacommodation would seem to be required for the trade pable of a very great effort in ascending, because this and the inhabitants, whose pursuits may lead them to effort would be of short duration, and he should be resettle near it. The same supply of water which can believed in returning. It would be otherwise, however, if it commanded at Frankstown, may be commanded by the was a question of travelling the whole length of the rail feeder lines laid down in the place herewith submitted, road, ascending and descending in a trip an elevation of at a point peculiarly picturesque, said to be uncommon- 2270 feet. His load it will be obvious in this case,could ly healthy, and presenting every advantage for the head not very greatly exceed what would be his fair load of canal navigation; and one to which it may be extend from his starting point to the summit level. ed with a very slight increase of lockage.
In the description of the line of the rail road, a mere outline of the trace adopted has been given. The consideration of the points at which stationary power must be adopted, and those at which inclined planes may be admissible, has been reserved; because a previous discussion of some points, and an exposition of certain principles on which this will depend will be necessary.
Secondly-By the opportunity which it affords of dispensing with crossing places and turns out, between the inclined planes. These on a line of rail road in a mountainous country, add materially to its expense, in consequence of the increased width of roadway they require, occasionally at difficult points and on steep slopes, but could not be dispensed with, without so regulating the traffic as that trains travelling in either direction would progress with equal speed.
Wherever on a line of rail way a trade can be regulated, self-acting planes are available. If the line of rail- Thirdly-By the superior economy, as well as expeway descend, and the trade preponderate in the direc dition of locomotive power. This, of course, must be tion of the descent, stationary power at inclined planes given up between plane No. 5 west, and Johnstown, becomes altogether unnecessary. If a summit is to be should the rail road be a public highway; as locomotive crossed, stationary power must be made use of to an ex-engines and horses could not be advantageously made tent sufficient to overcome the preponderance of the use of on the same parts of the road. A further inconheavier trade, and the friction of the machinery employ-venience would result from this circumstance, which ed in raising it; but this heavier trade after ascending, may require some explanation. may be made use of to lift up a lighter returning trade, The trade on the contemplated improvement must Where of course, a trade on a line of railway is near- necessarily be irregular. During three or four months ly equal, power to a certain extent becomes indispensa- of the year at least, the canals may be expected to be ble at each plane, in either direction from the summit. to be bound up by ice, and at midsummer there will Its amount may, however, in all cases be materially di- probably be but little trade to or from any point beyond minished by such a regulation of the trade as will bring Pittsburg, in consequence of the difficulties attending trains of waggons to the foot and head of planes at the the navigation of the Ohio at that season. It can scarcely be expected that any competition on the proposed rail road, if a public highway, would insure adequate means of transportation for what might accumulate at each extremity of the road during those periods of the year when all the avenues of trade would be open, This end, however, will be attained, if transportation is effected by the commonwealth, or by individuals to whom the privilege shall have been leased. In the latter case conditions may be affix
There can be but little doubt that the trade on the contemplated line of rail way, must be in a short time a much heavier one from west to east, than in the opposite direction. The bituminous coal of the Allegheny, which even now is taken ocasionally over a very bad road to the villages on the Juniata, will probably of itself be equal in weight to the whole amount of iron and merchandize returning.
ed and requisitions made, which will be easily complied with, both because a given amount of power will be productive of a larger result under this than under any other arrangement; and because a surplus number of locomotive engines may be retained on those parts of the road on which they can be used, without incurring any further expense when they may be unemployed, than the amount of interest on their cost.
of these blocks to be drilled at two points to the depth of eight inches, and its surface to be levelled with that of the roadway. On them, blocks of white oak or lo cust notched for the reception of rails to be attached with locust trunnels. The ends and points of support of the wooden rails to be secured in these blocks by a key so as to admit of removal, raising or shifting to the one side or other of the groove, in the simplest manner. The advantages of this construction are believed to be material, not only the rail is elevated and less exposed to the operation of causes which produce decay, but the inconvenience arising from a slight settling of the foundation may be at once remedied by a removal of the key and raising the rail, or if the parallelism of the rail way should be disturbed by shifting the rail laterally.
