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plished. The latter of which is the subject of the present notice.

The EASTERN STATE PENITENTIARY is situated on one of the most elevated, airy, and healthy sites in the

THE prevention of crimes and the reformation of crim-vicinity of Philadelphia. Large sums have been expeninals, in lieu of the vindictive infliction of pain on offended for the purpose of giving an unusual degree of soders, are now almost universally acknowledged to be lidity and durability to every part of this immense structhe only legitimate objects of human punishments. Pol- ture, which is the most extensive building in the United icy and humanity equally dictate the application of se- States. The ground occupied by it, contains about 10 verity sufficient to prevent offenders repeating their acres. The materials with which the edifices are built crimes, and to deter others from following their exam-is a greyish granite, or gneiss, employed in large mas ple. The intentional addition of any further suffering ses; every room is vaulted and fire proof. The design constitutes cruelty. However obvious this theory may and execution impart a grave, severe and awful characappear at the present day, its justice has been but re- ter to the external aspect of this building. The effect cently acknowledged; and in practice it is to the pre- which it produces on the imagination of every passing sent hour almost unknown throughout the greater part spectator, is peculiarly impressive, solemn, and instruc of Christendom. The gratification of vengeance and tive. The architecture is in keeping with the design. securing the persons of convicts to prevent the immedi- The broad masses, the small and well proportioned ap. ate repetition of offences, appear to have constituted the ertures, the continuity of lines, and the bold and expres only design of imprisonment, until near the conclusion sive simplicity which characterize the features of the faof the last century. In the prisons at that period, the cade, are most happily and judiciously combined. The mixture of all ages, ranks and sexes, into one corrupting originality of the plan, the excellent arrangement and leavened mass of shameless iniquity, and the unrestrain-execution of the details, display the taste and ingenuity ed intercourse which was permitted day and night, ren- of the architect, to whom our country is indebted for dered the consignment of a juvenile offender to these a- some of her noblest edifices-our fellow citizen, Mr. bodes of depravity, a certain sentence of moral death: John Haviland. The laborious and gratuitous services of he who entered their gates a novice in guilt, accom- John Bacon, Esq. the Chairman of the Building Com plished his education in villainy, and leaving character,mittee, and some of the other Commissioners, are enti shame, independence, and every incentive to voluntary tled to our gratitude. The total cost of this building, industry and virtue within their walls—departed an ad- | when finished, will be 432,000 dollars. We are not ad, ept in crime, ignorant only of his duties; prepared to vocates of inconsistent or meretricious decoration, but practice at the expense of society, those lessons of vice we may express our gratification that no unwise parsi which its folly had forced on his acquaintance, and al-mony rendered the aspect or arrangement of this insti most compelled him to exercise as a profession when tution an opprobrium to the liberal, humane, and endischarged. lightened character of our commonwealth.

Such was the condition of these colleges of vice, as they have been too correctly denominated, when the first association for the purpose of ameliorating Prison Discipline was formed in Philadelphia on the 7th of February, 1776. This society is therefore entitled to the distinguished honour of leading the way in this novel and important subject. It is the venerable parent of the numerous institutions for the promotion of similar objects which are now in active progress throughout the world. The revolution suspended the existence of this association, which was however revived In 1787, under the name of the Philadelphia Society for alleviating the miseries of Public Prisons, and has ever since continued to pursue the labours of benevolence.

