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for all meale negroes from 16 years ould and upwards to sixty, at 25 pounds per negroe; for all femeale negroes from 16 years ould to 60, att 20 pounds per negroe; for Chester mill att 100 pounds; Joseph Coebarn att 50 pounds; Darby mill Att 100 pounds; hartford mill att 20 pounds; Concord mill at 10 pounds; Jasper Yeats for his Esteate and calling 200 pounds; Caleb Pusye for his es teate and calling 100 pounds; Jeremiah Kollett for his esteate and calling 30 pounds; Nathaniel Newlin for his calling 20 pounds; All ordinary keepers for their callings 20 pounds; for all handecrafts that follow noe plantations for calling, 3 shillings apeece. Subscribed by us this present Grand Inquest.


"Chester County, December the 10th, 1695. We the Grand Jury by the King's authority, Presents Patrick Kelly and Judith Buller for marrying against the Law iu that case made and provided in this province the 2d of December: John Stedman prosecutor, Walter Martin, Foreman. The court orders that they be brought to the next court to answer the same, and that they marry again in the mean time according to law."

Chester County, December ye 11th, 1695. Wee the Grand Inquest by the King's authority, Presents Robert Koman of Chichester, for practising Geomancy accord ing to Hidon, and Divining by a Stick. Walter Martin, Foreman."

"Chester, ye 24 of the 12th month, 1701-2. We of the Grand Jury for the body of this county having duly considered and adjusted an Accompt of charges contracted by running a circular Line deviding this county from the county of New Castel, and setling the boundarys; and having duly and deliberately debated every article of said accompt, do allow of the sum of twenty six pounds nine shillings as debt due to be paid by this county for said work. James Cowper, Foreman." September 27th, 1709. "Chester, ss. The Grand Inquest for our Lady the Queen, upon their solemn affirmations do present that Frances, wife of John Wade, of Chester in the county of Chester, yeoman, the third day of July in the eighth year of the Reign of our said Lady ANNE of Great Brittain, France, and Ireland, Queen,

Defender of the Faith, &c. with force and arms, &c. at


December 11, 1695. "Wee the Grand Inquest by the King's authority, Presents these following Books, Hid-Chester afores'd in the county afores'd, in and upon one on's Temple of Wisdom which teaches Geomancy, and Mary Roads, against the peace of God and sd Lady the Scot's Discovery of Witchcraft, and Cornelias Agrippa's Queen, then and there being an assault did make, and her the sd Mary then and there did beat, wound and eTeaching Negromancy. Walter Martin, Foreman.The court orders that as many of said Books as can be villy intreat, so that of her life it was greatly dispaired, and other harms to her the said Mary then and there found be brought to the next court." did, against the peace of our sd Lady the Queen, her Crown and Dignity, &c. SIMCOCK, clk. Indorsed, Mary Roads, Prosecuter, Jur't Abigail Hollingsworth, affirmed, and Anne Fife, Jur't Evidences. Billa vera.

March 10, 1695-6. "Robert Roman was called to answer the presentment of the Grand Jury the last court; he appeared and submits himself to the Bench. The order of court is, that he shall pay five pound for a fine and all charges, and never practise the Arts; but bebave himself well for the future; and he promised so to doe -Whereupon he is discharged for this time."

"Chester, ye 8th of the 10th month, 1696. Wee of the Grand Inquest doe present R-C- for abuseing some of the magistrates of this county att the house of James Cooper in Darby, by calling of them knaves, and particularly JB, who he the said C-called the said Justice B-knave & rogue, adding he was one that hed bo't and sold us; and calling many of the Inhabitants beggarly Dogs and fooles; saying that he and his son knew more of the mathematical arts than any of us all-pre tending he could tell fortunes, and who had stole goods, and describe where they was.'