It remains to be added, that should transportation on the proposed rail road be effected by agents, or responsible lessees of the commonwealth, the objections which have been made to the Pennsylvania line of communication, as presenting in its portage danger of delay and uncertainty, will be in a great measure avoided; and it may not be digressing too far or hazarding too much, to express the confident belief that under such a system, transportation may be effected, not only more expeditiously, but as cheaply and with more certainty by the portage, than it could have been by a water communication across the mountain, had this last been attainable. The annexed paper marked A, presents a description, and an estimate in detail of each division of the rail road, divided into natural sections. It will be proper in this place to discuss the style of execution of the proposed improvement.
The wid h of the roadway formation will be twentyone feet. This will admit of two tracks of five feet width each, an intervening space of three feet, a foot path and drain on sloping ground; or of two tracks and two foot paths on embankments. In the few cases of deep cuttings which occur, an extra width proportioned to the length and depth of the cut will be required. Embankments, when but small vents are requisite to pass streams or spring torrents, are generally preferred to bridges, and in the formation of inclined planes where the profile of the surface is much depressed below that of the plane, the requisite graduation is attain ed by embankments or walling, and in no case by trusses. Undoubtedly a considerable saving in first cost would accrue from the substitution of wooden bridges, Rails 6 inches by 10 inches, and plate rails half an and frames of timber for the heavy walls and embank- inch by two inches are proposed for those parts of the ments which are contemplated. When it is recollect-rail road on which horse power will be employed. For ed, however, that the great weight of a train of rail road the remainder of the road and the superstructure of inwagons would expose such structures to a stress under clined planes, rails 8 by 12 inches, and plate rails hav which they would occasionally yield, and that the de- ing a cross section equal to 1 4-10ths inches will be restruction of one of them from this cause, or by a mis quired. chievous incendiary, might produce an interruption to trade during weeks or months, the propriety of dispensing with them, except under particular circumstances, will be at once perceived.
Two feet cubes of stone to be imbedded as before on broken stone, 7 feet apart from centre to centre in the direction of the rail road, and on these cubes sills of white oak or locust extending across the track to be bolted. The wooden rails to be keyed into the sills as in the former instance into the blocks. The only dif ference in the principle of the two constructions, it will be observed consists in extending the sills across the rail road track. This construction which would not be advisable on other parts of the rail road on account of its interference with the horse-path, is recommended on that portion on which locomotive engines will operate on account of its superior solidity.
The whole cost of the contemplated improvement, it will be observed, is estimated at $936,004 87 cents.— The prices allowed are deemed liberal, and believed to be sufficient to execute each description of work invol ved in the rail road in the most substantial manner. would of course be unwise in the extreme to execute otherwise a line of communication on which not only the value of two great divisions of canal, but of many other improvements in the state must essentially depend.
The least weight to which it has so far been found expedient to reduce locomotive engines, including the fu el and water with which they should be furnished at each point of supply, is six and a half tons, or about 24 tons more than the weight of the cars and their loads which are contemplated on the rail road. To meet this increased stress, the following construction is proposed on those parts of the rail road, on which machinery will be employed; or between plane No. 4, west, and Johnstown.
In the superstructure of the rail road more economy may be exercised than in grading or roadway formation. The cheapness of timber, and the facility with which they may be renewed, will recommend in the first instance at any rate, wooden rails plated with iron bars in preference to rails of malleable or cast iron. A superstructure of this description is recommended by the further consideration that a less expensive description of iron may be made use of for plating wooden rails, than would be required for rails entirely of metal.
Next in order to "the construction of a rail way be tween the waters of Juniata and Conemaugh, overcom ing the summit by means of stationary engines, and self-acting planes," attention was directed to the construction of a Macadamized turnpike of the best kind tween the same points.
