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1830.]

DAMMING THE DELAWARE.

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has given occasion for the formation of canals in various od having been employed with advantage, we are credparts of our country, deriving their waters from rivers ibly informed, on the Lackawaxen branch of the Dela by means of dams. The Hudson, the Susquehanna, the ware, and must in our opinion, be well calculated to Connecticut, and the Merrimack, are conspicuous in-control the acceleration which a raft acquires in descendstances; and experiment has suggested precautions, ing a fall. which taken, no injury or inconvenience ensues, Sixty feet is mentioned as the width of the upper deed, on the latter, (within Mr. Sullivan's knowledge,) end of the apron; being informed that it is not usual to the dams have enabled the people engaged in the lum- make rafts more than two lenghts of a board wide, or ber trade, to make and fulfil contracts during the sum-thirty-two feet, and that the space between the piers mer months, into which they could not have entered, but for this improvement of the natural navigation.

It is commonly noticed, that the perpendicular rise of the water is, in time of freshets, greater below than above rapids. From remarks made at Wells' falls, we believe sometimes nearly twice as much. But the rise of the water above dams, will not, in time of freshets, be increased as much more as the height of the dams above low water mark; because, the water has over them a free vent, or is not, as in the natural state of the river, so much impeded by the great rise, or accumulation of the water at the foot of the fall.

If in the construction of a dam, with a view to accommodate rafts in low river, the water is concentrated and deepened in the channels, they will pass in time of high water equally well as before; and if the low state of the river, the artificial slope is no more, or the same as some of the natural rapids, the current must be equal.

It now requires a rise of about five feet at Milford, and three feet at Easton, above low water mark, to be a safe rafting pitch of water.

The perceptible amelioration of our climate, from one period to another, and the diminution of the waters of the head branches of rivers, may at length make the complete improvement of the Delaware for rafting, im portant; and we conceive it expedient on this occasion, to suggest the establishment of a rule of construction, which if approved by the joint board of commissioners, and the legislatures of the two states, may become a law. We suggest the plan of construction, subsequently described, from being aware of the velocity which a raft is liable to acquire, and the force with which its progress is resisted when striking into water having less motion than itself; also, when the river is low, the acceleration which the water gets in descending along a sloping apron, whereby it may become two shallow, unless the slope has raised sides converging and keeping it from flowing laterally off. We are also aware, that when the forepart of a raft passes over and beyond the pitch of the dam, it for a moment ceases to be so much water borne forward as before, and that the weight of this end depresses the middle into the water, unless the mode of rafting be such as to allow the raft to be vertically flexible as when composed of cribs of boards, or boxes of coal. The passage into the apron should therefore have sufficient depth to allow a stiff raft to settle a little in the middle, without touching the dam. Few rafts draw more than two feet of water.

We proceed to describe the form of a dam which is adapted to a low stage of the water as well as to freshIt will be found to lengthen in the same proportion as it raises the rapid.

ets.

We recommend it as a general rule, that whenever a dam shall be constructed on the Delaware river, it shall be placed in the range of the channel, at a sufficient distance above the upper pitch of the fall, to admit of placing below it, or from it, down stream, a sloping apron, which shall extend at least ninety feet for every four feet, perpendicular measurement; that it shall have raised sides of three feet, converging so as to narrow the lower end one-fourth; that the opening through the dam into the said apron, shall be at least sixty feet wide and three feet deep; that to prevent rafts from running their forward end under water, when it reaches the bottom of the apron, there shall be a range of long timbers, hinged or chained to the foot of the slope, with their other ends floating down stream, in order to lift and theck the raft in its velocity, in some degree; this methVoi.. V

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of some of the bridges over the Delaware, is not much more than this, rafts may be guided or steered by marks, in the usual manner. The most convenient and permanent mark, is a timber, chained by one end to the bottom, the other consequently rising above water. A buoy of this kind on each side the passage through the dam, would be seen at a sufficient distance. Such are used to mark the channel on the Hudson.

