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terests of the city, and particularly on our establishment at Fair Mount, and to report the result thereof, with such measures as they may deem expedient to be adopted, at the next meeting of Councils," were unanimously pre-adopted on the 24th Dec. last.

On the 31st of the same month, the Watering Com mittee made a full report on the matters referred to them. This report has been published, and is in the hands of the Committee. They concluded it with the following resolutions, which were unanimously adopted by the Select and Common Councils

way at the intersection of Broad and Vine streets in the City of Philadelphia, as recommended by the Board of Canal Commissioners of the State of Pennsylvania, meets with the decided approbation of Councils.

Resolved, That a certified copy of the foregoing amble and resolution, and of the Report of the Watering Committee on the same subject, made the 7th January 1829, be transmitted to the Representatives of the City of Philadelphia in both branches of the Legisla


After the joint report of Messrs. Wilson, Robinson, and Hopkins, approving the original location by Peters' island, with a slight change in its graduation, and a branch line down the eastern bank of the Schuylkill, James Page, Esq. then an active and influential member of the Common Council, offered the following preamble and resolutions, which were unanimously adop


"Whereas, it is of essential importance that the views of the citizens of Philadelphia, in relation to the confirmation by the Legislature of the route for the Rail-road as originally reported by the Engineers on the part of the Commonwealth, and subsequently altered and improved, should be made known to their Representatives in that body, Therefore, be it resolved, by the Select and Common Councils, That the members from the city, in either House, be requested to use their exertions to procure, at the hands of the Legislature, such confirmation; as it is believed that the route proposed meets with the approbation of nine tenths of their constituents, is calculated more than any other that could be selected to save expense to the commonwealth, and to add to the advantages of the city and districts, and will give to each, a fair proportion of the immense

trade of which it is to be the outlet.

"Resolved, by the Select and Common Councils, That in their opinion, the location of the Philadelphia and Columbia Rail Road, recommended by the present board of canal commissioners, would be greatly injurious to the interests of the city and the State, and destructive to the valuable property owned by the city at Fair Mount, and the Water works thereon erected.

"And whereas it appears that the location so recommended by the Board of Canal Commissioners, will be highly detrimental to the interests of the city at large and may prove greatly injurious, if not destructive to our dam and works at Fair Mount, and it is right and proper that so important a subject should be duly weighed and considered, and the opinion of Councils deliberately expressed after full information. There

Resolved, by the authority aforesaid, That Councils do most cordially approve of the proposed route for the Railway crossing at Peters' island, and terminating at the intersection of Vine and Broad streets, with a branch Railway to accommodate the eastern front of the Schuyl kill, as best calculated to promote the interests of the city and adjoining districts, and of the commonwealth.

"Resolved, by the authority aforesaid, That the Presidents of Councils be, and they are hereby requested, to cause to be prepared memorials to the Senate and House of Representatives, expressive of the sentiments of Councils on this important subject.

"Resolved, by the authority aforesaid, that the Watering Committee be, and they are hereby authorized, to take such measures as they may deem expedient to car ry into effect the view of Councils."

of their constituted authorities, and a general Town The people of Philadelphia seconded the movements Meeting was called on Saturday the 16th January last, of the citizens of Philadelphia, "in order to express their and Philadelphia Rail Road." The meeting was accor sentiments relative to the Termination of the Columbia

"And be it further Resolved, That any change or alteration in the route laid down by careful, diligent, and skilful men, selected on the part of the State for that purpose, and whose report in relation thereto is entitled to the fullest confidence, being the result of public duty, and not of individual procurement, would, in the opinion of Councils, be of serious detriment to the interests of the city and surrounding districts, and greatly interfere with the noble object which the commonwealth has in view, that of a just distribution, (whenev-dingly held, and a more numerous or respectable one discussion took place, and Mr. Harper and Mr. Randall never was collected in the City of Philadelphia. A free (two of the deputation who have been heard before this committee,) and Dr. Hare, addressed the meeting a himself decidedly in favor of the Fair Mount route, and gainst the Peters' Island route. Mr. Harper expressed thought it would not injure the Water Works in the he might say, (for there were only five nays to the first least. The meeting unanimously, Mr. Read remarked resolution, and none against the residue) adopted reso lutions approving the original location at Peters' Island, with a branch down the east side of the Schuylkill, con demning the Fair Mount route, and the erection of bridge piers in the stream below the dam, and remon strating against any branch being carried on the west side of the Schuylkill at the expense of the State.

er it can be effected) of the advantages likely to arise from the great scheme of Internal Improvement, so happily conceived, and so ably executing.