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der his feet; and also prophaine sweareing at the same
time, and for threatning my death several times.
Joseph Edge" (Constable.)
(For which he was fined 40 shillings and charges.)
"Edgmont, the sixth of the fifth moneth, 1699. Wee
whose names are underwritten, summoned and attested
by the coroner to view the body of Sarah Baker, have-
ing made strict enquiry and alsoe had what evidences
could be found, attested to what they know and wee can
can find noe other but that it pleased almighty God to
vissit her with death by the force of Thunder; and to
this we all unanimously agree. Subscribed with our
names the day and year above written.

Thomas Worrilaw, Robert Pemrell, John Worrall, Joseph Baker, William Coebourne, Peter Triggo, Ephraim Jackson, David Ogden, Thomas Bowater, William Gregory, Charles Whitaker, John Turner. Approved by me Jacob Simcocke, Coroner,"

December, 1697. "Wee of the Grand Inquest of the county of Chester, Present Edward Bezer and Jeane Collett for being unlawfully married about the 13th of the ninth month last, 1697. George Pearce, Foreman. Edward Bezer came into the court and prefered a petition, and declared it was throw Ignnorance-and the court considering of the same, ordered that he pay the charges of this court, and to make his address to the Governour." i

"Chester, the fifth day of the third month, 1699. 1, present Henry Barns for calling our Governour Penn a Rouge, and said that if he were heare he would abuse, him as ill as ever he did any man heare; and said he ca red no more for Constable nor Justices than the dirt un

"The afores'd Frances, wife of the afores'd John Wade, being called to answer the sd Indictm't appear ed and pleads Guilty, and sub nits to the mercy of the court; whereupon it's considered by the court here that she is fined the sum of Five shillings curr't mony of Pensilvania, paying which and costs, &c. she is discharged.”

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of Spain, in relation to which, irregularities have, not This assay was of unfrequently been noticed before. the coinage of 1824, the latest that has been obtained for trial. It indicates a value per pennyweight about half a cent higher than the general estimate founded on an average of former assays, which may be stated at 84 28-100 cents. SILVER COINS.

Spanish milled dollars appear, by the Assayer's report, to contain 10 ounces, 15 pennyweights, 12 grains of fine silver in 12 ounces.

Standard silver of the United States contains 10 ounces, 14 penny-weights, 4 5-13 grains of fine silver in 12 ounces, and, according to the weight, denomination and value of our silver coins, as established by law, is worth 115 38-100 cents per ounce.

The value per ounce of the Spanish milled dollars as deduced from the above assay thereof is 116 1-10 cents. Their value by tale, according to the average weight of those coins hitherto deposited at the Mint, may be estimated at nearly 100 cents 3 mills, the value stated in my last report.

I am, with great respect, your obedient servant, SAMUEL MOORE.

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BEAVER, February 12. On the 6th inst. at 7 o'clock in the evening, the thermometer stood at 16 degrees below 0, and as it was at 6 degrees the evening before, I presume it was the coldest night ever known in Pennsylvania. However, if any one should have an account of one colder, I should be In 1787 and 1788 it was pleased to know when it was. at 5 and 6 below in Philadelphia, and I have myself several winters observed it at about the same--and have frequently felt the effects of cold as much as on this morning, (the 6th,) which may convince us that there is so much depending upon our exposure and the state of the body, that we are incapable of ascertaining to any certainty, without a thermometer, the degrees of cold.

It is 2-3 the number of degrees from the freezing of water, to that degree of cold wherein Mercury ceases to be a fluid. 6° below 0



February, 5, 7 o'clock,
Do 6, 7










7, 7






8, 7





Fallston, 1830.








Nankins of all sorts,....



Raw silk, piculs

Sewing silks ps. Drougets.





At a time when the subject of silk is exciting so much attention, we presume the following table (for which we are indebted to a mercantile friend, who re ceived it from Canton,) will be found











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Handkfs. pieces

Do. Dresses....

Do. Scarfs,.....

Do. Shawls,....

Crapes (pieces)











20 above 0

17 do




50 5649 8150 10944 1785 175 75 50

3846 45384 12302 1181 2850 5914 8645 440 150 47 4295 46226 24145 2879 66170 11119

25 2967 7384 10026 250... 51 74 532,000

1025 62662 7740 680 2145 7880 6280 750 125 41 434 664,000|
750 20474 8206 1279 5369 10881 7657 1477 425 18210 267,405
850 17295 11340 56016089 4836 738212465)...144 68 392,900
2859 17575 15269 1596 1239923719 15561 4399 500 165 267




5 below 0


20 above 0


5 below 0

P M 37 above 0 A. W. T. Argus.

