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that have fallen of late have rendered the roads almost eleven acres, with sundry buildings and improvements. impassable for carriages. These few days past of favor- Mr. Shoemaker was ready and willing to carry his conable weather have given things a more favorable aspect, tract into effect, and Mr. Roset was at the same time and every thing is in motion; the last division being to ready and willing to complete his purchase. About march hence to-morrow. My state of health continues this time the defendant, Royal, some how or other beprecarious; but not so bad as to occasion any stop to our came acquainted with the fact, that Mr. Roset, the plainoperations, which must now come to a speedy conclu- tiff, had entered into a contract for the purchase; and sion on account of the adyanced season of the year. he wishing to purchase it himself, applied first to Mr. Necessary to leave a barrier. Number of King's troops Shoemaker, who told him the situation in which he was under his command don't exceed 1200; the greater part placed and the engagement he was under to the plainof which must be sent down to the uninhabited parts to tiff. Upon which the defendant applied to the plainrecruit. The forts of Loyal Hanna, Cumberland, Rays-tiff to give up his bargain to him. Mr. Roset wanting town, Juniata, Littleton, Loudoun, Frederick, Shippens- but part of the property and willing to oblige his neigh burg and Carlisle, ought to be garrisoned: which will re-bour, agreed to waive the purchase himself nominally, quire 1200 men; and clothing for them. Wishing to and to transfer his advantage in the purchase to Royal, know what the Assembly would do on the subject--as on condition that he Royal, would make a deed to the without these he could not secure the frontiers." plaintiff for the portion of the land he wanted, on being paid for it the same proportionate price as he was to pay for the whole lot. Accordingly Mr. Shoemaker, by plaintiff's consent, sold to defendant, to whom a deed was made for the whole property. No sooner had he got into possession of it, than he manifested a tardiness at carrying his promises and engagement into effect. It was a stipulation, that referees were to be appointed by the parties, to estimate the additional value of the portion of land to be retained by the plaintiff, which was about one acre of the eleven, fronting on the Germantown street.
Finally the defendant refused to appoint referees at all; or in short to do any thing to carry his bargain into effect. He knew well enough it seems, that in this state there is no court of chaucery to which immediate application can be made to compel the fulfilment of engagements like the present, and so he coolly folds his arms, sets honor, justice and equity at defiance, consoling himself in his fancied security, he drives us to law all you can get, says he, is damages, and the event of a suit I am willing to abide by. We take him, said the counsel, at his word, and we appear before you to day, to claim those damages, which the breach of contract on the part of the defendant had made the plaintiff sustain; to prove which and all the circumstances he had stated, he should now call witnesses.
Nov. 16. By estimate of pay Pennsylvania had in service 25 old companies, 2 troops light horse, 70 men at Fort Augusta, and 23 companies (new levies.)
House of Assembly met Oct. 14.
Message of Governor on the matters desired by Gen. Forbes, and supplies to pay arrears due troops.
Dec. 2. Answer of Assembly that they are greater than they can bear in addition to the large burdens already borne.
Dec. 5. Bill for tonnage duty, and on wine, rum, brandy and other spirits, and sugar for the general service—and a protest of the Merchants sent by Governor to Assembly by message.