"And be it further Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be forwarded to each of the city members, signed by the President of Councils."

During the period of these transactions, John M. Scott, Esq. was President of the Select Council, and James M. Linnard, Esq. was President of the Common Council, and copies of all the foregoing resolutions were forwarded to our representatives at Harrisburg, attested by their official signatures.

When the report of the Canal Commissioners in favor of the Fair Mount route, became known in the city, a preamble and resolution, which, after stating the acts of the preceding Councils, and the report of the Canal Commissioners, contrary to the opinion of all the Engineers of the State, went on to say:

On the 28th January, the following notice, signed by a number of respectable citizens, appeared in the pub



Be it resolved by the Select and Common Councils, That the Watering Committee be, and they are hereby directed, to make a full inquiry into the probable effects of the route for the Philadelphia and Columbia Rail Road proposed by the canal commissioners, on the general in

In pursuance of the third resolution, the Presidents of Councils memorialized the Senate and House of Representatives.


"TOWN MEETING.-The citizens of the city of Phila delphia, who would prefer that the Pennsylvania Rail Road should cross upon the piers of the Bridge at Mar ket street, (by an equitable arrangement with the pro prietors,) and thus preserve to the city its accustomed traffic, and place the Northern and Southern Districts upon an equal footing; instead of making the Northern Liberties, by means of the Peters' Island route, the great avenue and depot of our Western trade, are re quested to meet at the Court House, at the corner of Sixth and Chesnut streets, on Monday the 1st of Febru ary next, at 3 o'clock in the afternoon.

A meeting in pursuance of this notice was held, and

1 830.]

resolutions were passed in favour of a route crossing "at, or near" the site of the present Permanent bridge. Mr. Read said, that he and his colleagues appeared as a deputation from the general Town Meeting of the 16th ult. to represent and enforce the views stated in their resolutions and memorials.


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In addition to its cheapness, a great advantage attending this line, is that it crosses the Schuylkill the moment it reaches that river, and continues in a direct line along the bed of the old Union canal, on which that canal company expended, many years ago, very large sums of money, it would seem, almost with a view to its present purpose, and which expenditure the company, by their resolutions of 31st December, 1829, and 18th January, 1830, have very liberally and properly relinquished to the State, for the purpose of this great internal improvement. It passes through unimproved property to Broad street, the widest street in the whole city plat, being 113 feet wide, and situated on the dividing line between the Delaware and Schuylkill, through which it will be taken to South street; and from which branch lines can be taken to the Northern Liberties and Kensington, and also to Moyamensing and Southwark. By throwing out 25 feet in the centre of Broad street, there will be more than the necessary space for the Railway, and it leaves a 26 feet cartway on each side, with side pavements of 18 feet each.

By the Schuylkill branch from this line, which runs through St. David's street, close on the river, and passes through unimproved property, it accommodates the Schuylkill front, enhances the value of the public and private wharves north of the Permanent Bridge, passes through the City property on the north side of that | bridge, and finally terminates, for the present, on the City property to the south of it, on which the old basin at Chesnut street is erected.

For the City and Districts, this location is equitable and fair. The western part of the City, and of Market street, have the Schuylkill branch: the centre of the City, and the eastern and middle parts of Market street, have Broad street; Spring Garden, Northern Liberties, and Kensington, have their branch, and Moyamensing

and Southwark theirs.


For Market street, this arrangement is doubly beneficial. The Schuylkill branch increases the trade and population to the west. The line through Broad street fills up the population to that street, and continues it, and the business, to the west, until they meet the trade and population of the Schuylkill. Such a double line will fill up the whole city plat, in a few years after the Railway is actually in operation.

For the people of the interior it is admirable, as it secures to them at least four great markets,-one on the Schuylkill, one in the centre of the city and in Market street, and at least two on the Delaware wharf front, of 15,600 feet, on the north and south of the city.