46450 78696 8683 23298 37877 19800 24314 1822-23 91,447 156,631 45264 32457 92338 1824-25 105,811 226,835 8100 48950 81505 1825-26 46,703 264,630 15800 58050 90985 1826-27 29,615 117,669 6160) 41970 42635 1823-24 55,616 142,425 1827-28 71,632 130,341|

1828-29 24,605 81,625

Satin Levantines are included with the Satins, and it is believed the proportion of them in 1827-28 was large. White Pongees for Printing are included under the head of Pongees, and considerable of them have been shipped during the last year,




VOL. V.-NO. 11.



NO. 115.

The river DELAWARE is navigable 300 miles at least, in small vessels; so high Mr. Pen has gone up it himself, as he was pleased to acquaint the writer of this treatise. It rises in the mountains, in the western parts of this continent, near the Iroquoise, and runs parallel with Susquehanaugh river in Maryland; the latter falling into the bay of Cheseapeak, not far from where Delaware river discharges itself into the bay that bears its name. Some ships bound for Pensylvania sail through Cheseapeak bay, the head falling within this latitude. They both divide themselves, near the Falls, into two great branches; and between them flows the Schoolkill, which runs into the Delaware at Philadelphia. These are the only Rivers of note in this Province; the rest are rather creeks than rivers; the south side of the Delaware abounding with them, as well as the north; of which we have spoken in the last article.

THIS is not the least considerable of our American Colonies; and for the few years that the tract of land, which goes by this name, has been inhabited, we beWe do not find any counties in the western part of lieve none has thrived more, nor is more rich & populous. this country; the first town we come to below the Falls, The proprietary, William Pen, Esq. is the son of Sir is Newton; and next to it is Pensberry, over against BurWilliam Pen, who commanded the English fleet, in con- lington, in West New-Jersey. Here's a small creek, but junction with other Admirals, in the time of the Rump; never a one at Newton. This part of the Delaware is whom Oliver sent with Col. Venables to Hispaniola; and called the Freshes. The next creek is Neshimenck, though that expedition failed through the ill conduct of then Portquessin, then Pemmapeka; between which Venables, Mr. Pen, for he was not then knighted, was and Towcauny creek, is Franctford, which seems to be generally said to have behaved himself with equal wis- a Dutch village, or a Swedish; for both Swedes and. dom and courage. He afterwards fell in with the roya- Dutch inhabit several places in Pensylvania. The lists upon the King's restoration, and commanded the Swedes seated themselves mostly in the creeks I have fleet under the Duke of York, in the first Dutch war, been speaking of, about the Freshes. The Dutch planhaving sometime before received the honour of Knight-ted near the bay. This place is also called Oxford, and hood; and dying not long after, was buried in Redcliff here is a Church of England congregation, supplyed by church in Bristol. For the services he had done the the Ministers of Philadelphia, there being none yet sent King and Nation, his son, the ingenious William Pen, to the town, which consists of about 150 houses. From Esq. solicited a grant of this Province; but having Towcauny, having past Mill creek, we come to declared himself the head of the people in England, called QUAKERS, he met with great difficulties in obtaining this pattent; which he at last procured, bearing date the 4th of March, 1680-1, and gave his name to the whole country, which is from him called Pensylvania in the original grant, by the King's authority. But before we proceed further in its history, we must give the reader some idea of the province.