At each dam there should also be two fishways, one on each side of the sloping apron. The method employed on some of the northern rivers, with success (within Mr. Sullivan's knowledge,) is on the principle of giving such prolongation to the fall as that the cur rent shall be greatly diminished, and at the same time affording resting places. To prolong the current; the slope, which should be thirty feet long; and constructed of stone, being twenty feet wide, with șides, is divided by partitions projected from its sides alternately, but not extending its whole width. The passage is consequently from right to left. If these spaces be 3 ft.wide and 2 ft, deep, there is room for fish to pass in great numbers. But besides passing up this passage, they may pass directly over the partitions to the opening in the dam, which should be at least as low therein as the raft-way is deep. Fish would travel one hundred and forty feet thus to ascend four feet. The fishway should be planked over to protect them, and exclude the light. We are also of opinion, that shad would ascend the sloping apron of the dams, especially if formed in gradations, which is the mode of building on the Hudson.

It is also a fact, (observed by Mr. Sullivan,) that shad ascend canals when connected by locks with the tide. It was his practice to let out the right to fish, at the tide lock of a canal formerly under his care. Whether it was instinct that led them to ascend the same waters from which they had come, or to seek some stream of fresh water, is immaterial; if we suppose the former, they are as likely to descend the Pennsylvania canal, from the Lehigh, as to enter the Delaware, and will in the spring be found in every lock, awaiting the opening of the gates to ascend.

We might here avail of skilful and ingenious modes of constructing the sloping aprons and fish ways, suggested by one of the board, but that simplicity and prac tioal experience in those we have above described; seems to make them more easy to build, and therefore proper to be adopted. We should also be glad to suggest some mode of protecting the young fish, did the various avenues opened for the spring ascent permit. The best mode of constructing dams depends so much on the nature of the bottom, and exposure to floods and ice, that we do not enter into this topic further on this occasion, as regards the plan of the above mentioned passage through them.

2d. The question, "at what places the waters of the Delaware may be most advantageously taken for canals and other purposes," cannot, perhaps, be intelligibly, answered without first offering to your attention a brief general description of the river Delaware, so far as it borders on New Jersey, above Trenton, with a view especially to the relative situation of the falls, at which we concur in thinking dams may be advantageously estab lished, and with locks near for the Durham boats.

The nearest rapid above Carpenter's point, is called Peter's rift. It is within the state of New York. The next is at Dunning's ferry, a short distance above it.These come within the range of this report, only as being the proposed location of a dam, from whence the

Delaware division of the Pennsylvania canal is to derive its principal supply of water. The former location being designated in the survey by Major Douglass, the upper one by the survey of Mr. Sargent; both places have the recommendation of rock bottom, and both approach near the Hudson and Delaware canal.

At Carpenter's point, where the boundary of three states coincide, the channel of the river is deep, and for a considerable distance above and below it, the river is not rapid.

In descending the river, the first suitable place for a dam is at Thornton's rifts, which would back the water above the point, in whatever manner the navigation shall be conveniently extended to the line; it will strongly invite the Hudson and Delaware canal company, by their own interest, to form a junction with it, as their canal will then become the most direct route to Philadelphia from the north and north west; the same loaded boat may then go from Philadelphia to Lake Champlain and to lake Erie in about the same distance, but at less expense than by any other route probably, as others involve transhipment.

estimate of this two miles is by Major Douglass, 58,000 dollars, being the lowest estimate.

The river might be crossed by an aqueduct bridge at the head of the gap, were it of importance enough to avoid the rocky shore of the Pennsylvania side, or to form a junction with the Sussex and Orange canal, or, if the whole distance to below Foul rift were found less expensive on the Jersey side the river.

But it is also true, that a connection with that canal may be easily formed by locks opposite Columbia, es pecially if a low dam were used below that place to form still water.

The canal will now have on the Pennsylvania side favorable ground, till it comes to the Slate Hill at Long rift, (52d mile,) which is succeeded by the flats opposite Belvidere, and then by the Limestone steep of Foul rift, but it may be worthy of a future investigation whether some expense might not be saved and advantages gained, by crossing by an aqueduct bridge at the beginning of the Slate Hill, and recrossing below Foul rift, especially as a seasonable re-supply of water could be drawn from the Pequest, below most of the mills in The great water power at this place, as The junction of this extensive navigation, which will the village. originate business, not previously calculated on, will be well as the produce of the county of Warren, might be done at only the expense of three locks and a short cut. expected to increase the canal revenue considerably. Considering the direction of the Pennsylvania canal Mr. Sullivan having visited Belvidere, heard in an interas located, the following suggestion is with a view to view with the principal inhabitants, much solicitude exenable New Jersey to partake in its advantages by giv-pressed to have the line re-examined, notwithstanding ing the townships along the river above the Walpack bend, access to it.