What are the objections to this route? The first is, that there will be towns erected on both sides of the river at Peters's, and perhaps on the Island, the filth and offa! from which will destroy the purity of the Schuylkill water. The legislature should, on this principle, have interfered before, and prevented the erection or growth of Manayunk, Norristown, Pottsgrove, Reading, and Pottsville. But the fear is visionary. There is not, and never can be water-power on either side of the Schuylkill at Peters's. There can be no manufactories moved by the slackwater of the Fair Mount Pool, What possible inducement can there be to form a village three miles from Vine and Broad streets? and who will go to settle there, whilst the unimproved property above, in, and below the city is unoccupied? The produce brought on the Railway can never stop there, three miles from the nearest market. It will be like the Falls of Schuylkill: a hotel on each side, with pleasure gardens and a toll house, will form the mighty cities destined to spring up on each side of the Railway bridge.

Peters's Island will not interfere much with the purity of the water, for every good freshet would remove all who might be so unwise as to erect their habitations upon it.

The second objection, is the insecurity of the bridge. The bridge is to be erected below the Island, and will be upwards of 36 feet above the level of the water, nearly 17 feet above the freshet of 1822, and about 16 feet above the great freshet of 1784. The danger to the Water Works, from a bridge above, is imaginary; and the best evidence that it is so, is the opinion of Freder ick Graff, Esq. their superintendent.

The third objection to this route, is a most serious one indeed, that, if adopted, it will render the fair city of Philadelphia a desolate waste.

Mr. Harper said-"The diversion of our busines to the Northern Liberties, would subvert the lasting prosperity of the City, and he earnestly hoped that the project of taking the Railway over at Belmont, would never be carried into effect."

Mr. Randall said-"If it should terminate there, (at the corner of Vine and Broad) lateral Railways, or canals, would be made to diverge from it, before it reached that point, and would convey all the produce brought from the West, down through the Northern Liberties to the Delaware. Market street would become like Christian street now is. Not a Conestoga wagon would be seen in it, any more than such a vehicle is now to be seen in Shippen or Plumb street, and the southern section of the City and Southwark would become a barren and desolate waste."

Another gentleman, (Col. Swift) said-"Was not this subject so plain, that he who runs may read." Look at Alexandria, which, fifteen years ago was a flourishing city. The splendid Capitol was built, and the city patronized and improved by Congress. What had been the result? Alexandria had been deserted. Instead of human faces at their doors and windows, you see nothing but rats and mice. The same disasterous fate awaited our City, if this great Railway should be taken into the Northern Liberties."

Are these dreams? What, render desolate a City of 90,000 inhabitants? If the Rail Road never touched the City of Philadelphia, she would still prosper and in

crease; and even supposing that the Northern Liberties
had the whole of this trade,she would still reap some part
of its benefits. But the whole of this alarm is unreal; it
is but 2078 feet from the south side of Vine, down Broad,
to the middle of Market street, being nearer by 2418 ft.
than from the Permanent Bridge to the same spot.
Read said, he proposed the continuance of the Railway
from Vine to Cedar, to the State, as a matter of profit;
and thus ends the question, and the South is placed on
an equality with the North. These are all the objec-
tions urged against this line, without reference to the
reasons assigned for preferring Market street, which will
be considered hereafer.

each; the waterway is but 407 feet 10 inches; the length of the bridge is 550 feet; the abutments and wing walls are 750 feet, making the whole length 1300 feet. There are two piers; each at bottom is 71 feet 6 inches in length and in thickness 30 feet; at top 60 feet 10 inches in Mr.length, and 19 feet 4 inches in thickness; the height of the eastern pier from the rock is 40 feet, and of the western pier 55 feet 9 inches; the width of the bridge is 42 feet, leaving 9 feet 5 inches on each side of the piers unoccupied; the inclined plane to the west rises at 3 degrees and a half to the western entrance of the bridge; the piers are about 13 feet above high water mark; the freshet in 1784, before the erection of the bridge, was 10 feet 8 inches at that place, and the freshet of 1822 stood 10 feet on the eastern abutment.

The next question is the Fair Mount route; a route preferred by one gentleman on 16th January last, but now abandoned by him, and condemned by every man, wo man and child in a population of 170,000 inhabitants. The reports of Messrs. Wilson, Robinson, Hopkins, and Douglass, uniformly disapprove of this route-the report of the Watering Committee and the letter of Mr. Graff point out its dangerous effects upon the the invaluable works at Fair Mount. Major Douglass confirms his riginal disapprobation of this route; and Mr. Read said, so universally and completely was its deserted and condemned, that he could appeal to his friend on the right (Col. Swift) whether even a special meeting, however small, could be held in Philadelpha in its favour.

