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Hemlock generally grows where the ground descends towards the west and Maple or sugar tree where it descends to the east. The sugar tree is an invariable sign of a productive soil, but the country where it abounds is better calculated for grass than for grain.

In the southern part of the county the low grounds or vallies generally produce yellow Pine, white Pine, Cak and Hickory and occasionally Buttonwood. In the northern part the low grounds produce white Maple, Hemlock, Birch, Lynn, Butternut, Buttonwood and Alder and Walnut in many parts both North and South.


The swamps in all parts of the county produce Hemlock,
Spruce and Pine.

About one third of the arable land in Luzerne is best suited for grazing, the remainder for grain.

The Susquehanna River and its tributary streams
water nine tenths of Luzerne county. This river is
navigable for boats carrying about 20 tons at all seasons
of the year when not obstructed by ice, which is generally
the case from about Christmas until the middle of
March. The N.E. branch of the Susquehanna is much
less obstructed by rocks and shoals than the main river
below Northumberland. The boatmen are getting into
the use of sails, and I have seen during the last season
in a number of instances boats loaded with 20 tons as-
cend the Wyoming falls by the force of wind only. The
only rapids in the Susquehanna within the limits of Lu-
zerne, which are considered of sufficient importance to
be called falls are the Wyoming falls and Nauticoke
falls. The former is a rapid about a mile and a half Huntingdon
above Wilkesbarre which is never considered dan- Union
gerous and has at all times sufficient water in the chan- Dallas
nel for the purposes of boat navigation. The latter is a Plymouth
rapid in the river where it passes out of the valley of Wy- Newport
oming and as the water here passes very swiftly into Hanover
the side of an eddy, rafts of lumber are sometimes bro- Wilkesbarre
ken by the sudden whirl of the water.

The other principal streams of the county I have giv-
en a general discription of in a statement forwarded to
the Surveyor General last January.

All the streams of Luzerne are rapid and furnish excellent seats for all kinds of machinery.

The plain on which the town stands is alluvial; appears to have been wholly formed by the river, and is elevated about 28 feet above the common surface of the river. The town contains 92 dwelling houses, besides shops, &c.

Wilkesbarre is a borough and the seat of Justice. It stands upon a level plain on the eastern bank of the The question "what proportion of the county is clear- Susquehanna river. It was laid out about the year1775 by ed and cultivated," affords ground for matter of opinion | Col. John Durkee from whom it received its name in on which good judges might materially differ. The compliment to Wilkes, and Barre, two celebrated mem. opinion I shall form from an extensive practice of sur-bers of the British Parliament favourable to the Ameriveying and other means of deriving knowledge on this can cause during the Revolution. The streets are laid subject,is that not more than one fifteenth part or 54470 out at right angles having a square of about four acres acres is cultivated and that not more than one third of in the centre of the plot, the sides of which form an the county is fit or proper for cultivation, unless indeed angle of 45° with the streets, so that the four principal making rough pasture for sheep might be included in streets enter the public square at its four corners. In the meaning of the term. Even our rough and rocky this are the public buildings. Lat. 41. 16.' N. mountains like many of those of Europe, would feed large flocks, which under proper regulations might no doubt be a source of great individual and national wealth. The timber natural to our soil varies in species in different places from a variety of causes; such as the position of the ground in relation to the sun, the quality of the soil,&c. On the mountains the prevailing timber is oak of the various kinds thinly intermixed with Yellow Pitch and White Pine, which grows short and scrubby, there being very little of it proper for any other purpose than fuel. On smaller hills where the soil is better the timber is larger and of a better quality and consists also of a greater variety; such as Hickory, Lynn or Linden, Birch of three kinds, two kinds of Maple, Ash of two kinds, Cherry and Beech. These being mixed in every part of the county where they are found with Hemlock, a species of timber improperly calledSpruce in many parts of the state, being the Pinus Canadensis of Botanical writers. In the northern part of the county and at a distance from four to six miles from the river, the Sugar Maple or Acer Sacharinum of Linnæus is found in great plenty and the inhabitants generally manufacture their supply of sugar from its sap. In that part of the County where the sugar tree is found, Beech is the most common timber, Hemlock is next in quantity and the sugar tree holds the third place.