Accordingly, it is worthy of notice, that the next rapid is about a mile below the Millford bridge, near the house of William Brink, Esq. There is here a chain of islands on the Jersey shore, extending two or three miles, the channel being on the Pennsylvania side, across which were a dam thrown and a basin formed behind the islands, these being also connected, water might be at the necessary elevation to supply a canal on the flats to the bend, and by an aqueduct bridge connect with the Pennsylvania canal, after it had passed by tunnel through, or by other means around the Walpack bridge. This canal would accommodate the fertile towns of Montaque, Landiston and Walpack in Sussex. Had time permitted us, this side of the river would have been thus far instrumentally investigated; it may indeed be worthy of a future survey, as the union of purpose in the two states will not now limit the preliminary operations of engineers to one side alone.

Should New Jersey deem it expedient to open this line, Flat Kill may be made a source of supply; as the Delaware rarely runs between banks so low as to permit water to be taken from it by dams, without extensive works capable of sustaining the force of the freshets, but if the canal should be on one side of the river only, there is a suitable place below the bend for a dam, for the other to gain access to it by locks.

From the bend, the ground is more favourable on the Pennsylvania side to Broadhead's creek, on which the extensive village of Stroudsburg is situated, and here there will not only be the accession of this water as a feeder, but of business to the canal, this being the expect ed termination perhaps, of the rail road from Pittstown on the Susquehanna, or rather from the coal valley of the Lackawana to the water gap. There are so few places in our country whence ceal can be derived, and so few routes for this trade compared to those of England, that there can be no reasonable doubt of business enough on them all, to make them profitable stock. The transport ation on the upper sections will also add equally to that of the lower section; canals are generally profitable in proportion to their extent.

access to the canal could be had by crossing the river, to locks if on the other side.

The roads on the Pennsylvania side lead to the points where the aqueducts would cross and re-cross, and towpaths might be easily made wide enough for bridges; Erie canal crosses and re-crosses the Mohawk to occu py more favorable ground.

The alternatives are rock excavation for the entire canal, along Foul rift, according to the location of it by Major Douglass, or a river bank wall and terrace accordThis is no doubt the ing to Mr. Sargent's location. most difficult place on the route, except one. But two thirds the distance is very favourable ground.

When the canal line approaches Easton, the alternatives have been presented of building a dam, and of making an embankment in front of the town, to reach the Lehigh basin. But as the plan of building dams, which we have suggested, may obviate all objections to them, we recommend that one be erected at the head of the Philipsburg rapid, to form also a basin on the Delaware side of Easton, also with the lock in some convenient place for the Durham boats. The wide lock now building in the Lehigh dam, will connect the two basins; the Morris canal will also be accommodated.

We fix the dam at Philipsburg, to be four feet high, as this will back the water to the mouth of the Bushkill, where there is a suitable place for the lower lock of the upper section of the canal, which the commissioners will recect, will be 66 miles in length, descending 259 feet, according to the surveys.

It will also be recollected that the southern section from Easton to Bristol, (now nearly completed,) is 59 miles, of which the first thirty five miles extend to New Hope, and derived supply from the Lehigh; the other 24 miles being calculated to draw its supply from the Delaware, at Well's falls, situated near that village.

In descending the river from Easton, we find in the ten miles to the month of the Muscanetcong, six rapids, in which the whole fall is 28 feet.

As the canal passes along the Flats opposite the mouth of that stream, on which there are many mills, access might be had to it by two locks. From the Delaware, Durham falls a short distance below descends 3 feet.In further descending, we pass seven rapids before reaching Warford's falls, which have fourteen feet in 1 miles.

The ground appears more favourable on the Jersey side of the water gap, where there are for the greater part of the distance cultivated flats. But the motives Head of Warford's is by the canal levels, 88 feet above to cross to it may not be sufficient, as Broadhead's creek tide. The river is here 60 rods wide. The bottom is will have so recently afforded a supply of water. The rock. This was the place from whence the feeder to

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the Raritan canal was in 1824 recommended, or contemplated by the United States engineers to commence, for the direct route as surveyed under the commissioners of the preceding year, and as no more southern line had been levelled, it must have been a mistake to suppose (as in one of the pamphlets is stated,) that they recommended one found on investigation, to be too high. They could not have "recommended" what was as yet unexplored. The comparison was properly between the route surveyed by Mr. Randall, and that deemed the best location for the corporate company.