The line crossing by this bridge is estimated at 86,000 dollars, of which the cost of adapting the bridge to a Railway, is estimated at 25,000 dollars. If this line is intended to pass up Market st. to Broad st. this does not include the expenses of an embankment to Schuylkill 3d street, which in such case cannot be avoided. The o-length of this embankment would be 1,614 feet, and it would be 14 feet high at Ashton street, 10 feet 4 inches at Schuylkill Front and 5 feet at Schuylkill Second.

This sum includes of course no compensation to the Bridge Company, and the State can have no interest on the 25,000 dollars.

But how is this to be affected? for as no certain plan is exhibited to the committee, it must be guess work. Is the Railway to be stuck at the side, is the superstruc ture to be taken down, are the piers to be covered, or is the equitable arrangement to pass through the centre of the bridge?

This route, thus disapproved of, is however preferred to any crossing by a bridge below it, and that brings us to the question, shall it pass by any bridge below the Upper Ferry bridge? A northern instead of a western location is preferred by all the Engineers, for reasons stated in the following part of these remarks. Besides a bridge, crossing for instance at Race street, will cost at least $130,372 without including the purchase of a site; and requires an embankment of 1069 feet from St. David's street, crossing Ashton and Front streets, to Schuylkill Second street. The Board of Wardens of the Port of Philadelphia have added their testimony to that of common sense, as appears by the following communications.

By whom is this plan given or warranted? Is he an Engineer in the service of the State, or in the employ ment of a private individual? Are his canals monuments tee room is a sufficient answer to the question. of his skill? The view from the windows of this commit

Major Douglass says with great propriety, that the 100 feet for security. From one to three piers then spaces of a Railway Bridge ought not to be more than must be added to the present ones, to be built in water from 20 to 40 feet deep. The expense can easily be which 40,000 dollars was for the purchase of the site. imagined. The present bridge cost 300,000 dollars, of The piers must be built with coffer dams, and then our opponents are met with the unanswerable argument, that their erection would injure the Water Works, and destroy for ever the navigation of the Schuylkill.

If you reduce the heighth of the present piers, or keep on a line with them so as to strike Ashton street near its regulation, which is but 13 feet 6 inches above high water, the necessary embankment to the west of the bridge, by filling up the present low ground, would place the whole structure at the mercy of the first bigh ice freshet in the Schuylkill.

Resolved. That the above resolution be forwarded, by the Master Warden, one to the Senate, and one to the House of Representatives.

We are therefore confined to the Market street route, crossing on the piers of the present bridge. The resolutions of the meeting of the first February, it is true, say "at, or near," but as it has been shown, that it can not cross by a bridge above, we must restrict our attention to the Permanent Bridge at Market street.

It appears by an extract from a statistical accout of No Bridge, therefore, can be erected, or will be suff- the bridge, communicated to the Philadelphia Agricul ered by the people of Philadelphia, between the pres-tural Society in 1806, and published in the first volume ent Bridges. of their Memoirs, that the low ground was always supposed to be a main security to it in times of freshet.In page 11, speaking of the various projects for cross ing the river, the writer says, "Some would have the river filled with a dam and causways, after a bridge had been built on the flats of the fast land, and a channel cut through these flats. Some proposed a low stone bridge,

Warden's Office, Philadelphia, 14th March, 1829. Stephen Duncan, Esq.

Sir,-The Board of Wardens having been requested to forward to you their opinion on the subject of erecting a Bridge over the Schuylkill, at or near Race street, have instructed me to transmit the annexed resolutions, passd by them this day.

I am, Sir, very respectfully,
Your obedient servant,

DAVID MAFFET, Master Warden, Resolved, That this Board are of opinion, that any obstruction in the river, by piers, in a time of freshets, would be distructive of a great amount of property above the same; and might injuriously affect that valuable improvement-the Water Works. They therefore hope, if the Legislature grant the liberty of erecting a bridge, they will confine it to be one of one arch, and the abutments not to go further into the river than low

water mark.

All the arguments against a western location apply even more strongly to this route.