This Penitentiary is the only edifice in this country which is calculated to convey to our citizens the external appearance of those magnificent and picturesque castles of the middle ages, which contribute so eminently to embellish the scenery of Europe. The front of this building is composed of large blocks of hewn and squared granite; the walls are 12 feet thick at the base, and diminish to the top, where they are 2 feet in thickness. A wall of thirty feet in height above the interior platform, encloses an area 640 feet square: at each angle of the wall is a tower for the purpose of overlooking the establishment; three other towers, which will be presently described are situated near the gate of entrance. The facade or principal front, is 670 feet in length, and reposes on a terrace, which, from the ine qualities of the ground, varies from three to nine feet in height; the basement or belting course, which is 10 feet high, is scarped, and extends uniformly the whole length. The central building is 200 feet in lengthconsists of two projecting massive square towers, 50 feet

The contamination resulting from the association of prisoners, and the prejudicial effects resulting from their acquaintance with each other, induced this body to petition the legislature to separate the conviets, and finally to adopt the only effectual system, viz: separate or solitary confinement. The celebrated law which was enacted April 5th, 1790 authorised the con-high, crowned by projecting embattled parapets, sup struction of 30 solitary cells, which were consequently ported by pointed arches resting on corbels or brackbuilt and occupied. Numerous other improvements etts. The pointed (munioned windows in these towwere introduced, the effects of which were soon visible ers, contribute in a high degree to their picturesque ef in the reduced number of convictions, and in the refor- fect. The curtain between the towers is 41 feet high, mation of the inmates of the prison. This institution, and is finished with a parapet and embrasures. The the first in which the system of solitary or separate con- pointed windows in it are very lofty and narrow. The finement was adopted, rapidly acquired celebrity great gateway in the centre is a very conspicuous fea throughout the Union, and many parts of Europe, where ture; it is 27 feet high, and 15 wide, and is filled by a it has been subsequently imitated. During the last year, massive wrought iron portcullice, and double oaken gates upwards of 4000 convicts, have been sentenced to soli-studded with projecting iron rivets, the whole weigh tary confinement in the kingdoms of Great Britain and ing several tons; nevertheless, they can be opened with the greatest facility. On each side of this entrance, (which is the most imposing in the United States,) are enormous solid buttresses, diminishing in offsetts, and terminating in pinnacles. A lofty octangular tower, 80 feet high, containing an alarm bell and clock, surmounts this entrance, and forms a picturesque proportional centre.

France alone.

Causes, which it is unnecessary to describe, in a few years crowded this Penitentiary with inmates, and consequently rendered the operation of the new system almost impracticable. Repeated memorials of the society, and of other philanthropists, finally induced the Legislature of Pennsylvania, in 1817, to authorise the construction of a prison at Pittsburg, and in 1821, another at Philadelphia, in which the separate confinement of every convict, day and night, could be fully accom

On each side of this main building (which contains the apartments of the warden, keepers, domestics, &c.) are screen wing walls, which appear to constitute per



105 tions of the main edifice; they are pierced with small idleness. Accordingly, persons duly qualified are emblank pointed windows, and are surmounted by a para-ployed to teach the prisoner suitable trades, and to inpet; at their extremities are high octangular towers ter- struct him in religion, and in the elements of learning. minating in parapets pierced by embrasures. In the The prohibition of all intercourse with society, is not, centre of the great court yard is an observatory, whence therefore, continual; the visits of the virtuous cannot inlong corridors, eight in number, radiate: (three only of jure, and must benefit the majority of the prisoners, bethese corridors, &c. are at present finished.) On each tween whom, alone, all communication is rendered imside of these corridors, the cells are situated, each at possible. The degree of seclusion to be practised, or right angles to them, and communicating with them on- of labour and other alleviations permitted, may be varily by small openings for the purpose of supplying the ed with the varying dispositions of the prisoners. Regprisoner with food, &c., and for the purpose of inspect- ular exercise in the yards, in the open air, is permitted, ing his movements without attracting his attention; oth- and required when necessary; provided that no two ader apertures, for the admission of cool or heated air, and joining yards be occupied at the same time, for the purfor the purpose of ventilation, are provided. A novel pose of preventing conversation. and ingenlous contrivance in each cell, which has been frequently described, prevents the possibility of conversation, preserves the purity of the atmosphere of the cells, and dispenses with the otherwise unavoidable necessity of leaving the apartment, except when the regulations permit-flues conduct heated air from large cockle stoves to the cells. Light is admitted by a large eircular glass in the crown of the arch, which is raking, and the highest part 16 feet 6 inches above the floor, (which is of wood, overlaying a solid foundation of stone) The walls are plastered and neatly whitewashed; the cells are 11 feet 9 inches long, and 7 feet 6 inch es wide: at the extremity of the cell, opposite to the apertures for inspection, &c, previously mentioned, is the door-way, containing two doors; one of lattice work, or grating, to admit the air and secure the prisoner; the other composed of planks to exclude the air, if required; this floor leads to a yard (18 feet by 8, the walls of which are 114 feet in height) attached to each cell. The number of the latter in the present plan is only 266, but it may be increased to 818, without resorting to the addition of second stories. We have had an opportunity of examining many prisons, and other similar institutions in Europe and this country, but we have never seen a building so admirably adapted to the purposes of security, scclusion, health and convenience, as this Penitentiary. The rooms are larger, viz. containing more cubic feet of air, or space, than a great number of the a partments occupied by industrious mechanics in our city; and if we consider that two or more of the latter frequently work or sleep in the same chamber, they have much less room than will be allotted to the convicts; whose cells, moreover, will be more perfectly ventilated than many of the largest apartments of our opulent citizens.