The only minerals which have hitherto been discov. ered in the county in sufficient quantities to merit notice, are iron and mineral coal here called stone ccal.Two forges have been erected for the manufacture of iron; one on the Lackawannock, the other on Nauticoke creek.

The population of Luzerne might probably be estimated at 9500. [In 1829, 4482 taxables or 22,410 inhts.] Luzerne is at present divided into the following townships viz: Sugar-loaf Nescopeck Salem










1829. 1

Blakely Covington Easton


The towns and villages of Luzerne are the following viz:-Wilkesbarre, Kingston, Conyngham, and Stoddartsville.

Kingston, is a village, built upon one street only, situ ate opposite Wilkesbarre, on the west side of the river, and distant about one mile from it. The village stands upon a plain about the same height as Wilkesbarre, and is in view from it.

Conyngham is a village and post-town, situate in Nescopeck valley, upon the turnpike leading from Berwick towards Bethlehem. It is 12 miles from the Susquehanna, at Berwick, and 18 from the Lehigh, at Lau sanne. It is built upon one street, at the foot of the

Buck Mountain.

Stoddartsville, is a village, situate on the western bank of the Lehigh river, at the Great Falls, upon the turnpike leading from Easton to Wilkesbarre. It is very favorably situated for all kinds of water works and machinery. The village is built upon one street, and upon ground descending towards the river. It is 18 miles from Wilkesbarre and 40 miles from Easton. There is a wooden bridge 224 feet long and 20 wide, over the Lehigh, opposite the village. A turnpike road is completed from Wilkesbarre to the Wind Gap in the direction towards Easton. Another from Berwick, on the line between Luzerne and Columbia counties to Lau sanne on the river Lehigh. These are the only turnpikes which are yet completed in Luzerne. Three others are in progress-1st, from Wilkesbarre to Chenango Point, in the state of New York, to pass through Montrose in Susquehanna county; another from Wilkesbarre to Clifford, to intersect the Great Bend and Coch. etun turnpike; and another from Pittstown towards Stoddartsville on the Lehigh.

The only natural curiosities worth mentioning in Lu


zerne, consists of water-falls. Of these there are several. Solomon's Falls, is a cascade, on Solomon's creek, about three miles from Wilkesbarre, where the stream passes down the Wyoming mountain. It consists of two pitches between rocky cliffs on cach side, which compress the stream very narrow. The whole perpendicular fall may be 30 feet.

Wapwallopen Falls, or Wapehawley Falls, is a fine perpendicular fall of Big Wapwallopen creek, about half a mile from its confluence with the Susquehanna river. The water falls in one sheet over a rock about 25 or 30 feet. Here are fine mills.


While at Loggstown, it became a question which road he should take on his way to the French commandant at Le Bœuf,& Shingiss advised him not to take the road by Beaver, because it was low and swampy. Proceeding on his journey, he arrived at Le Bouf, and learned from the French commandant that they were determined to take possession of the Forks in the spring. With this answer he left the French commandant in company with Gist, his guide, on foot, and arrived at the Allegheny river, below the mouth of Pine creek, on the 28th of December. The next day they spent in making a raft with tomahawks,and towards evening embarked, and attempted to cross the river; but the ice driving very thick, they made very little progress, and were finally compelled to take refuge upon Herr's or Wainwright's island-which of the two is uncertain.

Falling Spring Cascade is a beautiful fall at high water. It is formed by a small stream which falls down the Lackawannock Mountain into the Susquehanna river. The fall is about 50 ft. perpendicular over a rocky ledge. In the valley of Wyoming are the remains of ancient fortifications, which might perhaps be ranked as artificial curiosities. Of these, the remains of three are said to be discernable; one of them situate in Kingston on the West bank of Toby's creek, upon the flat, about half a mile from the river was examined by myself, and found to be of an oval form, having its longest diameter from the NE to the SW, measuring 272 feet, and from the SE to the NW, measuring 337 feet. There appeared to have been a gate-way at the SW side. The timber had long been cut away, and the ground cultivated, when I first saw it; but I was assured by the old gentleman (Mr. Pierce), and his relation has been confirmed by many others, that the timber which grew upon the rampart or parapet, was as large as any of the adjoining forest, and one large oak in particular, counted 700 years. There were also old legs found upon these mounds, indicating that a former growth of timber had preceded that which was then standing. The Indians have no tradition concerning the origin of these fortifications, and their history is altogether conjectural. The Population of Luzerne consists of a mixed peopelled Ensign Ward to surrender. This invasion is veple from various countries. Northward from Wilkes- ry properly called in the "Address," the commencement barre, the inhabitants are principally from the Eastern of the war, which terminated with the loss, by France, States, and the descendants of New England people.— of all her possessions in America, cast of Mississippi. Southward from Wilkesbarre, the inhabitants are principally Germans, and the descendants of Germans, with a mixture of Irish and Scotch descendants. It is, how ever, not common to find amongst them those who cannot speak the English language.