Would any person, on a temporary erection of this nature, risk a locomotive engine with its train of cars, weighing about 90 tons? Could the center span of 194 feet 10 inches, or the side spans of 150 feet. support such a weight in motion? The Bridge, Locomotives, Cars, and Drivers, would be found at the bottom of the river.

The Permanent Bridge consists of a centre arch of 194 feet 10 inches, and of two side arches of 150 feet

• Mr. Strickland says, the piers are but "12 feet 5 inches above high water mark."

+ It is now reduced to 17,000 dollars!

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to be used only when the river was in its ordinary state; and when raised by floods, torrents should run over the bridge. Thus intimating its use, when it was most required. Some would have, with any bridge, arches, turned from hill to hill, and thus occupy with impediments the low grounds, which now afford additional passage to the overflow of the stream. The expense, too, would require the funds of the State, and never could have been accomplished by private advances with any prospect of profit. Any buildings or other obstructions placed on these flats, will confine and of course redouble the force of the current. They will cause the accumulation of the ice and damming of the stream; the most formidable foes the bridge has to contend with."

The whole frame of the present structure is sunk three feet into the piers as a security, but no additional weight can be safely put on the western abutment. The same writer says, page 15, "the pressure on the walls of the present western abutment and wings, it is quite as much as masonry on piles will bear; and no other foundation could have been had but at an unwarrantable expense, the rock at the site of the abutment being covered with mud and gravel 58 to 40 feet deep."

And yet it is proposed to bring the bridge to a plane, to fill up all the low ground to the west by a heavy embankment, for the purpose of bringing the Rail Road to the bridge, to place an additional bridge on the same piers and abutment, to be crossed by such weights as must bring inevitable destruction to the whole fabric.The slightest motion on a Railway bridge, the swagg. ing of the centre arch six inches, would force the rails from their sockets, and destroy the whole purpose of the structure..


4-10ths of a foot in the mile, which cannot be overcome except by an inclined plane and a stationary engine; an agreable sight in the heart of a populous City! Suppos. ing you could arrive at Broad street, is it to stop there? Certainly not,-for then neither the Northern Liberties nor Southwark could have their branches; and if not, Broad street must also be cut up by a line of Railway for the accommodation of those Districts.

The even with this embankment you cannot reach Broad street, for in the course of three squares, from Schuylkill Third to Schuylkill Sixth street, there is a rise of ten feet and a half, being at the rate of 41 feet and



If the Railway crosses at the height of the piers, say about 12 feet, then it must stop at Ashton street, and never can be taken down Market street, because it would require an inclined plane, and a stationary engine erected in the centre of that street, to drag the Railway cars up this hill. Does any man suppose the citizens of Philadelphia would tolerate such an obstruction in Market street? Imagine to yourselves, gentlemen, a stationary engine at work in this noble street, with a long train of rope passing down its centre to draw these cars up!

That these assertions are correct, is proved by the fact, that from Ashton to Schuylkill Third street, Market street rises 14 feet, being at the rate of 55 feet and 84 10ths in the mile, and from thence to Schuylkill Sixth street, as has been before stated, 10 feet 6 inches, being at the rate of 41 feet and 4-10ths in the mile, both of which ascents can only be overcome by stationary steam power.

Now, either of these plans would be the total destruction of the prosperity of Market street. Her wealth is the market and its future extension. That is the true secret of her greatness. It has been devoted to that purpose from the earliest times, and to place any obstacle to its extension through that street to the Schuylkill, would be to violate the tacit pledge given to those citizens who have purchased property in it.

This plan cannot be matter for argument; it is too obviously a most lame expedient to need further remarks. But there is an additional difficulty to be met with in A market west of Broad street will be required before the execution of this project. The Bridge Company will this Railway is completed; and are our fellow-citizens not consent to it. Is it necessary to go further? The in that quarter to be told, you shall not have the neces State will not purchase it on the terms of their charter.saries of life brought to your doors? These plans are The Legislature, at the end of twenty-five years from its therefore impracticable; and Mr. Read said, it brought completion, can take it at a valuation by indifferent per- us to the real plan, which was either not to cross the sons, and it then becomes a free bridge, which the state Schuylkill at all, or if the Railway did cross, to stop at bound to keep in repair. The cost was 300,000 dol- Ashton st., at the foot of the Permanent Bridge, and to lars, the tolls are about 19,000 dols. per annum, and no place the traders and farmers of the interior at the merman can say, that such a sum, in the present condition cy of a few wealthy people, without the possibility of of our finances, should be apparpriated by the common- touching the centre of the city or of reaching any parts wealth for the purpose of making this another unpro- of the Delaware front. Would the inhabitants of the cenductive item in the catalogue of state property. tre and eastern parts of the city like this monopoly?