Which ever may be finally decided on, this location for a dam may be important as affording to both states peculiar advantages. It permits of a re-supply to the Pennsylvania canal, for the nine miles above New Hope, thus rendering the canal less rapid towards Easton, than it may otherwise be. The ground between the canal and river is favorable for the formation of a lock and basin to connect the Raritan feeder and the canal. As the head of the feeder on the Delaware and Raritan canal, though 26 miles distant from that line, it has the preference over nearer points of departure on the river, as its elevation permits of some choice of ground in locating the line, perhaps of keeping it on the flat lands instead of the shore, and the immediate fall of the 14 feet allows of soon withdrawing the line from the reach of the freshets, and of forming a guard lock and gates with a sufficient head of water to throw in a sufficient volume for the exigencies of a very dry summer, or any occasion of sudden replenishing. It permits of the repetition of the advantage of a head of water, and of the proper slope of bottom for a feeder, without its making the canal too deep.

Our climate being dryer and hotter than France and England, experience has proved that our canals will require more water than is stated to be requisite in those countries.

We therefore recommend the head of Warford's falls as the place of the next dam, and that the height of entrance on to the sloping apron for the passage of rafts be two feet above low water mark, the rest of the dam to be four feet above that mark, ordinarily; that in building the dam at this place, there be erected a pier at the angle where the dam and feeder wall shall meet, and thence continue the dam to the Jersey shore; that a dam may be made from the main dam to the head of the island, to form a basin to draw the supply of water from for the Pennsylvania canal, and if the Durham boat lock be from below into this basin, there be made an open. ing for them through the main dam to pass into the river above it.

Bull's Island rapid is the next below Warford's. It is seventy-two feet above tide, and along the Pennsylvania shore, and descends three feet in one-fourth of a mile. The canal here passes through Lumberville, and is sustained by a high wall, which a dam at the rapid would in some measure disturb. Were a dam to be requisite here, its location might be convenient from the upper end of this island to a point of land above the village in ten feet water. The bottom of the rapid is gravel. Pennsylvania could derive no advantage from this dam. The nearest place above the island convenient to lock up to the canal, is at the distance of a mile, near the Point Pleasant ferry.

Were this the head of the Raritan canal feeder, it could not be so soon withdrawn from the reach of the freshets as at Warford's, but it would be easy to open a communication by locks with the Island Harbor and the Pennsylvania side of the river, if there be

occasion.

Eagle island rapid is 65 feet above tide, gravel bottom descent about two feet, It is situated opposite the head of Paxton's island. There are of course three passages. This place was fixed on for the re-commencement of the Raritan canal feeder, when in contemplation of the corporate company, the head of the feeder being at the mouth of the Muscanitcong.

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Well's falls according to the canal levels is 47 9-12 ft. above tide. The descent in one mile is 12 feet. The bottom is rock, and favorable for the establishment of a dam. The Pennsylvania canal here descends into a basin, from which the lowest section extending to Bristol 244 miles, commences. The water line of its first level corresponds with the surface of the river, if raised three feet. But as some head of water is desirable, especially at the season when the river is in the lowest state, and the evaporation and waste from the canal, greatest; we concur in the opinion that a dam 4 feet high, is the least alteration thereof that would answer the purpose, the bottom of the raft way being 3 feet below this.

But as it may become of great consequence to the trade of Philadelphia, and for the interest of the state, to prolong the canal twenty miles to that city, we think provision ought now to be made at this place for a greater supply, especially as it may be for the interest of New Jersey to have the Pennsylvania canal from opposite Trenton to Bristol made deeper and wider than at present, to correspond in dimensions with the Raritan or New Jersey canal. Therefore the base of the dam should be broad enough to allow of raising it to 8 feet, and in this prospect, that the sloping apron should be twice as long as it would have been for 4 feet.There would also be some immediate advantages, in raising it at once to this height, as one of the two combined locks near the basin could be dispensed with, and the guard lock be also a life lock in effect: thus saving one lock. The advantages to New-Jersey, would be that she might avail of the water power thus created, which being situated so as to reach either of the great markets by water carriage, would be valuable. precise location we have fixed on for the dam is distant enough from the head of the fall to allow the length of the apron to be double. The Durham boat lock, it is understood would be placed between the river and the canal, near the foot of the falls, at the mouth of Neily's creek, so that they would pass freely up the canal, about one mile to re-enter the river.