During the night it froze so hard, that they crossed on the ice in the morning. This circumstance affords a pretty strong inference that it must have been Wainwright's island, it lying close to the eastern shore, the narrow passage between it and the shore would be more likely to freeze in one night, than the wide space opposite Herr's island. Having crossed the river, they proceeded without delay to Frazier's, at the mouth of Turtle creek. On the 31st December, while Gist and the other men were out hunting the horses, Washington walked up to the residence of Queen Allequippa, where M'Keesport now stands. She expressed much regret that he had not called on her as he went out. He made her a present of a watch coat, and a flask of rum, and in his Journal he states that the latter present was much the more acceptable.

On the 17th of April, 1754, the French commander, Contrecœur, with three hundred and sixty canoes one thousand men and eighteen pieces of cannon, arrived at "The Forks," where Pittsburg now stands, and com

The incidents in relation to the subaltern who commanded the French and Indians at Braddock's defeat, were derived from La Fayette, during his late visit to this country.

I shall estimate the population of the several villages in Luzerne, as follows:


Buttermilk Falls, so called, from the colour of the water below, is a fall of about 15 feet over a rock, formed by a creek of the same name. There are fine mills

at each of the before mentioned falls.

Hell Kitchen Cascade is formed by a stream of the same name (a branch of Nescopeck) where it passes down a mountain called Hell Kitchen mountain. The stream passes through a deep rocky glen, and falls about 140 feet over a rocky precipice, forming a very beautiful and romantic cascade.






of his age, to the French commander on Le Bœuf, to demand that he should desist from farther aggressions. In performance of this duty, Washington arrived at "The Forks," on the 23d of November, 1753. While here, he examined the site immediately at the junction of the rivers, and recommended it as a suitable position for a fort. On the next day he proceeded from this place, and called on King Shingiss, near M'Kee's Rocks, who accompanied him on his way to Loggstown, where they met Monakatoocha, and other Indian chiefs, and held several councils with them.

In 1628, Wilkesbarre contained 355 taxabl. or 1775


Previous to the year 1753, the country west of the Allegheny mountains, and particularly the point which Pittsburg now occupies, was the subject of controversy between Great Britain and France. In the early part of year a party of Frenchmen from Presque Isle, now Erie, seized three English traders at Loggstown, and carried them back with them as prisoners. In the fall of that year, Robert Dinwiddie, Governor of Virginia, despatched George Washington, then in the 22d year


The account of the remains of a deceased officer

which were ploughed up during the last summer, near
the Arsenal, are in part founded on fact. It is true that
such remains were discovered, and that money and
marks of military rank were found with them.
[Pittsburg Gazette.

Address of the Carriers of the "Pittsburg Gazzette"
JANUARY 1, 1830.
How changed the scene, since here the Savage trod,
To set his otter-trap, or take wild honey,
Where now so many humble printers plod,

And faithful CARRIERS hunt a little money!
How things have alter'd in this misty plain,

Since Allequippa hunted and caught fish,
Where Mrs. Olver, and her gentle train,

Now read of Indians in the Wish-ton- Wish!
How short the time, but how the scenes have shifted,
Since WASHINGTON explored this western wild-land,
And with his raft, and Gist, his pilot, drifted

Upon the upper end of Wainwright's Island!

'Tis seventy years ago, since that bold knight, With blanket, cap, and leggings, then the tippey, Attended by his 'Squire, the aforesaid wight,

Paid his respects to good Queen Allequippa. Her warlike Majesty was quite unhappy,

To think our courtier had not sooner come: He soothed her feelings with a blanket capo,

And touch'd her fancy with a flask of rum. What changes, since from yonder Point he spann'd The meeting streams, with his unerring eye, And, 'mid primeval woods, prophetic scann'd

This great position and its destiny!