But let us suppose, for a moment, that the Railway can be carried across the Permanent bridge; is must stop either at Ashton street, or be continued at least to Schuylkill Third street.

If it cannot cross at the present bridge, then it must stop on the west side, unless another bridge is erected above it, which, without calculating the purchase money of a site, must cost, by Major Douglass' estimate, at least $130,372, being 6000 more than the cost of the sin

At Ashton street you are just on the border of the City two miles by the shortest line from the Delaware front,gle line to Vine and Broad by Peters' Island; and this inand at least three miles to any particular point on that dependent of the expense of bringing the Rail road from front in the Northern Liberties or Southwark. If it is Peters'down the west side, which would add 60,000 more intended to proceed down Market street to Baoad, it to the estimate of expense. And even this plan brings it must be by carrying the Railway at the height of the anearer to the hated Northern Liberties, and deserts Marbutments of the bridge, which would carry the embank- ket street. If it does not cross there, the trader and ment at least to Schuylkill Third street. This would farmer must be in the power of the few on the western erect a perminent barrier between the north and south bank of the Schuylkill, they having a river, and 2 miles side, not only of Market street, but of the City itself between that termination of the Railway and the nearit would obstruct the whole western trade which is not est point of the Delaware front. brought on the Rail Road-interfere with the market wagons and travellers; and it is impossible to see, how the immense travel of the present bridge, and what is expected to be carried by locomotive engines, could be accommodated on the same spot,-and when you have arrived at Schuylkill Third street, how are you to get back to the Schuylkill, which this line in fact deserts? Why, by a large sweep and heavy embankments, which would bury the property to the south and north of Mar

ket street.

Porterage is a quarter of a dollar from Front to Broad street for a ton of goods, and half a dollar if you go one foot beyond that street-who pays this? The farmer and trader of the interior; and it diminishes to the same extent the value of their produce; and to this is to be added the loss sustained by every trans-shipment of the article brought to a market. There is a mistake into which the gentlemen have fallen, and that is, in suppos ing that all the western produce stopped in Market st. In the article of flour, for instance, only that part that is intended for a part of the retail trade of the city stops in Market street; all the rest is carried at once to the Delaware by the same wagon which brings it to the city, and is either placed in the store there, or immediately shipped to a foreign port.

Now, all these insuperable objections are to be encountered by the State of Pennsylvania, and for what reason' Why, that the populous district of Spring Gar. den shall not be the avenue by which this trade is to reach the city, but that it shall be carried through a small corner of the township of Blockley, contrary to the will of the individuals through whose property it must pass. It must be taken through a rough, hilly, and broken country, sparsely inhabited, for the special purpose of leaving a large population which may be benefitted by a portion of this trade.

1806, with a prophetical glance at the exigencies of 1830. Speaking of the erection of a bridge over the Schuylkill, it proceeds:-"It was contemplated, originally, to erect the bridge at a small distance above the Upper or Roach's Ferry. One object, in fixing on this site, was its supposed advantage in point of practicability. But no inconsiderable motive was that of leaving the whole western front of the city unobstructed by so great an impediment to the navigation of the Schuylkill, which has already shown itself to be of inestimable consequence. The improvement of this western front, deIs this an argument to be addressed to a legislative pending so much on the navigation of the river, is alrea body? The Northern Liberties contain from to as dy in great progress. It will add to the evidence of many inhabitants as the city proper. Penn township, oresight and sound calculation possessed by its great including Spring Garden, about 1-8; Kensington 1-6; founder, William Penn, when he decided on the plan and Moyamensing and Southwark, rather more than of our justly celebrated city. At length, however, it 1-4, while the whole township of Blockley does not was seen that a project of a bridge to be effectuated by contain more than a 22d part. In the year 1829, the private advances, could only be accomplished in a spot county taxes of the city and county of Philadelphia a-in which a majority of interests and opinions were unimount to 131,862.03 dollars, of which the City paid,