No examinations have been made especially in reference to this object during the past season, nor do any
Of course on those parts of the rail-road on which steam power is contemplated, some extra strength will be requisite. The wooden rails must be stouter, and their points of support more frequent than on other in addition to the surveys made by authority of the state portions of the work. It will also be proper to give to in the summer of 1828, appear to be required. It rethe plate rails a somewhat different section and some in-sults from these, that a tolerably direct route within the crease of weight. On the other hand some diminution limit of one degree of graduation cannot be had be of expense will be occasioned by dispensing with a tween the points of contemplated connexion, and that horse path on this portion of the road way. whilst a rail road of the most advantageous description between Johnstown and Hollydaysburg will not much exceed thirty-eight miles, a Macadamized turnpike of the graduation above stated, between Johnstown and the head of the basin contemplated at Frankstown, (only two miles lower down) cannot fall much, if at all, short of fifty.
The following construction is recommended for the superstructure of the railroad (except at inclined planes) between Hollidaysburg and the foot of inclined plane No. 4, west, or on that part of the rail road on which horse power is contemplated.
Blocks of stone 2 feet 6 inches long, 2 feet deep, and 15 inches wide, to be embedded every 84 feet apart on a layer of broken stone of the depth of 6 inches. Each
It may sometimes be a question whether an inferior improvement of diminished length should not be pre
ferred to one of superior order, but by which the dis-planes, at 5,000, we have still left in favour of the rail tance between two points would be materially increas-road a saving in the annual cost of transportation of 184ed. When, however, the reverse is the case, and the 932 52 or a sum equal to nine times the interest on the trade to be accommodated is considerable, such a ques- difference in the first cost of the two improvements. tion we should think could very rarely arise. It will be The commonwealth may of course indemnify herself proper, however, to institute a more precise comparison largely for any additional outlay she may make, and yet between the two kinds of improvement submitted. leave her citizens largely the gainers.
REPORT ON ALLEGHENY PORTAGE.
Such a comparison involves three points; the first cost, the annual expense, and the cost of transportation on each species of improvement.
The estimates of Mr. Roberts (see Canal Documents, 1828, p. 216)* give $506,145 34 cents, as the cost of a Macadamized road, 36 feet wide, on the shortest of the routes surveyed by him at a graduation of one degree. To this estimate remains to be added an allowance for contingencies and superintendence, so that the whole cost of such a road may be stated without danger of cess at, at least $550,000 between Johnstown & Frankstown, or at least $528,000 between Johnstown and Hollydaysburg. This would leave a difference in cost between the Macadamized rail road of $408,000.
Travellers who have visited Great Britain, have been struck with the smoothness and easy graduation of the roads which traverse every portion of that highly improv
The difference in their annual expense is a matter of more difficult determination. Whilst the necessary ex-ed country, and have returned to America enamoured penses of a rail road are under any circumstances con- of an improvement which owes its success rather to the siderable, they increase in a very slight ratio with the circumstances under which it was introduced, than to increase of its trade. Those of a turnpike on the other the character of the improvement itself. It was long hand increase in nearly the same ratio. It certainly will after canals had been constructed in every quarter of not be rating too highly the business which may be anticipated on the Allegheny portage to suppose that the England, and the benefits of improved communication been extended into its more broken and mountainous annual repairs of a turnpike which would accomodate it, districts by rail roads, that Macadamized roads were inwould at least equal those of repairs and renewal, (set- troduced. They were wanted as a means of accomting aside the expenses of fixed and locomotive power,) modation for the greatly increased travelling which had on a rail-road. If the supposition be correct it will re- been occasioned by an immensly extended internal and main only to compare the cost of transportation on the external commerce, and as such, have answered in an rail road and turnpike, with the first cost of the respec- admirable degree the end for which they were desired. tive improvements. It would have been otherwise however, had they been made use of to effect the heavy transportation of the interior of the country, or to convey to the seaboard the products of its mines and manufactories, destined for
If the following calculations are correct, (and no doubt is entertained that they are not too favourable to the rail road,) they shew that with a trade limited certainly in comparison with what may be anticipated, it would form notwithstanding its increased cost, much the most advisable connection.