The convict, on his entrance, after the customary examination, ablution, medical inspection, &c., is clothed, blindfolded, and conducted to his cell, where he remains locked up; and after a patient and careful inquiry into his history, and the delivery of an appropriate address to him on the consequences of his crime, and the design to be effected by his punishment, he is abandoned to that salutary anguish and remorse which his reflections in solitude must inevitably produce. Every means which have been devised by philanthropy and experience for effecting reformation will be zealously applied. The labour in which the convicts will be employed, is considered as an alleviation, not an aggravation of his sentence. Labour prescribed as a punishment is an erFor in legislation, founded on an ignorance of the feelings, the desires and antipathies, the habits, and associations of mankind: the tedious hours spent in solitude will be a punishment sufficiently severe, without rendering the infliction of hard labor, for this cause, necessary. The want of occupation will produce a feeling of tedium or irksomeness-the state of mind in which labour or employment will appear to the convict--perhaps for the first time in his life, as a means of preventing uneasy feelings, of producing relief and pleasure; and as the powerful influence of association is acknowledged, this beneficial feeling will become habitual, and after the discharge of the convict from his durance, will be a most effectual safeguard from the temptations of Vol. V


From this outline of the system it is obvious that the charge of cruelty, which ignorance and misrepresentation have attempted to attach to it, is untenable, The humane and intelligent, who have sanctioned its adoption in our community almost unanimously, certainly require no defence of the purity of their motives. Among the advocates of this system in Europe, we may refer to Howard, Paul, Eden, Mansfield, Blackstone, l'aley, Liancourt, Villerme, &c.; and in this country, to the venerable Bishop White, whose whole life has been but one prolonged illustration of that religion which he professes, Dr. Rush, Bradford, Vaux, Wood, Sergeant, Livingston, and many of our most eminent citizens,The intrinsic and obvious excellence of the plan afforded a powerful argument for its adoption upwards of 40 years since. The partial experience of its merits has been beneficially experienced in our State and other parts of the Union, notwithstanding the numerous disadvantages which have heretofore attended the trial.— The only failures which have occurred in other States, are unquestionably attributable to the absurd and culpable manner in which the process has sometimes been conducted. The experience of several of the European states, as well as of our own commonwealth, incontestably proves that this system of Prison discipline is the most efficient which the wisdom of philanthropists has heretofore devised; that, when administered in a proper manner, the reformation of the great majority of criminals is practicable; that no injury to the health, mental or bodily, of the convicts occurs; that the severity is sufficient, not only to operate on the inmates of the prison, but to deter others by the example of their suffering; and finally, that as a mean of preventing crimes, it is in fact the most economical. A superficial view of this subject has too frequently led to erroneous conclusions in some of our sister States. The operation of this system diminishing the number of convicts to be maintained by society, of course in some measure dimin ishes its expenses: but the maintenance of criminals, whilst they are confined in prison, constitutes but a small portion of the actual, enormous, and unequal expenditure to which they subject society-their trial and conviction, the support of a numerous and vigilant police to prevent, detect, and punish offences, &c. are onerous but indispensable items. Criminals, when not in prison, are in fact supported at an increased cost by the public. The ravages of the incendiary, the fraud of the counterfeiter, the depredation of the burglar and robber, constitute an unequal, a grievous, and incalculable tax on those members of society, who in general are least able to endure the exaction. The habits of criminals tend to pauperism, always to idleness; they are consumers, not producers; their evil example occasions wide spread corruption, terror, and misery. What econmists can therefore calculate the real cost of crime? The expenditures in the Penitentiary compose but an insignificent comparative item: the partial view is indeed limited, which is confined by its walls. As "the Pennsylvania system of Prison Discipline" effects, not indeed the extirpation, but the prevention or diminution of crime, to an unknown and unrivalled extent-the dictates of mere economy, of sordid self-interest, as well as of patriotism, humanity, and religion, cry aloud for its general ado