The

For these reasons we recommend that a dam be authorised at Well's falls to be not less than 44 feet high, and not mere than eight feeet high, reserving the raft passage.

At Trenton falls, we find it more difficult to reconcile the creation of water power with a sufficiently direct passage on the river, between the two canals.

But the principle of the sloping apron for the passage of rafts, will here permit however of a dam eight feet in height.

The raft way to be here two feet deep, sixty feet wide, which in relation to the mill power, may in time of low water be temporarily closed. The situation of the dam to be favorable to the rafting, should be about 200 feet above the first pitch of the falls.

Fortunately there is a ledge shore on both sides of the river, where the dam might safely abut, openings of sufficient width, being made for the race ways, with guard gates; and others might be placed lower down the race ways if necessary.

The height of Trenton falls above low water is 9 31-100 feet, but as the rise of the tide is 4 feet, the elevation is at high tide 5 31-000 feet. If to this we add 8 feet, the proposed height of the dam above low water mark, the head of water will be 13 feet, less so much as be lost by the slope of the current from the dam to the situation of the mills at the head of the tide, the race way being carried by aqueduct across the Assumpink, or by excavation up along its bank to Well's pond, and thence extended to tide water.

But in our opinion, the preferable mode of connecting the two canals, will be by an aqueduct over the Delaware. Its precise situation will depend on the location of the canal, probably above the falls, and perhaps its piers be in aid of the strength of the dam. Its elevation, if supplied from the New Jersey canal with water, may

be fixed at whatever may be deemed sufficient above the freshets. It may very conveniently descend one lock to the line of the Pennsylvania cana', in Morris ville; and if the former should be of larger dimensions, the latter may be easily made to conform to it quite to Bristol, instead of stopping at Tully town, heretofore spoken of as its termination at tide, but below that place there are said to be some shoals in the Delaware.

The value of mill power at Trenton and at Morrisville created by the dam may be calculated from the annual rent of one foot square, apperture under a main head of 24 feet at Patterson, and at Wilmington in the state of Delaware, as far below, as Trenton is above Philadelphia.

transportation, from the moment it shall be opened, augmenting for ages, ought to be a reason for surmounting considerable difficulties of ground, it is not for us to decide, though it must be considered our duty to designate a position for the feeder, that shall give the legisla ture command of the whole ground, more especially as the circumstances of the investigation are now divested of all difficulty.

Both states are now alike interested in promoting this great work; and the city of New-York, as the ceutral sea-port, and Philadelphia, as the greatest centre of an immense distributing trade, most especially. Besides, we perceive that the states' commissioners, appointed in 1816, after a skilful survey, reported in Jan

The permission in our instructions to suggest what-uary, 1817, in favor of a short route, which those of 1824 ever may appear expedient, as to the use of the joint also describe and approve, as did the United States' enproperty, which the two states possess in the waters of gineers at this period. Nor can we in reference to its the Delaware, leads us in addition to what has already national effect, neglect the suggestion by the former, been recommended as regards the location of dams, to that there should be a continuity of the accommodation remark, that at these places and other places when it kept up through the winter months, by a road of pecumay be found to be for the accommodation and interest liar hardness along one of its banks; nor should we omit of either state, to erect dams, the engineer or superin- in this general view, the more recently suggested locatendent of the work, may always be required by the tion between Princeton and Stony Brook, which on law that may perhaps be framed on this subject general-minute investigation may be found, it is thought, both ly, to keep an accurate account of the cost of any dam to avoid the embankment of Lawrence Meadow, and which either state may construct, and on its completion the deep cutting of the former summits, as well as the furnish to the proper authority of the other state, an au-objectionable circuit. Which ever route may be finalthenticated statement of the expense of the work, (lessly agreed on, from a knowledge of the whole ground, it than of any special gates or abutments which its purpo- will not be useless to keep in mind, that it is the cusses may have required) in order that whenever the oth-tom of the western merchants to make their principal er state shall see fit to avail of it the property of one un-purchases in the winter months, and to get their goods divided half part thereof, on the payment of half the upon the Ohio, while the freshets of that river may yet cost, shall vest, as if they had originally joined in the bear them rapidly to their remote destination, and that construction. Each state will thus be exempt from ex- a great amount of merchandize to supply that demand, is pense, from which it would derive no immediate reven-drawn from N. Y. to Philadelphia in the winter months. ue, yet both be authorised by convention with the other to proceed in the accomplishment or undertaking of works of great public utility.