It may not be out of place here to correct some misex-apprehensions which appear to exist in relation to the value of Macadamized roads as a means of transportation for merchandize and produce.
It will be seen at once, that with a trade greater than that on which the foregoing calculation is predicated, the balance in favour of the rail-road would not only be greater, but increased in a still greater ratio, because the expense of the rail-road for fixed power and attendance at planes, would be very slightly increased, whilst those for repairs on the turnpike would increase in a ratio nearly correspondent with its increase of business.
The small fragments of stone of which it is essential that the covering of Macadamized roads should consist, Estimating the trade between Johnstown and Holly-triturate very rapidly even under the light weights condaysburg at 30,000 tons going easswardly; the trade goveyed on them in England. Although it is extremely ing westwardly to be taken in return loads; and that rare that any heavier vehicle than a stage coach is seen transportation is effected during 250 days in the year.en an English turnpike, yet the annual expense of reThe average transportation eastwardly would be 120 pairs on those which are much travelled, is estimated tons per diem. at 1007 sterling per mile.
The average load on a horse on a Macadamized turnpike, would be about twelve cwt. or 3-5ths of a ton. The time occupied in a trip 7 days, viz: 5 going and returning, and one at each point of termination for rest and loading. Assuming these data 120+5-3+7=1400 horses would be required on a turnpike between Johnstown and Holly-be daysburg, and estimating 5 horses a team, 280 drivers.
Were the carriages used on them heavier, their capping would crush in pieces much more rapidly. The subject has been ingeniously illustrated by a comparison drawn from the effect of a large and small hammer. A pebble, it has been correctly observed, which would resist a severe blow from a hammer of two pounds, would crushed into powder by one of moderate intensity from a hammer of four pounds.
Five locomotive engines, forty horses, and thirty drivers and tenders, would more completely accommodate the same trade on a rail road. Presuming the wear and tear, and interest on turnpike and rail road wagons to be equal, and estimating the daily expense of a locomotive engine as equal to the interest on the cost, the wear and tear and expense of five horses, the saving in motive power would be equal to the wear and tear, expense and interest on the cost of 1335 horses and 250 drivers. The former item of expense could scarcely be less than 30 cents per day per horse during the whole year, and an average of sixty cents per day for faithful and trusty drivers, would probably not exceed what their services would command.
Then 1335+30+250+60-550 dollars and 50 cents per day,or 200,932 50 per annum, would be the difference in the expense of transportation on a turnpike and Macadamized road.
Deducting from this amount the expense of fuel and attendance for five stationary engines, estimated at $2,200, each (1,100) and of attendance at five self-acting *See Reg. vol. 3, pp. 277–290.
The repairs of a Macadamized road, on which heavy wagons were used, would not only be extremely expensive from the excessive destruction of materials, but also from the constant labour which would be required to fill up the ruts in the road, which the wheels of such wagons would be continually wearing. No plan which has yet been fallen on will avoid this on a good road.
Large wheels, on a bad road, will avoid the deepening of ruts beyond a certain point, but if the materials of which the road is composed are small, they must yield under pressure, and the evil is only aggravated with large wheels, because such wheels cannot press uniformly on a rounded surface, which a Macadamized road should always have; and would cut more deeply at their corners than narrower wheels, which would have a more equal bearing.
It is proper to mention before leaving this subject, that good materials for the capping of a Macadamized road would be had with difficulty in the neighbourhood of either of the lines serveyed. The sand stone of the Al
legheny is sometimes hard, but pulverizes easily under pressure, and bonds together but indifferently.
The third point to which attention was directed by the resolutions of the board, was the suggestion of any other plan which might be deemed best calculated to accommodate trade."
Under this head it may be observed, that next to a good water communication, no plan is in general deemed mere eligible for the accommodation of a large trade than a rail road, overcoming elevations by means of stationary power and inclined planes.