tion. The prime cost of an efficient labour saving machine is never considered by the intelligent and wealthy capitalist as a wasteful expenditure. but as a productive investment. This Penitentiary will be, strictly speaking, an apparatus for the expeditious, certain, and economical eradication of vice, and the production of reformation. The state of Pennsylvania has exhibited, at once, her wisdom, philanthropy, and munificence, by the erection of this immense and expensive structure, which, in connexion with her other noble institutions, will largely contribute to the amelioration and protection of her population.

G. W. S.

The Corner Stone of the front building of the Penitentiary was laid on the 22d day of May, 1823, in the presence of the Commissioners, Architect, Superintendent, and workmen. On this interesting occasion, Mr. Roberts Vaux said, that he much regretted the unavoidable absence of the President of the Board, in whose place he had just then been unexpectedly desired to say a few words concerning the purpose for which the Commissioners were assembled.

He remarked, that the occasion was calculated to awaken reflections at once painful and gratifying. Pain. ful, because such was'the erring character of man, so ungovernable were his passions, & so numerous his propensities to evil, that it was necessary society should provide means for the punishment of offenders against its laws. Gratifying, because a correct view of human nature, coupled with the indispensable exercise of Christian benevolence, had led to the melioration of punishments.Justice was now mixed with Mercy, and whilst the community designed to teach offenders that the way of the transgressor is hard, it wisely and compassionately sought to secure and reform the criminal by the most strict solitary confinement. The Penitentiary now to be erected, was designed to accomplish these important ends, and when it shall be completed, it will afford the first opportunity of putting into efficient practice the penal code of this State. Mr. Vaux congratulates his fellow citizens of Pennsylvania, because their legislators were the first (almost forty years ago) to abolish those cruel and vindictive penalties which are in use in the European countries from which we had descended.The Pillory, the Whipping Post, and the Chain, were not calculated to prevent crime, but to familiarize the mind with cruelty; and consequently to harden the hearts of those who suffered, and those who witnessed such punishments. The substitution in Pennsylvania of milder correctives had excited the notice and respect of nations abroad, as well as of our sister States our example had in some instances been followed, and he had no doubt the principle would more extensively prevail.

The box deposited in the corner stone, which you have seen laid, contains a plan and elevation of the prison, and a medal plate bearing the following inscripPENITENTIARY FOR


The Eastern district of the state of Pennsylvania:

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READ, January 6, 1830. Philadelphia, January 2, 1830. Sir, I have the honor to transmit to you, to be laid before the Honorable the House of Representatives of Pennsylvania, the first report of the board of inspectors of the eastern state penitentiary. With sentiments of the highest respect, I have the honor to be, Sir, your most ob't. serv't. CHAS. S. COXE.