PHILADELPHIA, the Capital of this Colony, dignify'd with the name of a City. 'Tis indeed most commodiously situated between two navigable rivers, the Delaware and Schoolkill. It has two fronts on the water; one on the East-side facing the Schoolkill, and the other on the West, facing the Delaware. The Eastern part is most populous on account of the Schoolkill, which is boatable 100 miles above the Falls. Each front PENSYLVANIA consists of all that tract of land in A- of the city, as it was laid out, was a mile long, and two merica, with all Islands thereunto belonging; that is from river to river. The street that runs along the rivto say, from the beginning of the fortieth degree of er Schoolkill is three-quarters of a mile in length. The north latitude unto the forty-third degree of north houses are very stately; the wharves and warehouses latitude, whose eastern bounds, from twelve English numerous and convenient. And as Philadelphia flourmiles above Newcastle (alias Delaware-Town) runs all ished so much at first, that there were near 100 houses along upon the side of Delaware river. So that 'tis and cottages within less than a years time, so since the bounded on the East by the river and bay of Delaware, foundation of this city, A. D. 1682, it has made answerand the Eastern sea; on the North, by West New-Jer-able progress; the number of houses being computed sey, or rather New York, for it goes a great way above to be 1200 now. They are generally well built, and the Jerseys; on the West, by the Indian nations about have large orchards and gardens. The land on which it the heads of Susquabanaugh and Delaware rivers; and stands is high and firm, and the conveniency of coves, on the South by Maryland; and reaches from Pensber- docks, and springs, has very much contributed to the ry, near the falls of Delaware river, to Cape Hinlope, commerce of this place, where many rich merchants now at the mouth of Delaware bay, near 150 miles-but it live; and we have been informed some of them are so runs along like a strip of land, being very much crowd- wealthy, that they keep their Coaches. The town was ed in breadth by Maryland. laid out and a draught taken of it by Mr. Tho. Holme, Surveyor General of the Province, which lies now before me; it seems to be a very fair plan, and if it was all built would make a great and beautiful city; the streets being broad, and so long all of them that they reach from river to river; a compass of ground which is large enough

We should have made mention of the first Inhabitants of this country, and the first discoverers; but what we have particularly to say of either the one or the other, we shall relate in the further prosecution of this history, and continue our Geographical description of it.




THE following account of the Province is taken from a work which is rarely to be met with, entitled "The British Empire, in America," &c. by J. Oldmixon. It contains an account of all the Provinces and West India Islands, at that early period. The author says in his preface, that he was honored with the friendship of WM. PENN, from whom, as well as others, he obtained much of his information. Although not exactly correct in all its descriptions, the account will probably amuse some of our readers.

Buckingham or Philadelphia county, we have not learn. ed. Indeed where there are so few inhabitants, there's more vanity and ostentation in dividing the country into shires, than real use and necessity; and if we do it, 'tis purely out of complaisance to the humor of the people. Within land lies Radnor or Welsh town, finely situa ted, and well built, containing near 50 families. In this place is a congregation of Church of England-men, but no settled minister. In these two counties are several other creeks; as Darby creek, &c. Amorsland lies between that and another nameless creek. From whence passing along by Ridloyer, we come to Chester town, which also gives name to a county. The number of families in this division, as well as in the others, I have not heard; but by the computation of the number of souls in all the province, they cannot exceed 200. This place is called Uplands, and has a church dedicated to St. Paul, with a numerous congregation of orthodox professors, whose minister is Mr. Hen. Nicholls; his income paid by the before-mention'd society, £50 a year. They are about erecting a school here, dependent on the minister. There's another little town at the mouth of a creek, called Chichester. Below that is a great creek, which we may be sure belong'd to the Dutch, by the name that is given it, Brandywine. Here's room enough to lay up the whole Navy Royal of England, there being from four to eight fathom water in this creek. Between Brandywine and Christina, is an Iron mill-what advantage it has been to the proprietors we know not, and suppose we should have heard of it, had it been considerable.