In conclusion. Having described the whole line of the canal, in order to suggest means of connection, and some possible variations of the line, for mutual advantage, and named places where dams and Durham boat locks are immediately requisite, and where water power may be most advantageously created, and having designated a place for a feeder, equally commanding all the supposed routes of the Delaware and Raritan canal: that work so long contemplated by New Jersey, whenever the interests of the two states shall coincide, and its supply, as well as that of the Delaware division of the Pennsylvania canals, be practicable, without impairing more ancient interests and uses of the river. We ask leave to add a few general considerations, which may further promote the object.

Nor will the amount of produce, in a few years, brought from the west to Baltimore, at that season, fail to give some occupation to the New Jersey route, in the other direction.

We do but extend the suggestions of the commissioners: Therefore, in remarking that the progress of the art of constructing, and of using rail ways, may well be expected to take place of the road, and this central facility of internal commerce, be perfectly adapted to every season, and to every kind of transportation.

The ample command of water, may ultimately give rise to very useful branch canals, and to mill-power, at the two extremities of the trunk, perhaps from its ele vation, capable of operating three times over. Mills or manufactures so well situated, must have the effect of increasing the canal revenue.

Presenting duplicates of this report to the acceptance of the commissioners of both states, and referring to the accompanying maps. We have the honor to be, Very respectfully your ob't servts. JNO. L. SULLIVAN, H. G. SARGENT.

Trenton, Oct. 26, 1829.

PENNSYLVANIA RAIL-WAY.

Rail-way, Nov. 24, 1829.

In every instance, we believe, in which the proposal to make the New Jersey canal has been before the legislature, its national effect and consequence has been admitted, not only as recommending the work, but as recommending it strongly, to the participation of the general government. We conceive that effect to depend very much on the economy of the route and its unbroken continuity. Under this impression, and knowing the peculiar dryness of our summers sometimes, if not invariably so, we felt it to be incumbent to fix the Report of John Barber, Superintendent of Pennsylvania source of supply as much as practicable, beyond the reach of doubt and accident. Nor could we alone, from the very sincere respect we entertain towards the engineers who located the lower summit for this canal, when in contemplation under the corporate grant, pass by the apparent reluctance of the consent given to it by the United States' engineers, on the ground of its not promoting the national interest. They were in favour of the shortest route that could be found practicable.-entered upon the duties of that office. How far the circuitous location was constrained by the existing provisions of law, relative to the distance of the feeder from the river, or how much on the other hand, considerations of political economy in the saving of ten giles, in a route to become the medium of an immense

TO THE BOARD OF CANAL COMMISSIONERS.

Gentlemen-The superintendency of the Pennsylva nia rail-way, extending from Columbia to the city of Philadelphia, having, by a resolution of your honorable board devolved upon me, and being officially apprised of the same, I immediately repaired to Harrisburg, and

The contracts which had previously been entered into, for the road formation of 40 miles of railway, together with those for the bridges and culverts occurring on the line, were handed over to me by my predeces sor. The distance had been divided into 40 sections of

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1830.1

REPORT ON PENNSYLVANIA RAIL-WAY.

about one mile each, twenty whereof were located and contracted for on the eastern end, and termed the eastern division, and twenty on the western, called the western division.

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The piers of the principal bridges have been covered in and completely secured from the operations of the frost.

Competition for contracts upon the line of rail way In order to comply in as concise a manner as practi- having been great, the work was taken at moderate pricable with the requisitions of the act of assembly, pass- ces, therefore a large amount of work has been execued on the 16th day of April, 1827, and with instructions ted for the money expended, and it is due to the conrceived from the secretary of the board, I herewith tractors to state, that had it not been for their persever; transmit tabular statements of the condition and progressing industry, many contracts would have been declared of the work. abandoned.