To Frederick Smith, Esq.

Speaker of the House of Representatives of Penn. To the Honorable Senate and House of Representatives of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. The inspectors of the Eastern State Penitentiary, situated in the county of Philadelphia, appointed by the honorable the judges of the supreme court of Pennsyl vania, assembled on the 19th day of May, 1829, and proceeded to organize the board, and appoint the officers. The following members at present fill the offices annexed to their names.

JOHN SWIFT, Secretary.

DANIEL H. MILLER, Treasurer.

On the 29th of June, Samuel R. Wood was appointed Warden; John Norvell, Clerk; and subsequently, Dr. Franklin Bache, Physician. On the 1st day of July, the penitentiary was surrendered by the board of commissioners for its erection, and this board took possession thereof, and has held it in readiness to receive such convicts as were liable to be committed thereto, subsequently to that time. From the last mentioned date to this time, a term of six months only nine prisoners, have been received, their age, sex, place of nativity, time of commitment, term of imprisonment, offence; whether for a first or repeated offence; the time of conviction, and the court in which the convictions occur, are particularly designated in the table annexed.

No prisoner has died, escaped, been pardoned, or discharged; nor has any sickness occurred, except in one instance, the nature of which will appear from the fol lowing extract from the physician's report for December, 1829.

"None of the prisoners have been sick, except John Starns, who has been laboring under a catarrhal affection, but not of such severity as to justify his removal to the infirmary. At present he is much better, and appears to be on the recovery. This prisoner was an invalid when he arrived, in consequence of a severe her.


The inspectors are required to attend to the religious instruction of the prisoners, and to procure a suitable person for that object, who shall be the religious instructor of the prisoners. His duties are declared to be, to attend on the moral and religious instruction of the convicts in such manner as to make their confinement, as far as possible, the means of their reformation, so that when restored to their liberty, they may prove honest, industrious, and useful members of society. The importance of this officer, to a fair trial of the system, was soon perceived by the board, and great anxiety has been felt, to comply with the views of the Legislature, explained by these requisitions of the statute. It is, how


ever, further provided, that the services of this officer shall be gratuituous. The ministers of the gospel, who might have leisure, or a disposition to accept the appointment, are generally unable to perform such services without a suitable provision for themselves, and their families. Had any candidate been presented to the board, under these circumstances, it is not probable a proper choice could have been made; but as no one has offered, the board have been unable to appoint any religious instructor; and the only instruction of that character afforded to the convicts, has been derived from the imperfect efforts of the other officers of the institution. In the opinion of this board, a fair experiment of the system of solitary confinement, with labour, cannot be made without moral and religious instruction, and a suitable individual to fill that office cannot be obtained, less the Legislature allow a compensation for his services.

By the 12th section of the act of April 23, 1829, it is enacted, that for the purpose of finishing the eastern penitentiary, introducing a supply of water from Fair Mount water works, and procuring the necessary furniture and fixtures for the accommodation and reception of prisoners, the sum of 5,000 dollars, be and is hereby appropriated for said purposes, and the commissioners appointed to superintend the erection of the state penitentiary, are directed to carry the same into effect."This sum appears to have been inadequate to the purposes for which it was designed, as all the necessary furniture and fixtures have not been provided; and the water from Fair Mount, owing to that and other causes beyond the control of the commissioners, has not been introduced. By the 13th section of the same act, this board are authorized to "draw on the state treasury for any sums not exceeding 1,000 dollars; to support and employ the prisoners, until such sums of money may become payable by the several counties, from which convicts may be removed to the prison, shall be received by the board, as shall enable it to manage the affairs of the prison without such aid." The inspectors are prohibited by the 9th section, from drawing on the county treasurers before the first Monday in May, in each year, and then only for an annual account rendered three months before to the county commissioners for the previous support of the convicts. Although it is hoped, in many, if not most instances, that the counties may not be called on at all, yet in order to effect this favorable result, there is a necessity for a fund to furnish tools, materials, fuel, food, &c. in the first instance. The sum of 1,000, above mentioned, has been partly expended in providing furniture, &c. necessary to the convicts' health and accommodation, not supplied by the commissioners, and is insufficient for the purpose for which it was designed. The board, therefore, respectfully recommend that the further sum of 4,000 be appropri ated by the Legislature to this object, and that the inspectors be authorized to draw on the treasury for that amount, in order that this great institution, on which the state has expended so large an amount, and so interesting to the cause of humanity, may not be crippled by the want of means to put it into operation.