Since royal Shingiss dwelt upon the cliff,

Which overlooks the foot of Brunot's Isle, And angled in his little barken skiff,

Where now for wood a Steamer stops awhile: When Shingiss gave him his advice about

The best and nearest route to Fort Venango, And then decided for the higher route,

Against the route by Beaver and Shenango. But good king Shingiss, it is very clear,

Was but a royal archer after all, And not by any means an engineer,

And never heard or dreamt of a canal. Monakaloocha, and the Delaware band,

Then held their council fires of war and peace Where RAPP now cultivates the peaceful land,

And shears his sheep and wins the golden fleece. How changed the scene, since merry Jean Baptiste

Paddled his perogue on the Belle Riviere, And from its banks some lone Loyola Priest

Echo'd the night hymn of the voyageur!

Since Ensign Ward saw coming down yon stream,
Where all was peace and solitude before,
A thousand paddles in the sunshine gleam,

And countless perogues stretch from shore to shore. The lily flag waved o'er the foremost boat,

And old St. Pierre the motly host commanded: Then here the flag of France was first afloat,

And here the Gallic cannon first were landed.
Then here began that fatal war, which cost

The lily banner many a bloody stain;
In which a wide empire was won and lost,

And Wolf and Montcalm fell on Abraham's Plain.

Since a subaltern in old Fort Duquesne

Begg'd of his chief, ere yet he quit the post, To give him but a handful of his men

To venture out and meet the British host:

When his red allies hail'd him with a shout,

Who led them on with Indian enterprise, When Braddock's confidence was put to rout, And all, but wary Washington, surprised.

But jealousy suppress'd the Frenchman's fame, And when his chief sent home his base report, He cast a stigma on his rival's name,

And got the credit to himself at court.

How changed the scene, from all that Grant did see,
When from his bivouac on yonder height,
He waked the French with his proud reveille,
And challenged them to sally forth and fight!

One Highland officer, that bloody day, Retreated up the Allegheny's side, Wounded and faint, he miss'd his tangled way,

And near some water laid him down and died.

'Twas in a furrow of a sandy swell,

Which overlooks that clear and pebbled wave, Shrouded in leaves, none found him where he fell, And mouldering nature gave the youth a grave.

Last year a plough pass'd o'er the quiet spot, And brought to light frail vestiges of him, Whose unknown fate perhaps is not forgot,

And fills with horror yet a sister's dream.

His plated button, stamp'd with proofs of rank, His pocket gold, which still untouch'd remains, Do show at least no savage captor drank,

As gentle blood as flow'd in Scottish veins.

I think I see him from his sleep arise,

And gaze on yonder tower with admiration: Lo! on its battlements a banner flies,

An unknown flag of some unheard of nation! Of all the features of the scene around,

The neighboring stream alone he recognizes; Another such can no were else be found; The sun upon no river like it rises.

Does he retrace what was a blood-stained route,
Through thickets of the thorny crab and sloe,
He lists again to hear the savage shout,

Where every trace is lost of fort and foe.
But still a shorter time has passed away,

Since on the Allegheny's western beach The lurking Shawance in ambush lay,

In hopes some white would cross within his reach. Thence to the lake no white had settled yet,

And Indian tribes still held their ancient station, When the first Carrier of the old GAZETTE

Took round that little humble publication. The Muse, when she another year is older,

Will give a present picture of this place, Which from the canvass will but rise the bolder, That now its fading back-ground we retrace.



REPORT to the Directors of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, on the comparative merits of locomotive and fixed engines as a moving power; by JAMES WALKER, Civil Engineer-second edition, 1829.

We are indebted to a friend for the perusal of this Report, which comprehends by far the most complete and well-designated body of information respecting railway carriages that we have seen. We consider it extremely valuable, especially to civil engineers; and as the experiments now making in Liverpool give a pecu. liar interest to the subject, we shall present our readers with some of Mr. Walker's general conclusions. Mr. Walker and Mr. Rastrick were employed in January last, jointly, by the Railway Company to report upon the matters indicated in the title. In pursuance of this object, they visited all the principal railways in the North of England, made the most minute and careful inquiries as to the vehicles and species of moving power employed on them, and then gave the result of their investigation in separate reports. Mr. Rastrick's report we have not seen: we understand it agrees in every essential circumstance with Mr. Walker's.