Those marked A, B, and C, to which I shall first call your attention, present a list of all contracts entered into on the part of the state from the 18th day of February last to the first Monday in November, 1829; they will exhibit at one view the names of contractors, dates of contracts, prices at which the work was taken, together with the percentage retained to secure the completion of the contracts, and the amount of monies paid on each.

The next in order of reference is that marked D, presenting a list of all persons employed in the engineer department, from the 1st of June to the 31st August, and statement E shows the present organization of the corps, to each of which lists, are attached their rates of compensation.

Statement F damages which have been paid, and statement G exhibits a detailed report of Major Wilson, the principal engineer upon the line, in which is contained all the information required by a resolution of the board, passed at the session in October last; and with instructions subsequently received from the secretary in relation to a "statement of the amount at which each section was estimated, by whom made, the amount of the mistakes in the estimates, and the cause." In referring to this paper, it will be seen that a balance of $6,910 69, is shown against the present contracts, from the estimates of 1828; but as the grubbing, which amounts to $2,837 70, was not taken into estimates of 1828, the shortening of distance, consequently lessening the expense of fencing on the line, and the difference of damages in favour of the commonwealth, where the line has been changed at the village of Hempfield, would be proper items to be charged against the above balance, it would leave but a small sum as the excess.

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$16,468 38 This balance is the per centage retained, and will only be payable as the contracts are completed.

By a resolution of the Board passed at their last session, it was recommended to the acting commissioners and superintendents on the different lines of canal and rail way, to issue certificates for the amount of estimates due. Those issued from this office for the months of September and October, have all been taken up and cancelled, and there now only remains in circulation an amount equal to $4,964 05, being the balance of November estimates.

To fulfil the requisition of the canal law of 1827-8, Major Wilson, on the 9th instant, caused a survey and examination to be commenced on the line of rail way, extending west of the Susquehanna to the borough of York. The survey has been completed, and the report thereon together with the drafts and estimates, will, as soon as they can be made out, laid before you. All of which is most respectfully submitted, JNO. BARBER, Supert. Pennsylvania Rail Road Office, 2 Columbia, Nov. 24, 1829."

G.

As yet no contracts for damages have been entered into, nor have any suits been brought against the commonwealth. I found it impracticable to make contracts until more of the work was completed, as the exact amount of dainages until then could not be ascertained. I would here observe, that releases for damages to property through which the railway is located, have been executed to a considerable extent. The line passes from the canal basin at or near the Columbia bridge, about a mile, to where it ascends the inclined plane, through very valuable ground in the borough of Columbia; the owners, with very few exceptions, have relinquished; and Mr. William Coleman, through whose Fands the line passes near a mile, and Doctor Muhlen-To the Superintendent of the Pennsylvania Rail Way. berg, have released to the commonwealth; some others SIR: have also signified that it is not their intention to ask damages.

The work upon the line has progressed with great steadiness: the contracts have been driven on with as much rapidity as the nature of the work and the state of the funds would warrant; nine sections have been completed to the satisfaction of the engineer and superintendent, thirteen more are nearly finished, and it is confidently expected that if the weather should prove favor able until the first of January next, all, except a few of the heaviest sections will be finished. The masonry of the bridges and culverts is in a forward state, and but a short season of good weather in the opening of the spring will be required to finish all the stone work upon the line. Owing to the low state of the waters during the past summer, the timber intended for the superstructures of the bridges could not be delivered, in consequence of which no wood work has been raised.

Table Exhibiting the probable cost of work unfinished on the 40 miles of the Pennsylvania Rail Way, under contract, 15th Nov. 1829.

Pennsylvania Rail Way,

Eastern Division, November 21, 1829.

In compliance with the instructions of the board of canal commissioners, I herewith transmit an estimate taken on the 15th inst. at contract prices, of work remaining to be done on the western division of the rail road, from section 1 to 30 inclusive, and on the eastern division, from section 60 to 79 inclusive, terminating at the foot of the inclined plane east of the residence of the late Judge Peters. The balance of work on each of the unfinished sections has been proportionally esti mated according to the various qualities of rock, slate, or other substances which have appeared in the progress of graduating the road: a full allowance has therefore been made in the amount required for finishing them. As it may be satisfactory to the board to know what alterations or improvements have been made on the line, since my report of December, 1828, I will briefly submit the following statement-All curves upon the line which were before traced by a minimum radius of 541

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