The inspectors are required, in their annual return, to make such observations as to the efficiency of the system of solitary confinement, as may be the result of their experience, and to give such information as they may deem expedient for making the said institution effectual in the punishment and reformation of offenders. The extraordinary fact, that but nine convicts have been sent from the counties composing the eastern district, containing so large a majority of this populous state, demands and deserves great consideration from all interested in our penal code; but the inspectors refrain from the expression of any sentiment resulting therefrom, as they cannot consider themselves justified in expressing a judgement, "the result of their experience," after so short a trial of the system. Indeed, although nothing seriously militating against the system



has yet occurred within their observation, and much that is favourable has struck them, they would rather suffer a longer time to elapse, and await the operation of the institution upon a larger body of prisoners, before they should feel themselves authorized to express to the Legislature a decided judgment for or against the system of solitary confinement with labor.

With these remarks, extracts from the report of the warden are annexed, in order to afford the Legislature such information as the board possess. All which is respectfully submitted by the board. CHAS. S. COXE, President.

January 1, 1830.


SWIFT, Secretary.



sources. Of the 9 prisoners, 3 only had been Of course none could have been previously convicted to this penitentiary;& the number of times stated above has been derived from the

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Extracts from the Warden's report to the inspectors. "As the furnaces for warming the cells on the original plan, have not yet been built, and the weather is too cool to do without fire, I purchased six small coal stoves, and had them fixed in the cells as soon after these pris


oners arrived, as I possibly could. These stoves keep the prisoners warm; but I find this mode of heating the cells troublesome, expensive, and dirty; and as additional stoves will be required with the increase of prisoners. I thought it advisable to make arrangements for an air heater or furnace; that will be sufficient to warm twenty cells; this I hope to have in operation in ten days or

two weeks.


To the Senate and House of Representatives of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the Managers of the House of Refuge respectfully REPORT:

The first

That the Institution was opened on the 8th day of De-
cember, 1828; the walls and buildings being then suffi-
ciently completed for immediate purposes.
"Juvenile" delinquent was received on that day. So
numerous appear to be the persons of this description,
that 188 children have been admitted previously to the
29th of December, 1829. Of these 148 were boys,
and 40 were girls. The actual number remain-
ing in the house is 117; to which it has been reduced
in the following manner,, viz:

26 have been indentured, viz. 20 boys and 6 girls.
4 returned to the Almshouse.
1 sent to


9 returned to their parents and friends, viz. 8 boys and 1 girl.


1 sent to the children's asylum.