Dec. 11. The Governor received the following letter by express, from General Forbes, dated Fort Duquesne, [or now Pittsburg,] the 26th November, 1758: "Sir, I have the pleasure and honor of acquainting you with the signal success of his Majesty's troops over . all his enemies on the Ohio, by having obliged them to burn and abandon their Fort Duquesne, which they effectuated on the 24th inst. and of which I took possession with my little army on the next day. The enemy having made their escape down the river, part in boats and part by land, to their forts and settlements on the Mississippi. Being abandoned, or at least not seconded by their friends, the Indians; whom we had previously engaged to act a neutral part; and who seem Wm. Fry-Edward Royal called upon me to go with now all ready and willing to embrace his Majesty's most him to Mr. Roset, to say he had a notion of buying the gracious protection. So give me leave to congratulate property. He said that Jacob Roset had been after it, you upon this public event, of having totally expelled and had the refusal of it. He wished Mr. Roset to give the French from this Fort and prodigious tract of coun- up his claim to him and let him buy it. Mr. Roset did try, and of having in a manner reconciled the various not seem willing to give it up. He talked some time tribes of Indians inhabiting it, to his Majesty's govern about it with Royal. Royal at length offered him 50 or ment. I have not time to give you a detail of proceed 100 dollars, I can't remember which, to give up the ings and approaches towards the enemy, or of the hard-purchase to him. Mr. Roset said he did not want moships and difficulties that we necessarily met with-all ney, and he was not willing to give his bargain up.that will soon come out. But I assure you after review- They then walked out on the turnpike, and Roset told ing the ground and fort, I have great reason to be most Royal he might go and try to buy it that week if he thankful for the part the French have acted. He had could, and they could see each other in the morning, sent for their head men and expected to make up every What the bargain was next morning, witness could not thing, and then set out for Philadelphia, if his strength say. permitted: being very ill."
Wm. Dedier-In the latter part of the summer of 1827, was employed by plaintiff to go to Mr. Charles Shoemaker, and try to buy the property in German, town for him, and he was authorized to give 3750 dolls. for it, but to get it as much lower as he could. Witness was to have 25 dollars for his trouble. He went to Mr. Shoemaker, and asked him the price-he naimed 4000 dollars, witness offered 3000-he tried to make a bargain. Witness then asked Mr. Shoemaker what was the lowest price he would take, Mr. S. said he must consult his co-executor Jacob Cope, and in about three weeks he would come on the spot himself, and then no doubt they could make a bargain. Mr. Shoemaker told witness at this time, that no other person should have it at any price for three weeks, unless he, witness, declar
Mr. Josiah Randall stated the plaintiff's case. This was an action brought for a breach of agreement and contract between the parties, who are both residing in Germantown. The circumstances of the case, he stated off. ed, were somewhat peculiar. Mr. Roset had entered into a contract with Mr. Shoemaker to purchase from ed him to accompany him to Mr. Shomaker's to buy the him a lot of land in Germantown, consisting of about land, saying at the same time that he (defendant) had
Subsequently, defendant applied to witness, and ask,
Lefter from Col. Burd-"Enemy blew up the Fort."
[CONCLUSION OF THE 'RECORDS.']
DISTRICT COURT OF PHILADELPHIA.
Before Judge Cox.
Friday and Saturday, 28th and 29th May. JACOB ROSET vs. EDWARD ROYAL.
made an agreement with Mr. Roset. Witness was not
Cross examined: Royal bad called on witness before he came with Didier.
John Bullock-said he was casually called to witness a conversation between Roset the plaintiff, and Royal the defendant, in which he heard the former say to the latter, "If I have done any thing to offend you I beg your pardon, I do not want any thing you have," Witness left them because as he said, he did not wish to be witness to any difference between neighbours. He did not hear the beginning or end of their conversation.