to make a city for all the inhabitants of the northern colonies, perhaps not excluding New England. Ships may ride here in 6 or 7 fathom water, with very good anchorage. The land about it is a dry, wholesome level. All owners of 1000 acres of ground and upwards, have their houses in the two fronts, facing the rivers, and in the High street, running from the middle of the one front to the middle of the other. Every owner of 5000 acres has about an acre in front; and the smaller purchasers, about half an acre in the backward streets. By which means the least has room enough for a house, garden and small orchard. The High-street is 100 foot broad; so is the Broad street, which is in the middle of the city, running from north to south. In the centre is a square of 10 acres, for the State-house, Market-house, School-house, and chief Meeting-house for the Quakers: The Lord Proprietary being of that profession, 'tis not strange, that most of the first English inhabitants were of the same opinion. The persecution rais'd by the Popish faction and their adherents in England, against Protestant Dissenters, was very hot when Mr. Pen obtain'd a grant of this territory, and the Quakers flocked to it, as an Azylum, from the rage of their enemies. But since the glorious Revolution, people have transported themselves to the Plantations, to enrich, and not to save themselves from injustice and violence at home.

Men of all principles have settled in this place, as well as others; and there are so many Orthodox professors, that there's a great church in Philadelphia, for the exercise of Religion, according to the discipline of the Church of England; and some of them have clamour'd lately very much for an Organ, to the great offence of the Brethren. We do not use this word out of contempt, but to avoid that of distinction, which is too scandalous for a serious history. The church here is called Christ church, and the congregation is very numerous. His late Majesty was pleas'd to allow the Minister £50 per annum, besides the voluntary subscriptions of the inhabitants. The School-master has an allowance of £30 per annum. The pattent for them was taken out at the charge of the Society before-mention'd. Here are besides this several Meeting-houses, as a Quaker's, Presbyterian, Anabaptist, and a Swedish church. The Reverend Mr. Evans is now Minister of Philadelphia. His assistant is Mr. Thomas; School-master, Mr. Club. There are at least 700 persons of the Orthodox church.

In each quarter of this city is a square of 8 acres, to be for the like uses as Moorfields in London: and in the plan there are eight Streets, that run from front to front, parallel with High-street, and twenty streets, that run cross the city from side to side; both of which are 30 foot broad. But we cannot suppose that near a tenth part of this ground is taken up, considering all the eight streets are two miles, and the twenty, one mile long, besides the fronts, and High-street and Broad-street.The Dock is formed by an inlet of the river Delaware, at the south corner of the front, and has a bridge over it at its entrance. Several Creeks run into the city out of

the two rivers.

Here the Assemblies and Courts of Judicature are kept, and the trade and business of the province is chiefly manag'd, as in all capitals. Here is a beautiful Key, above 200 foot square; to which a ship of 500 tun may lay her broad-side. Here are most sorts of Trades and Mechanicks, as well as Merchants and Planters; and considering 'tis the youngest capital in our English America, 'tis far from being the least considerable. It gives name to the country about it; for the remaining part of Philadelphia is divided into Shires, there being 5 more besides Philadelphia county, as Buckingham, Chester, Newcastle, Kent, and Sussex.

At a little distance from Philadelphia, is a pleasant hill, very well wooded, on the banks of the Schoolkill, call'd Fair Mount. Wioco, half a mile from the town, is a Swedish settlement; where the people of the nation have a meeting-house for religious worship-they have another at Tenecum. But whether these places are in

Next to Brandywine is Christina creek; where, when the Swedes inhabited this and the other side of the Delaware, they had a town which served them instead of a Capital, and the Governour resided, if we may give credit to Monsieur Robbe, in his account of La Nouvelle Swede, which included part of this country, and part of the Jerseys. This is a very large creek, but the village is inconsiderable. The Swedes had however a church here not long ago. Between this and the next creek is Newcastle town-from whence the adjoining county takes its name. 'Tis inhabited by English and Dutch, and is the next town for bigness and trade to Philadel phia, containing 300 families. Here's a church built, and a congregation, most of which are Welsh. Mr. Ross was lately minister. The Dutch have a church in this town.