"I rejoice that it has never been the policy of the legislature of this state to sacrifice the safety of the community and the welfare of the convict for apparent pecuniary gain; they have taken a higher, more dignified, and nobler ground; they have provided prisons, where the reformation and improvement of the criminal and protection of society, are grand objects; they have provided that labor shall be furnished the convict in his cell, and not for the sordid purpose of reimbursing to the commonwealth the expense of his maintenance. Nevertheless, sufficient time has elapsed to satisfy me of the correctness of an opinion I have long believed and asserted, that a prisoner who has two years or upwards to serve, can, in his solitary cell, earn sufficient to clear all his expenses, from the time of his admission to his discharge.' I am well aware that the time elapsed since we have been in operation is too short, to come forward with any other than general remarks. I have seen nothing to impair my confidence in the efficacy of the system; but in all its operations, so far, much to strengthen one in the conviction that it will effect the great objects which its most sanguine friends have ever anticipated. The prisoners have been hitherto obedient and exemplary in their deportment. They appear anxious to obtain employment, and when it has been furnished, they have performed their labor with cheerful ness and assiduity. Those who are learning shew an expertness and desire to learn beyond my expectation. Having nothing whatever to divert their attention from their occupation, and being able to work at least twelve hours per day during the whole year, (as there is no danger in furnishing them with lights) are circumstances very much in favor of working in separate confinement. I am therefore sanguine in the belief that if proper machinery, &c. were provided, that this penitentiary would not only produce the great good which we all so ardently desire to the unfortunate inmates, but would also relieve the several counties who send them of the great burthen they have hitherto borne in the support of the convicts.

To employ the convicts thus advantageously, it, however, will be necessary to have a considerable sum for the purchase of tools, machinery, and stock. Without these we can certainly do little to advantage in a pecuniary point of view. The board of commissioners for the erection of this penitentiary having expended all their funds, and it is quite uncertain what amount they may obtain from the sale of vacant lots, I would respectfully suggest that an early application should be made by you to the legislature to furnish a sum adequate to enable you to purchase the necessary implements and stock, to employ all the prisoners advantageously, and thus prevent the counties being called upon to support their respective convicts.

"From the remote situation of the penitentiary from the city, it is highly important that it should be furnished with a larger alarm bell. This and a clock formed part of the original plan of the board of commissioners. I think these also should be obtained in addition to the articles previously mentioned.

"To effect the great object of Penitentiary dicipline, it is indispensable to prevent all intercourse among the prisoners. I feel, therefore, much pleasure in adding, that experience has convinced me that the structure and discipline of this penitentiary have completely accomplished this great desideratum. Conversation and acquaintance are physically impracticable to its inmates." [Signed,] S. R. WOOD, Warden. Eastern State Penitentiary, 12 mo. 5, 1829.

9 discharged as being of age, viz. 6 boys and 3 girls. 7 discharged as improper subjects or irregularly committed, viz. 5 boys and 2 girls.

returned to the New York House of Refuge, from which he had escaped.

escaped in consequence of the facilities afforded while the workmen were engaged in erecting

the new walls.

1 died; a boy who was in ill health when committed.


There remain 89 boys and 28 girls.

It may account in some measure for the want of moral principle and good conduct among these children, that many of them have been for at least a considerable time, without the opportunity of receiving parental assistance and advice. One hundred and forty-eight of those received had lost one or both of their parents-eighty had no father living-forty-one had lost their mothers-and twenty-seven had been deprived by death of both their parents.

In tracing the records of admission to learn the probable opportunities which have been enjoyed for instruc tion, it appears that

113 are the children of mechanics and laboring men. 53 lost their fathers when too young to know their occupations.

10 are children of seamen.


of merchants.



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of shopkeepers.
of farmers,


The manual occupations of the boys in the House of Refuge, eonsist of tayloring, carpentering, book binding, basket making and wicker work.

The girls are employed in cooking, washing, and ironing for all the establishment,and in sewing and house work generally.

The work done and articles manufactured by the children during the last year, are as follows, vizBy the boys, 84311 spelling books bound. 5200 do do folded. 612 pairs of shoes. 220 roundabout jackets. 357 pairs of pantaloons.

170 duck trowsers.

150 baskets of various sizes.

8615 demijohns covered with wicker


903 pint flasks do.

Many have also been employed in heading pins, and picking oakum.

By the girls, 220 shirts.

250 check and tow aprons.
161 pocket handkerchiefs.
81 frocks.

24 capes or vandykes.
75 pairs of shoes bound.

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