Witness and defendant then went on together towards Mr. Shoemaker's and met him on the road coming to Philadelphia, and the same day by appointment came on to the Plough in North Third street where Mr. Shoemaker said he should be, and met him there. Witness assuring Mr. Shoemaker that he was at liberty to treat with defendant they went into the back room to- Mr. Randall addressed the jury. The evidence in gether and in ten minutes they agreed at 3500 dollars, this case he said, was brief, clear and satisfactory. It and all this went to Mr. Bates together and articles established beyond doubt an agreement between the were drawn up. On the way back defendant told wit- parties and a breach of that agreement by the defendness that he was glad that plaintiff had given up the ant. It would be a waste of time to enforce this argu bargain to him, and he had acted the part of a neigh- ment, the facts were plain and strongly made out be bour. Witness was authorised after suit was commenc-yond the reach of scepticism or refutation. The couned against defendant to go to him and say that plaintiff sel then went over the facts of the case as they appear. would take any thing from him over 100 dollars, but ed in evidence. First impressions he said were gener defendant said he would not bid a farthing. Witness ally the honest promptings of the heart, and it was only reminded defendant of the contract he had made, but by a cool and heartless calculation urged on by avarice it produced no effect. Witness knew that defendant or cupidity, that the mind of man erred. Thus, when had previously offered plaintiff 100 dollars to give up the plaintiff at the earnest solicitations of the defendant his claim under the contract. gave up to him the bargain which he had secured, the defendant was overflowing with gratitude, the propos ed terms were complied with-that is promised-joyfully. But no sooner does he find himself with the deed in his hand which puts him in possession of the proper ty than the love of filthy lucre, whispers to him-"this is yours now, you are living in Pennsylvania, where there is no Court of Chancery as in some of our neigh bouring states to coerce you to the fulfillment of your bargain." He takes advantage of his fancied security, forfeits his pledged word, and sets honour and honesty and the whisperings of conscience too, at defiance. It had been said that no consideration had been paid, or was to have been paid for the transfer of the acre to the plaintiff and therefore that no claim could be set up. He was sure the jury would reject such a principle as this, as contrary to reason as well as law. There was a consideration, and that consideration had been paid by the plaintiff to the defendant-the relinquishment of good bargain in favor of the defendant was the consid cration for which he agreed to put plaintiff in possession of an acre of this land, on the payment of a sum of money to be fixed by referees. Here was the consider ation-here was the bargain. But the defendant jump
A deposition of Mr. Aldridge, under a commission was now offered in evidence and read; the substance of which was the relation of a conversation with defendant in which he had said that he had some difficulty in getting the property as plaintiff had made a prior contract with Mr. Shoemaker, and that he defendant had agreed to let plaintiff have an acre to build on, on the terms described by the foregoing witness.
Mr. Amerman proved the delivery of a letter or notice to defendant signed by plaintiff desiring him to nominate a referee according to the terms of our contract. This letter was dated 28th Oct. 1828, and the suit was instituted about 17 days after.
The deed of conveyance from Cope and Shoemaker to defendant was dated 1st of March, the consideration money 3500 dollars.
Mr. David Paul Brown now opened the case of the defendant. He said it was comprised in narrow limits, and it was scarcely necessary to address the jury at all in an opening speech; nor should he do so, but that he had hopes that a ray of light might be shed from which the jury would gather from plaintiff's own shewing that a defence in this case was unnecessary. The tenor of his observations was that there was an absolute relin-ed the fence, he gets possession of the property and quishment on the part of the plaintiff to his purchase or forgets that his word, his honour, his good name, are contract in favour of the defendant and having so pledged to fulfil his engagements. The counsel put it relinquished, the plaintiff had no right whatever to im- to the jury whether an individual should be allowed at pose terms. Royal had a right to make a new bargain any time to say to his neighbor with whom he had made. with Mr. Shoemaker, and Roset had not the shadow of a bargain-Ah! ah! I have the upper hand of you now. pretence for imposing a tax upon the land or the new I'll either perform my promise, or not perform my prost purchaser. Besides the claim now set up was a differ- ise, just as my inclination or my interest may prompt ent claim altogether from that alleged in the declaration! me." Such conduct was an outrage upon the comision He then recapitulated the three counts in the declara-intercourses of life, and would not be tolerated or suff ration and concluded that there was no evidence pro-ered to pass by with impunity by the jury, he was ad duced which met or substantiated any one of the char- dressing, and he cailed upon them to give such dam ges there alledged. He proceeded to call ages as the flagrant conduct of the defendant required. Charles Shoemoker, who said he knew nothing of the Mr. D. P. Brown, for the defendant, said it was true
parties personally; that Didier called on him to treat for the purchase. My impression, said the witness is, that I was to give Roset, or Didier, a time to determine.I asked 4000 dollars, but said that I would not sell it to another, without giving him the refusal. The man (whom he afterwards indentified as Didier) who first applied to me came afterwards with Royal the defen dant, and said that Roset wanted the place no longer, that he was suited. I kept my word witli him sacred until then, when I thought myself released from it. Itold Didier in the first instance that I would not sell it to any body at any price, until I had his answer in the time limit. ed. My stipulation was not to sell it without letting Roset or Didier know. The time stipulated was two or three weeks; can't tell whether the time had elapsed
that this case lay within a very narrow compass. There were two points of inquiry-1st. Had the alleged compact been broken? and 2d. If so, what are the damages which plaintiff is entitled to? He should show that the learned counsel for plaintiff, in his prologue to the play, had mistaken the plot. He then dissected the declaration, arguing that not a single count or allegation in that document had been made out in evidence. The plaintiff, he said, had paid nothing, had lost nothing, and yet had asked for compensation. He trusted the jury would discountenance suits like these, which tended to promote litigation and to overturn justice.