The trade from Liverpool to Manchester is estimated by the Directors at 2,000 tons per day of goods, or 3,000 tons gross: that is, including the carriages which convey them. Mr. Walker was required to frame his report with reference to this amount of carriage.

The length of the rail-way is thirty-four miles. It has two tracks, one for going and another for returning; and three inclined planes, one in the tunnel at Liverpool, 1 1-8 miles long, rising 1 foot in 48; one at Rainhill, 7 miles eastward, rising 1 foot in 96, and 13 miles long; and one at Sutton, of the same length and depth. The other parts of the line scarcely differ sensibly from a dead level, never rising more than one foot in 800.

Mr. Walker assumes the most convenient locomotive engine to have a power of ten horses, wheels five feet


diameter, steam at 40 or 50 lbs. per square inch, and to weigh with its tender (a carriage which follows with coal and water) 10 tons. It will be observed, that the "Rocket," the "Novelty," and other engines now trying at Liverpool, have not one half of this weight. An engine of this description, he finds, can take 193 tons gross, or 13 tons of goods, and 64 of wagons, at 10 miles per hour, which is reduced to 9 by stoppages. It will cost with its tender, £720. Its annual expense in working, he estimates at £56 for capital (assuming it to last twenty years,) at £107 for annual repairs, and £204 for wages, coal, &c. The original cost of a steam horse, therefore, is £720, and the annual expense of working him £367.



This locomotive machine will make three trips daily between Liverpool and Manchester, with thirteen tons of goods, which is equal to the conveyance of 1170 tons one mile. Now, estimating the daily traffic at four thousand tons, conveyed thirty miles, or 120,000 tons one mile, the work upon the railway will require one hundred and two engines, costing £37,000 of annual expense. But four stationary engines are necessary at the inclined planes, and these increase the annual charge to £43,000. This may be considered as the entire annual expense upon the locomotive system; and this divided according to the quantity of goods conveyed,gives an expense of 2787 of a penny, or a little more than a farthing (1 1-8 farthing precisely) per mile for each ton of goods. This is the mere expense for vehicles and traction, exclusive of railway dues.

One-fifth more engines than are used require to be kept, to supply the place of those under repair. Adding these, the amount of capital necessary to furnish the locomotive and fixed engines, with their appendages, upon this plan will be £91,000. This is exclusive of the steam power to be applied at the tunnel.

Mr. Walker next estimates the expense of the Stationary Engine System. Upon this system, the line is to be divided into stations of 14 miles, and in some cases of one mile long, with two engines at each. It is assumed that the fixed engines are to drag the carriages at 12 miles an hour, which it is reduced to by stoppages. The whole line would, according to this plan, require 41 steam engines, viz.-two of 60 horse power, 15 of 30 horse power, and the other, of 12 or 20. These engines would cost £87,000; but the other necessary articles being added, the entire capital required would be £101,100. The annual expense of working the fixed engines would be £38,000; and this sum, divided by the number of tons conveyed, makes the rate per mile 2134, or one-fifth of a penny, for each mile.

We may now show the results in juxta-postion. Capital necessary to the locomotive sys


Ditto on the stationary system

Difference in favor of the locomotive

Annual expense and interest of capital on locomotive system Ditto

do. on stationary system

£91,000 0 0 101,000 0 0 £10,000 0 0

43,000 0 0 33,000 0 0 £10,000 0 0 2787 of a penny. 2134

do do


Or the rate by the two systems is as seven to nine in favor of the stationary engines.

We should have mentioned that Mr. Walker assumes the friction upon a well made railway to be 1-18th, or that a force of traction of 12 pounds will carry forward a ton at 24 miles per hour.

The consumption of fuel is estimated at 24 lbs. per mile for each ton of goods. The advantages of the locomotive engine over the

Difference in favor of stationary system
Locomotive system―rate per mile
Stationary system-
Difference 1-16th of a penny, or


horse is little or nothing when we work with low velocities, but becomes very great when high velocities are employed.