Next to it is St. George's, then Black-bird creek, and over against it lies a little island, call'd Road Island, in the Delaware, where there is in that place 10 fathom water. Apaquamany creek is honour'd with the name of a river. There's another creek, so call'd, and they are distinguish'd from one another by the name of North and South. The inhabitants have built a church, but 'tis not endow'd or supply'd with a minister. Passing by Bombays point, and Duck creek, we come to Kent county, in which are Cranebrook, Dover, Murden, and Mispellivin creeks. At Dover is a church of England congregation; the minister, Mr. Thomas Crawford, who aware, which is here about 7 leagues over, Cedar creek has £50 a year, paid by the society. In the Bay of Delis by some dignify'd with the name of a river. 'Tis the first in Sussex county, where we find Plum point and Lewis creek.

The Villages hereabouts are very thin, the English inhabiting that part of the province that lies on the upper rivers; and since their settlements in Pensylvania, the Dutch and Swedes have made very little or no progress in their plantations, whereas the English have encreas'd so much, that there are now above 25,000 souls of that nation in this colony, and their numbers are yearly augmented. About three miles below Lewis' creek is the line of partition, which divides Pensylvania from Maryland. The Society of Adventurers we shall have occasion to speak of hereafter, had a Whalery near Lewis's town, but this will more properly be mention'd, when we come to treat of the trade of the place.



We shall avoid needless repetitions, and when we have given the reader an idea of the Indians in any one part of America, of the soil, climate, and trade, if that idea will serve for any other, we shall be glad to save him the trouble of reading it under another article. But though 'tis probable the New-York and Virginia Indians have a great deal of agreement, as to their language, manners, and customs, with those of Pensylvania, as the climate and soil of the latter agree with those of Virginia and New-York; yet we having a very particular account of these things written by Mr. Pen himself, in a letter, dated the 16th August, 1683, at Philadelphia, 'twill not be unwelcome to the curious, to see what he has said of| this country. To which we shall add, what others have also written, or told us, as far as we could depend on their authority.

We shall begin with the Climate and Soil, and treat first of the Climate. We see by its latitude that 'tis at a like distance from the Sun with Naples in Italy, and Montpellier in France. The air is sweet and clear, the Heavens serene, and Mr. Pen, who had been in the southern parts of France, compares the face of them in Pensylvania to that in those provinces. The Fall be gins about the 24th of October, and lasts till the begin ning of December, being like a mild Spring in England. Frosty weather and extream cold seasons have been known there, as in the year 1681, but the sky was always clear, and the air dry, cold, piercing, and hungry. The river Delaware was then frozen over, tho it is near two miles broad at Philadelphia. From March to June the Spring lasts, without gusts of wind, refresh'd with gentle showers and a fine sky, but the weather there, as in England, is more inconstant than in the other seasons. The heats are extraordinary in the Summer months, July, August, and September, but mitigated by cool breeThe wind is south-west during the summer, but generally north-westerly, spring, fall, and winter. If easterly or southerly winds raises mists, foggs, or vapours, in two hours time they are blown away.


The Soil of this tract of land is various-in some places 'tis a yellow and black sand, poor and rich; in others, a loomy gravel; in others, a fast fat earth, like the vales in England, especially by inland brooks and rivers, where the lands are generally three to one richer than those that lye by navigable rivers. There's also another soil in many parts of the province, as a black hazel mould on a stony bottom. The earth is not only fruitful and fat, but easy to be clear'd, because the roots of the trees lye almost on the surface of the ground.

We have already observ'd how Pensylvania abounds in rivers, the waters of which are good, both the rivers and brooks having gravelly and stony bottoms. There are also Mineral waters, that operate in the same manner with those of Barnet and North-hall. These springs are about two miles from Philadelphia.

The fruits that grow naturally in the woods, are the white and black mulberry, chestnuts, wailnuts, plums, strawberries, hurtleberries, and grapes of several kinds. The great red grape, call'd the fox-grape, is commended by Mr. Pen; and he thinks it would make excellent wine, if not so sweet, yet little inferior to the Frontiniac, it tasts like that grape, but differs in colour. There's a white kind of muscadel, and a little black grape, like the cluster-grape in England. Peaches are prodigiously plentiful in this province, and as good as any in England, except the Newington peach.


ons, musmellons, apples, pears, plums, cherries, apricocks, carrots, turnips, parsnips, cabbiges, colworts, poatoes, radishes as bigg as parsnips, onions, cucumbers; as also quinces, currants, Indian corn, hemp, flax, and tobacco, of which more hereafter.