Mr. Randall replied. His client, he said, was not to be laughed out of court when he was making a solemn application to a jury of his country for redress. The morals of the country would be sapped to their very foundation, if transactions like this were to be tolerated. It had been tauntingly asked, what had the plaintiff lost? He would answer that question in plain terms--he had lost by the treachery, duplicity, and want of honesty in Conformably to a resolution adopted at our annual the defendant, first of all-the possession of a bargain meeting in March last, the committee appointed at that he instructed his agent to give 3750 dollars for, and time, now lay before you the progress of the Cabinet which the defendant, had, by false pretences and prom- during the past year. In former reports that have been ises, possessed himself of for 3500 dollars. He had lost made, the objects of our institution have been fully exnext, an acre of valuable land, with a front of 50 feet plained, and from the interests that have been excited, upon the Germantown street; he had lost the 100 dolls. there is but little doubt, that our motives have been duwhich defendant at one time agreed to give him to re-ly appreciated. Although within the last twelve months linquish his claim. All this seems to have been forgot- we have not received as great an accession to our minten by the opposite counsel; he trusted, however, the eral collection as during some of the preceding years, jury would not forget it, but would give, by their ver- the number and variety of our animal and vegetable dict a salutary example, both to the defendant and to specimens have been considerably increased: and should society, which would deter him and others from con- that laudable spirit of improvement among the members duct so base and flagitious. still continue to exist, as it has heretofore done, there will soon be a monument to their industry and love of science raised within these walls, well worth preserving.
It is proper here, perhaps, to remark, that the expenses necessary to prosecute our studies with advantage, have already been incurred; so that a tax of one dollar from each member, was all that was necessary to raise within the last year. In consideration of the accommodation that have been provided, the initiation fee was raised from one to five dollars.
From the voluntary contributions of the members, and the liberality of others friendly to our institution, we have been enabled to procure the assistance of an experienced artist, Mr. James Griffiths, to prepare and preserve a few of the many birds that are to be met with in this section of the country, and also to add to our library a copy of Wilson's Ornithology. It is unnecessary for your committee to attempt to eulogise that great work, but they may be permitted to remark, en passant, that for the student of Ornithology, much has been done to enable him with little labour, to acquire a complete knowledge of that delightful study.
The plates are so finely and accurately finished, that should he fail in making out from the descriptions a name for his specimen, (which can scarcely happen,) by referring to them, he will at once be instructed.
Our Botanists have been zealously engaged, during the past year, in procuring specimens for the Herbarium of the Cabinet; and their labours have been eminentsuccessful.
CABINET OF NATURAL SCIENCE.
The Court. (Judge Cox) charged the jury. This was a case in which the rights of the plaintiff should be enforced some way or another. There was a strong inclination in his mind that the plaintiff might recover the property by ejectment; at all events courts had decided that contracts not committed to writing may be made the ground of an action for damages as in this case. If Mr. Royal bought the property under the understanding and undertaking on his part which the witnesses seemed so accurately to describe, and afterwards broke his agreement with the plaintiff the laws of Pennsylvania would hold him answerable. It was a question of credibility altogether, and he saw no reason whatever for disbelieving the witnesses; if then the jury gave them credit for truth, they would give a verdict accordingly. That verdict may be for actual damages, or it may be in the shape of a compulsory verdict of damages to any extent, to be released on the performance of certain conditions. In the latter case, the jury would take care that the verdict be given in such terms as the Court could recognize.