On the Brunton and Shield's line, horse power is found to cost 45 of a penny, or very near a half penny per mile, for the ton. But this is at the animal's most advantageous speed, 24 miles per hour. If it be raised to six miles an hour, the expense would be three times as much, and at ten miles an hour it would rise to 3d per ton. On the Darlington Railway the enginemen supply firemen and assistants with coals, oils, tallow, &c. for an allowance of 4d per ton per mile. The finding and repair of the engine is estimated to cost d more.For a horse and driver the Company pay ad per mile of the ton. Difference of speed causes no difference of expense with the fixed engines, and but little difference with the locomotive engine. If they call the expense by a locomotive engine travelling at 34 miles an hour 3d, at eight miles an hour it will only be 4d.

Mr. Walker observes, that improvements are now making in the construction of locomotive engines which may materially reduce the expense of employing them.

He proposes, if locomotive engines are adopted, that they should follow one another at intervals of four minutes, and at two-thirds of a mile distance.

In the stationary system, accidents, he thinks, will be less frequent, but when they occur, they will extend to the whole line. In the locomotive they will be confined to the single engine which goes wrong, and its train. In the stationary system, there must be a perfect sympathy and uniformity from end to end. In the locomotive system, one engine, with its train, by passing to the sidings,may stop any length of time it finds necessary, without preventing the others from pursuing their course. In either way the passage between Liverpool and Manchester may be made in three hours and a half. At present it is about twelve hours by land, and twice or thrice as much by water. The engineers give the following joint opinion as to the two modes:

"Upon the consideration of the question in every point of view, taking the two lines of road as now forming, and having reference to economy, despatch, safety, and convenience, our opinion is, that if it be resolved to make the Liverpool and Manchester Railway complete at once, so as to accommodate the traffic stated in your instructions, or a quantity approaching to it, the stationary reciprocating system is the best, but that if any cir cumstances should induce you to proceed by degrees, and to proportion the power of conveyance to the demand, then we recommend locomotive engines upon the line generally, and two fixed engines upon Rainhall and Sutton Planes, to draw up the locomotive engines, as well as the goods and carriages."

In a report printed two years ago, we find it stated that the Company would be able to convey goods from Liverpool to Manchester at 3s. or 4s. per ton; but let us call it 5s. At present the charge varies from 12s. to 20s. and may average about 15s. Now it is estimated that about 2,000 tons pass each way daily; and as 10s. will be saved on each ton, it follows that the saving upon 4,600 tons will amount to £2000 per day, or the enormous sum of £600,000 per annum!-a saving such as no single improvement ever before produced. And in this estimate we do not take into account the advantage derived from the unexampled speed of communication, which will give Liverpool and Manchester nearly all the facility of intercourse they could possess if they were parts of one city. [Liverpool Mercury.


The Grand Inquest inquiring for the city of Philadelphia, do present the following subjects as evils requir ing the interference of the proper authorities, viz:

The assembling of large numbers of young men and boys in the vicinity of the different Theatres, and some of the Schools and Engine Houses, where quar

relling, and the abundant use of profane and abusive lan- | pawnbrokers, and the sellers of old clothes-the first guage lead to riots-to the injury of those engaged in leading to assaults and riots, and the latter affording fathem, and the disturbance of the neighbourhoods in cilities so great for the disposal of stolen goods, as to be which they occur. Frequent false alarms of fire origin- inducements for stealing. To these evils may be addate in these assemblies, particularly on the Sabbath-ed, the increased number of lottery brokers, who, by whereby the firemen are put to great inconvenience, specious and alluring prospects of gain, drain the funds and to the great annoyance of all peaceable citizens. of those who cannot afford thus to part with them. All Another evil arising from juvenile offenders is the these causes may be considered as forming fruitful sourhabit of playing in the public streeets a game which con- ces of crime and misery. sists in striking a ball or stone with a stick, by which they are driven with great force, frequently to the in--often merely to gratify malevolent feelings,--and the jury of passengers, and from the noise created by the number of witnesses that are summoned to testify in play, to the disturbance of the neighbourhood. them, add much to the expense of the county, and have a direct tendency to injure all the parties concerned in them, by consuming the money and time of a portion of society least able to spare either. If this evil cannot be checked by the discountenance of it by magistrates, some legislative provisions may probably be made to have the desired effect.


The many suits for petty offences that are instituted,

The practice of hoisting merchandize from the street to upper stories of warehouses is presented, as not only inconvenient in obstructing the foot way, but as dangerous to those who may be passing whilst it is doing.

Philadelphia, January 5, 1830.