The profile of the line of rail road surveyed across the Allegheny mountain,may certainly be considered in a high degree favourable. More than two thirds of the distance between Johnstown and the summit level, as has been before observed, it is well adapted to the use of locomotive power. On the remaining third, the ascending graduation is but small, and may be still further reduced by a slight increase in the rise of each lift, with out any material accession of expense East of the summit the profile of the rail road is not quite as favourable as west of it, but on the whole may not be considered ineligible for a trade preponderating in this direction.
The plan of the road is not more unfavourable than its profile. At two or three points it may be advisable to turn on a smaller radius than five hundred feet, but short and sudden curvatures will be but very seldom required.
Nature then has not shown herself churlish in the distribution of facilities for the contemplated connexion, and whilst she has maintained her barrier of partition between the waters of the Chesapeake and Mississippi, at the head of the Juniata, as at most other points, unbroken, she has presented perhaps as many facilities in this quarter for overcoming it by an improvement of the best description, as could reasonably have been expected.
On the other hand, she appears with equel energy and a boldness scarcely to be mistaken, to have denounced any plan of effecting this object by graduation. The wide and deep ravines with which both the eastern and western slopes of the Alleghemy are torn, and which have been found so advantageous for the location of inclined planes, would have presented obstacles to a graded road of any kind, which could only have been overcome at an enormous expense, or avoided by a very great increase in the length of a line.
Under these circumstances, it is not hazarding_too much to say, that no plan of improvement can be offer. ed to the consideration of the board more eligible than
that submitted under the first head of this report. It
may, however, be a question whether a cheaper and simpler power cannot be substituted at inclined planes for that of steam, which has been contemplated in the
Water power is available with but little fall, wherever a sufficiently large body can be commanded. It is not the less so where the reverse is the case, that is to say, where the volume of water though small, can be commended for a very great elevation.
In but one case on the line of the rail road can a sufficiently large body of water be commanded at an inclined plane, to act in the ordinary manner on a water wheel. At the Big Bend of the Conemaugh, the whole stream may be had at a point half way down the plane, with the advantage of a head and fall of fifty feet, if necessary, affording, of course, for the inclined plane at this point, a greater amount of power than can in any contingency be wanted.
At the other inclined planes west of the summit, considerable streams of water could not be commanded; but at three of them, small and constant streams may be brought, without encountering any very serious expense, to the head or midway of the planes. Two plans are deemed worthy of suggestion to the board by which the power they would afford may be made use of.
The first plan proposes a piston cylinder and crank, in all respects similar to those of the steam engine.— The water to be conveyed by pipes with the advantage of the greatest head which can conveniently be had, and to be admitted alternately above and below the piston, (as steam from the boiler of a steam engine,) by means of a four-way-cock or valves; the latter to be opened and shut as in the steam engine, by means of a rod attached to the working beam. The principle on which this machinery (usually denominated the water pressure engine) is dependent for its power, it will be observed is the same as that of the hydrostatic press of Bramah, from which such important results have of late years been derived.
The second plan proposes the use of water in cisterns as a counterpoise to ascending weights, reducing the operation ascending west as well as of the summit, to that of self-acting planes. The annexed drawing and specifications marked B,exhibit its details. It is proper to observe to the board, that this plan of overcoming eleva tions is claimed as an invention of the undersigned, and under a favourable impression of its applicability under many circumstances, was secured by patent, before he had the honor of being engaged in their service. He will, of course, be excused from any comparison of its advantages or disadvantages with those of the other plans submitted.
It may be desirable before closing this report, to pre sent to the view of the board, some considerations which have governed in relation to the location of inclined planes, on the proposed rail road, which it has not been found convenient before to introduce.