The jury retired and brought in the following written
confessed or granted by the said defendant, on or be-
CHESTER COUNTY CABINET OF
At the stated meeting of the Cabinet, on the 20th of March, 1830, ISAAC THOMAS, M. D. from the committee appointed for that purpose, presented the following report, which was approved and ordered to be .published:
Ferdict for $2000 for Plaintiff.
The jury find that the plaintiff shall release to the defendant $1850-part of the verdict in this case, provided the defendant shall within ten days from this date agree to the appointment of three disinterested referees to determine the value of fifty feet of land, part of the premises purchased of C. Shoemaker and others, by de-ly fendant, fronting on Germantown road, and adjoining Bullock's, and extending back fifty feet in width in the rear, so as to contain one acre, as declared upon and averred in the 3d count of the declaration; and shall on payment or tender of the sum of money, determined by the referees so agreed upon; or in case of neglect, refusal or inability of the parties to agree in the choice of such refetees within ten days from this date, then by three referees to be chosen and appointed by the court, as the proportionate value of the said acre of land, in the manner stated in the 3d count of the plaintiff's declaration in the above case, execute and deliver to the said plaintiff, in fee simple, a good and sufficient title and deed for the same, clear of all incumbrances, suffered,
The following plants have been detected within the limits of our county, since last report, and are to be added to the Flora of Chester, viz.-Veronica scutellata, Scirpus brunneus, Cyperus inflexus, Mariscus ovularis, Trichodium laxiflorum, Phalaris americana, Poa elongata, Koeleria truncata, Andropogon virginicus, Panicum proliferum, P. virgatum, Setaria verticillata, chloris secundus Lechea major, Potamogeton fluitans, Rochelia lappula, Lysimachia racemosa, Viola sororia, Leconte, V. dentata, Ph. Cnidium atropurpueum, Chenopodium rubrum, Pontederia cordata, Polygonum amphibium, Cerastium tenuifolium, Ranunculus intermedius, R. saniculaformis? Scutellaria gracilis, S. ambigua, var. missouriensis, Nasturtium sylvestre Corydalis formosa,
Galactia glabella, Lespedeza frutescens,Sonchus acum- Jesse Conard, Esq. a corresponding member, has reinatus Inula mariana, Solidago latifolia, S. odora, S. gi-cently made a donation of a Bust of Dr. Benjamin Fran gantea, S. patula, S. ciliaris, S. viminea, Aster prenan- klin, in plaister. thoides, A. miser, var. pendulous, and divergens, A. lævis, A. foliolosus, Rudbeckia fulgida, Bidens connata, Neottia gracilis, Arethusa bulbosa, Corallorhiza multiflora Carex subulata, C. scirpoides, C. granularis? C. pellita? Amaranthus spinosus, Sicyos angulata, Salix recurvata? and Taxus canadensis; amounting to 58 in number. For these acquisitions we are principally indebted to the industry and zeal of David Townsend, Esq. Dr. W. Worthington, John Marshall and George W. Hall.
In addition to Wilson's Ornithology, the Society have procured the valuable work of Kirby and Spence, on Entomology, in four volumes; and they have received as donations,-
Secretary Rush's Reports, relative to the growth and manufacture of Silk; also Mease's Treatise on the rais ing of Silk Worms; presented by the Honorable I. D. Barnard
In addition to the foregoing, a number of interesting specimens, from beyond the county, were procured by two of our members, in an excursion to the Hackensack river, and Falls of Passaic, in New Jersey,
Well preserved duplicates for the purpose of exchange have been obtained, which will enable us to repay, in some measure, the many favours that we have received.
In Botany, the following donations, from gentlemen residing at a distance, have been very thankfully received during the past year.
Forty specimens of plants, chiefly from the White Mountains, in New Hampshire, presented by Dr. C. Pickering, and 185 specimens from Europe, principal ly from France, by Mr. John P. Brace, of Litchfield, Connecticut.