This Inquest presents the arrangements and police of Arch street Prison as evils requiring prompt attention and alteration. Vagrants and untried prisoners, of all colors and degrees of crime, are there assembled in one common room, and form one common association. The reputed pirate and murderer was found seated beside a youth confined for a drunken brawl-the robber and the passer of counterfeit money associated with those that had been committed merely as vagrants or for assaults-and all congregated together, and forming a mass of vice whose contaminating influence must be felt by every one who unhappily is mingled in it, and he who goes there a novice, if he can be taught by precept and example, may come forth an adept in villany. In the part of this prison appropriated to debtors, its unfortunate inmates, white and black, were found in one hall together, with privations so great as to form a severe punishment for their misfortunes and poverty.

The new Penitentiary as well as the one in Walnut street, appears to be well regulated, except in the sleep ing apartments of the latter, where, for want of more rooms, from 10 to 24 persons are placed in the same chamber-a practice that is fraught with bad consequences, but which, under existing circnmstances, pears unavoidable.

Although it may not perhaps be exactly within the prescribed duties of a Grand Jury, to examine and report the situation of the House of Refuge; yet, as it may be considered as a part of the penitentiary system, this inquest will state to the Court the satisfaction felt by every juror in witnessing the excellent regulations and discipline of the house, and the industrious and orderly deportment of its inmates.

Notwithstanding the depredations of some young men who were recently taken from the institution, may have shaken the confidence of the public in the salutary reresults that were expected from it-yet, when it is known that all these youths (who were from 16 to upwards of twenty years old) although young in years, had been frequent offenders, and were by practice mature in vice,-three of them had been several times the tenants of prisons in this city and New York-with vicious habits too strongly formed to be eradicated by their brief dicipline in the House of Refuge; from whence they were selected, not for their moral conduct, but from their muscular fitness for the duties they were intended to perform. Subjects such as these, it cannot be expected this or any similar institution can reform in a few weeks or even months.

In this address, the undersigned have no view to enter upon any examination of the individual or official merits or demerits of the five state directors above reap-ferred to; nor is it our design to present to your minds any refutation of the very many allegations of misconduct which have been circulated in pamphlets and newspapers, against the directors and officers of the Bank. Only a brief notice of some prominent points in "the Abstract," will here engage attention.

The officers of the bank are charged with "having made to the stockholders at their meeting on the 2d of February last, an erroneous statement of the situation of the bank, to impose on their credulity, for the purpose of extorting their very flattering encomiums."

It is on the younger and less hardened offenders that a system of restraints, discipline and labour, with moral and religious instruction, can effectually operate, by altering dispositions that are not too firmly fixed to yield, and by creating good habits, which, by fostering, will grow with the growth of their youthful posses-ors, and ultimately make them useful members of the commu



In the investigation of one hundred and forty-six bills of indictments, this Inquest has traced in a large proportion of cases a connection with tippling houses or


BANK OF PENNSYLVANIA, Dec. 22, 1829. To the Stockholders of the Bank of Pennsylvania. Five of the directors of this bank appointed by the legislature, have recently published a pamphlet, entitled "An Abstract of the Report of the joint Committee of the Legislature appointed to examine into the state of the Bank of Pennsylvania, with remarks," &c. the object and tendency of which is to impair the confidence of the stockholders in those whom they have elected to conduct the affairs of the institution.

The meeting in February last was more numerously attended by stockholders than had been any previous meeting for many years. The statements, as required by the charter, were submitted; and they were true exhibits from the books of the bank, made out by the first book-keeper, in the manner they have been uniformly presented to the stockholders for the last thirty-five or thirty-six years. These statements were two-1st, "A particular Statement of the General Accounts and State of the Corporation;" and 2d, "A Statement of the Protested Bills, not charged to Profit and Loss." These statements were laid before the meeting by the presi dent; they were examined and compared with each other by some of the stockholders-each stockholder hav ing free access to them for the purpose; and we believe it to have been known and understood by the members of the meeting generally, that the 333,647 dollars of "Protested Bills" in the one statement, constituted a part of the 2,649,685 dollars of "Bills discounted" in the other statement. It may be sufficient here to remark, that no person acquainted with the manner in which these accounts are kept in the legers, and the experience and accuracy of the person who keeps them, will believe that there has been any mistake, either accidental or intentional, in these statements, or in the form in which they were presented to the meeting; and

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