Two points have been deemed to be of essential importance in the location of inclined planes. 1st that they should be straight, and that the line of the rail road should for a short distance from the head and foot of each plane, be in the same direction with the plane; and 2ndly, that the plane itself should either have an uniform inclination with the horizon, or an inclination gradually diminished betwee the head and foot of the plane. On a plane to any extent curved in its plan, a greater loss of power and wear and tear of cable and rope will always be sustained, than on a straight plane, and without a stage of some extent at the head of the plane in the same direction with the plane, a very extensive business cannot be accommodated; and should the plane be so far curved, as to prevent the manager at the head of the plane from embracing its whole extent under his view, the operation of raising and lowering trains must be conducted by signals, and often disadvantageously.
nation slightly diminishing towards the foot of the plane On planes on which power is to be applied,an incliis most desirable; on self-acting planes, (where the fullest useful effect of the gravity of descending bodies is desired,) the most advisable profile is an approximation feature, if the plane becomes steeper towards its foot. to the cycloyd. It is in either case a disadvantageous in the one case, the engine at the commencement of its labor, is compelled to exert a greater force than is afterwards required. In the other, a descendiug train of wagons may acquire in consequence of its increased stress, combined with its accelerating force, a momen. tum not to be controlled without difficulty by a brake, and attended with much hazard.
It was further an object in the case under considera. tion, to reduce the number of planes as far as practicable. Such a reduction was peculiarly recommended by the saving of time in transportation which it insured, and the superior simplicity of any system of transportation which might be adopted on the completion of the work.
The bold outlines of the country over which the railroad has been located, did not admit of prescribing to it too many conditions. Of course in complying with those which were deemed essential,secondary consider ations have been occasionally waiyed.
The accompanying volume of profiles marked C, presents a view of the ground which has been selected for the different planes east and west of the summit, and the general inclination recommended at each plane.This of course does not correspond in all cases with that which looking only to the trade and its direction, would be deemed the most advisable, but deviates as little from such a profile as a due regard to circumstances would permit. The great essentials in the location of planes above explained, it has been found practicable with one exception to observe. Plane No. 2 east has a curvature in its course corresponding to a versed sinc of 40 feet on a chord of 672 feet. It may be proper to mention also, that at plane No. 5, west, it will be neces sary to arrive on, and leave the foot of the plane by a turning platform.
It will be observed that the elevation overcome, and angle of inclination adopted at the different lifts, differ very materially. These differences would be compen. sated on the execution of the work, by adopting at each
KEPT BY THOMAS SMITH, AT THE PHILADELPHIA LABYRINTH GARDEN.
point, machinery of suitable weight and power. The proportions allowed in the estimate are deemed a sufficient approximation for the purpose for which they are used, but a nice calculation of strength for each portion of the machinery employed, will of course be requisite, in order to avoid on the one hand the loss of power which would be sustained by the use of cables and other fixtures unnecessarily cumbrous, or the disastrous consequences which might result from the want of a due degree of strength in their proportions.
In addition to the documents above referred to, two volumes of topographical sketches, and two field books, presenting all farther information on the subject, believ ed to be material, are herewith presented to the board. All which is respectfully submitted,
Nov. 21, 1829.
[The several calculations submitted by the Engineer, will be published in our next number.]
2d. A little Rain this morning; a very fine day; Primroses and Violets in flower, in the open ground, in the Philadelphia Labyrinth Garden.
5th. A white frost this morning.
7th. A little snow, and when melted 1-100; fine day. 8th. This morning like April.
9th. A little Snow.
10th. A Rainy day.
11th. A very high wind.
14th. A thick fog; Mr. Lee brought ice from the ponds 24 inches thick. A little Rain. 25th. Ice brought from the ponds, 5 inches thick, to the ice-houses in the city.
26th. Snow 1 inch thick on the ground, and when melted 5-100; high wind. 27th. A little Snow. 29th. Snow 3-100ths; high wind. S1st. Delaware river frozen over
Thermometer in the month-highest on 16th, 55lowest on 31st, 7-range, 31.
Mean of the month, 3210, which is 13° lower than the average of the 22 years from 1807 to 1828, according to table in our vol. I, p. 131.
The quantity of rain which fell in January, according to the register at the Pennsylvania Hospital, was 1 68000. The quantity of rain per register at Health office, was 1 89. We cannot account for these differences, if the observations are all made with equal care.