We are indebted to Mr.Joseph Hanse, of West Whiteland, in this county, for a very handsome specimen of the Sus Tajassu, or Mexican Hog, prepared by John Marshall, one of our active members.
As before stated, the number of minerals that have been received within the last year, is comparatively few; yet we have gratefully to acknowledge the receipt of the following-Twenty-nine specimens, presented by Mr. Jacob Pierce-twenty-two specimens, presented by Mr.Joseph Webb, of York county, together with a handsome collection of shells.
Description of two new Fossil Shells, by Samuel G. Morton, M.D.; from the author
Observations on the Genus Unio, by Mr. Isaac Lea, of Philadelphia; presented by the author
1 Wood Thrush, 2 Cat-bird, 3 Golden-crowned Thrush, 4 Yellow-brested Chat, 5 Savanna Sparrow, 6 Woodcock, 7 Bluebird, 8 Orchard Oriole, 9 Maryland Yellow-throat, 10 Yellow-winged Sparrow, 11 and 12 Scarlet Tanager, 13 Spotted Sand-piper, 14 Red-wing ed Starling, 15 Passenger Pigeon, 16 Purple Grakle, 17 Java Sparrow, 18, 19 and 20 Cow Bunting, 23 Ferruginous Thrush, 24 and 25 Towhe Bunting, 28 Blue Jay, 29 Chimney Swallow, 31 Yellow bill'd Cuckoo, 32 (and 35 Gold Finch, 33 White-breasted black capped Nuthatch, 34 Indigo Birds, 36 Meadow Lark, 37 Tyrant Fly-catcher, or King bird, 38 Gold-winged Wood-pecker, 39 Red-headed Woodpecker, 40 Butch er Bird, or Nine Killer, 41 Tree Sparrow.
Four numbers of the Florula Lexingtoniensis, by Prefessor C. W. Short, of Kentucky; presented by the author—
Goldsmith's Animated Nature; presented by R. B Dodson, Esq.
Transactions of the Academy of Natural Science of Philadelphia, during the years 1827-8; also a circular from said Society
A Report of the Transactions of the Maclurean Ly ceum of Arts and Sciences of Philadelphia, by the Corresponding Secretary of that Society.
Officers of the Cabinet for 1830.
WILLIAM DARLINGTON, M.D. President.
WILMER WORTHINGTON, M.D.
DAVID TOWNSEND, ESQ.
Recording Sec'y and Treasurer.
ISAAC THOMAS, M.D.
The following is a list of birds that have been added to our collection since our last annual meeting
1st. Turdus melodus, male; 2 T. lividus, male; 3 T. auro-capillus, female; 4 Pipra polyglotta, male; 5 Frin- Longevity.-Died, at his residence in East Bradford, gilla Savanna? female; 6 Scolopax minor, male; 7 Mot- Chester county, on the 16th May, JOSEPH PARKE, aged acilla sialis, male; 8 Oriolus mutatus, male; 9 Sylvia ma- 98 years and 6 months. The deceased was probably rilandica, male; 10 Fringilla passerina, male; 11&12 Tan- the oldest man in his county at the time of his death. agra rubra, male and female; 13 Tringa macularia, male; He was one of the earliest inhabitants of the neighbor 14 Sturnus prædatorius, male; 15 Columba migratoria, hood, and has often told of the wilderness and its happi young male;16 Gracula quiscala:17 Fringilla 18, 19 &20ness, when in the days of his boyhood he first remem Emberixa pecoris, 2 males and 1 female; 23 Turdus rufus bers to have known it. There were then but few per male; 24&25 Emberiza erythrophthalmo, female & male: sons there, The Town that has since grown up near 28 Corvus cristatus, male; 29 Hirundo pelasgia, male; him was not at that time thought of-and indeed the 31 Cuculus carolinensis, male; 32 Fringilla tristis, male, very spot on which now may be seen so many fine buildand 35 female; 33 Sitta carolinensis, male; 34 Fringilla ings and so great improvements, was then almost all cyanea, male; 36 Alauda magna, male; 37 Muscicapa covered with woods. All those who played with him tyrannus, male; 38 Picus auratus, male; 40 Lanius ex-in boyhood-all those who laughed, and sang, and ramcubitor; 41 Fringilla arborea. bled with him in the joyous days of youth, are gone long before him--not one remains. He was the lonely vestige of that generation-and he too now is gathered to his fathers. He lived to see the wilderness disappear around him-and the uncultivated country to bloom like a garden. Where there were in his early days but a few scattered huts, that scarcely served to shelter their inmates from the inclement blast, he has since seen noble farm houses rear their lofty tops. The whole scene has been totally changed. Hardly any thing that was there when he first knew it, to be seen there now. He has outlived every mark of that generation, and but for the posterity that has sprung up around him, he would have been a stranger in a strange landa sojourner whom all had left behind.