ted. Endeavours, which through many difficulties succeeded, were therefore commenced for obtaining, from the city corporation, the site of the present bridge, and 49,000 dollars (one half in bridge stock) was paid as the consideration. The General Assembly had, by a law, granted to the Bridge Company, the right of the Commonwealth to a valuable lot adjoining this site on the eastern, and a purchase had been made of prop erty on the western side of the river, which is now highly accommodatory. It is unpleasant to mix the alloy of regret with the purity of approbation which must attach both to the site and the structure there established; yet it is to be lamented, that one half of the western front of the City is deprived of navigation on a large scale. Ere long, this river will pour into the lap of commerce abundant supplies for foreign markets; and the land transportation passing over it is very considerable. Twelve feet water can be carried over the bar at the river's mouth; and it is well known that a channel may be made to escape the bar, for large vessels at no formida ble expense. Four fathoms, on an average, may be carried, after passing the bar, up to and along the whole city front. It is to be most seriously hoped, that no obstacles to this important navigation will in future be added. One error, probably unavoidable, which can not now be rectified, committed in the zeal for a new and essential improvement and accommodation, is enough. Passages for vessels, through draws, should be insisted on, if at any time other bridges should be required, where they interfere with the navigation. Posterity should never be disinherited to serve present and partial objects."

The Northern Liberties,

76,840 87
16,086 67
8,448 54
3,989 78
7,782 57
2,502 88
2,810 47

Penn township, including Spring Garden,
And Blockley but
But the city is deeply interested in the growth and
prosperity of the Northern Liberties, Spring Garden,
and Southwark. These districts are supplied by her
with the Schuylkill water; and every house erected in
them adds $7 5-100 to her annual income; for no house
can be rented at any thing like its real value unless the
water is introduced into it.

In 1829, the Northern Liberties paid, for water
rents, to the city,
Spring Garden,


The increase of water rents in the city, was, in 1829,

In the Northern Liberties
Spring Garden,

10,352 75
3,440 04
5,019 00
18,811 79

2,090 00
1,926 25
930 CO
725 75
3,582 00


Added to the revenue of the city by the increase of

these Districts alone.

And why should we reason about the imaginary lines drawn round the several corporations comprising the Town of Philadelphia, founded by the wise and good William Penn? We are all inhabitants of the same great City,-friends and brothers, possessing the same interests and feelings, and not enemies, inhabitants of different countries, whose mutual prosperity is incompatible. Mr. Read said, he could see but one City spreading along the whole Delaware front.

There is, however, another insuperable objection against the Rail road crossing at Market street, or by any bridge below the present Upper Ferry Bridge, and that is, that it would form a permanent barrier between the northern and southern parts of the Schuylkill wharf front, and must exclude for ever 4100 feet of wharf pro

between the Ferry and Permanent es, from the benefits of the coasting and foreign trade, and confine the trade to the small wharf front of 3,850 ft between Market and Shippen streets. The wharves cannot be carried below the latter street, for the United States are the owners of the residue, which is occupied by the Naval Asylum and the Arsenal.

This difficulty was foreseen at the erection of the Permanent bridge; and Mr. Read said he would quote from the same statistical account, page 18, a most remarkable passage, which appeared to have been written in

This evil can now be remedied, without taking any part of the bridge property, or interfering with its easy access, by a plan now before the Legislature, to cut a canal for sea vessels around the western abutment of the Permanent Bridge. Two bridges across this canal, one to be always down, provides for the constant passage travellers and wagons without delay or interruption. A Rail road crossing at Market street, or any where be tween the two bridges, prevents this improvement for ever.


Such a canal will bring the 4,100 feet of wharf prop erty north of the bridge, into a fair competition with the 3,350 feet south of it, will enhance the value of the public property and wharves to the north, which are now almost useless, and also the private property situaThis is but fair and just

in that extensive district. towards the owners of property and inhabitants north of the line of Market street, and would also raise the value of lots and buildings in that street.

To the people of Pennsylvania this improvement is absolutely necessary; for the whole trade of the Schuyl kill Navigation, the Union Canal, the Pennsylvania Ca nal, whether Western, North branch, or West branch, and every improvement connected with them, will be emptied into the Schuylkill. The descending products of the interior are composed of coal, iron, flour, and

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