The natural product of the country, of vegetables, are trees, fruits, plants, flowers. The trees of mostly, note are the black walnut, cedar, cypress, chesnut, poplar, gumwood, hickory, sassafras, ash, beech, and oak of several sorts, as red, white and black, Spanish chestnut, and swamp, the most durable of them all. Here are some excellent Shrubs, as shumack, snakeroot, sassaparilla, Calamus Arramaticus, jallop and spruce cranberries.

The artificial produce of the country is wheat, barley, cats, rye, pease, beans, squashes, pumkins, water-mel

As to the fertility of the soil, this instance is sufficient to prove it-one Mr. Edward Jones, whose plantation was on the Schoolkill in the infancy of the colony, had, with ordinary cultivation, for one grain of English barley, seventy stalks and ears of that corn. 'Tis common from one bushel sown here to reap 40, often 50, and sometimes 60-three pecks of wheat sows an acre.

Of living creatures, fish, fowl, and beasts of the wood, there are divers sorts, some for food and profit, and some for profit only. For food as well as profit, are the elk, as big as a small ox, deer bigger than ours in England, beaver, racoon, rabbits, squirrels; and some eat young bear, and commend it, but 'tis likely their tasts are as barbarous as their food. Here's plenty of oxen, cows, and sheep, insomuch that some Farmers have 3 and 400 in a flock. The creatures for profit only, by skin or fur, or for carriage and sale, are the wild cat, panther, otter, wolf, fox, fisher, minx, muskrat; and to name the noblest last, horses, some very good and shapely enough, which are exported to Barbadoes, and is one of the best merchandise shipp'd off from hence for that, or the other sugar islands.


Of Fowl-here is the land-turtle, (40 or 50 pound weight) pheasants, heath-birds, pidgeons, patridges, and black-birds in such flocks, that they even darken the air. A certain inhabitant of the province writes-that pidgeons settle in such prodigious multitudes, they make the large arms of trees bend ready to break, and more have been kill'd at a shot, than were corns of shot in the peice. Of Water-Fowl, here are swans, geese, white and grey, brands, ducks, and teal, snipe, and Curleus in great numbers; but the duck and teal excel any of their kind in other countries.

This, as well as other American provinces, abounds with Fish, which the bay and river of Delaware most plentifully supply themwith. Sturgeon,herring, roch,shat, catshead, sheepshead, eles, smelts, & pearch are caught in abundance in the bay, and in the river below the Freshes; and trout in the inland rivers. Oysters, crabbs, cockles, conks, and muscles are plenty here. Some Oysters are six inches long, and Cockles as big as stewing oysters, with which a rich broth is made-but we hope the labour, temperance, continence, health and virtue of this people render the use of such broths very rare. Whale-fishing has been attempted here by the society, of which I shall say more in its due place-a company of whalers were employ'd, whales caught, and oy! made; but that trade was of no long continuance, it being found to be expensive and uncertain.

There are divers medicinal plants to cure swellings, burnings, cuts, &c. and several that smell very pleasantas the wild mirtle and others.

The woods are adorn'd with flowers, excellent both for colour, greatness, figure, and variety.

The ancient inhabitants of this territory come next to be treated of. The Indians are generally tall, streight, well-built, and of singular proportion. Of complexion black, but by design, as the gypsies in England. They anoint themselves with Bears fat clarify'd; and using no defence against the Sun or weather, their skins are swarthy. Their eye is little and black. As to their faces, Mr. Pen says, The thick lip and flat nose, so frequent with the East-Indians and Blacks, are not common to them; for I have seen as comely European-like faces among them of both sexes, as on our side the sea; and truly an Italian complexion has not much more of the white, and the noses of several of them have as much of Roman.

Their language is lofty, yet narrow; the accent and emphasis of some of their words are great and sweet, as Octorockon, Rancocas, Oricton, Shakameron, Poquessin, all names of places, and very sounding. Then for sweet

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