Nearly sixty pieces of foreign, and many of them antique, Coins, to the value of several dollars, have been received; some of the most valuable of which, were presented by ladies, who have taken a lively interest in the prosperity of the Cabinet.
RATTLE SNAKES.—The Tioga Gazette of the 8th ult. says that there were 244 rattle snakes killed in Law. rence township the preceeding week, some of them very large. One person killed 94 in one day. They were principally killed on Oak Hill,
TABLE OF THE RELATIVE DISTANCES OF A CANAL FROM BERWICK TO PHILADELPHIA & NEW YORK.
As the Delaware section of the Pennsylvania eanal from tide to Easton is so far advanced that little doubt is entertained of its being finally completed in the course of the ensuing summer, in which case a complete From the annexed table it will be perceived that this ascending and descending navigation will be opened route, if the connexion be made, will have an advantage from the city of Philadelphia to Mauch Chunk, it may over any other in point of distance, either to Philadel not be an improper time to call the attention of the pub-phia or New York.
A TABLE shewing the direct and practical distance by navigation from Berwick, on the North branch of the Susquehanna River, to Philadelphia and New York, via. Susquehanna, Delaware and Chesapeake, and Union canals-and also to the same places by the Nescopeck, Lehigh, Pennsylvania, and Morris canals. The lockage is brought into distance by adding to the direct distance one mile to each three locks.
SUSQUEHANNA AND LEHIGH CANAL.
lic to the importance of extending this line so as to form a connection with the Susquehanna. From the surveys and levels which have been made, the practicability of a connexion is placed beyond a doubt, as the summit can at all times be supplied with water from the Lehigh and other streams sufficient for the passage of a ship of the line.
Easton to Bristol, head of tide, locks av. say 8ft. lift
By the Delaware and Raritan Canal.
Easton to New Hope by the Pennsylvania canal,.
To New York by the Morris Canal.
Easton to N.Y. allowing the planes to equal a lock
From Berwick to Northumberland..
By the Susquehanna Canal.
Lockage from Berwick to Middletown...
By the above it will be seen that the distance from Berwick to Port Deposit is 186 miles; to this add 55 miles, and it will make 241, which is the distance between Berwick and Baltimore.
By the Union Canal.
From Middletown to Schuylkill,
Schuylkill to Philadelphia.
Berwick to Middletown, add.
Philadelphia to N. York by Del. & Raritan canal
80 118 124.
11 105 116
If the inclined planes are adopted from Berwick to Mauch Chunk, and divided into 50 feet lifts, it will require but 33 lifts, equal to passing 11 miles of canal; to this add the direct distance of 63 miles, and the total practical distance from Berwick to Mauch Chunk will be 74 miles, or 38 miles less than by the common locks, as it is given in the table.
Hence the distance (by inclined planes) from Berwick, via. Lehigh, &c. to Philadelphia is
To New York, by Morris canal
248 do 278 do
do by Delaware and Raritan canal
It thus proves that the practical distance between Berwick and Philadelphia is 42 miles nearer by the Lehigh than by the Union canal, and use the common locks; but if inclined planes are used across to the Lehigh, it is