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not sure, however, that I have succeeded. Should any further information be wanted from Mr. D'Homergue, or myself, it will be given with great pleasure, and every question readily answered.
I have the honor to be,
With the highes consideration and respect,
Of the Board of Managers of "The Pennsylvania for Discouraging the use of Ardent Spirits." the Annual Meeting, May 26th, 1830.
of enterprise, which perhaps has constituted one of the chief features of her national character-The French Revolution, by embarrassing the commercial operations of the maritime nations, threw open to this exhausted country the widest avenues of wealth and prosperity.
From a state of the deepest declension, her advances, by these occasions, were rapid in an unparalleled degree; but with the influx of wealth, came the lessened necessity for labour, with its high prices and facilities of living. Intoxicated with prosperity, the encroachments of idleness and dissipation were not slow to sap the deep foundations of that economy and of those rigid obser vances, that had been laid by the forefathers of the land. The West Indies furnished the alcholic product of the sugar cane. The brandies of France, and the spirit of the grain of our own country, insensibly took their places beside the juices of the grape and the ap ple, and by their insidious attractions usurped such a currency and ascendency, as to be regarded, in a short space of time, as articles of the first necessity. No well furnished house or table was without a due supply of ardent spirits. We may venture to affirm, that at one period, the distilled liquors of the dinner table, were, in the United States, considered as not less essential to comfort, and not less declarative of a good style of living, than were the tea and the coffee of the morning and evening repasts.
It needs no laboured detail to show, that these circumstances, in which the use of ardent spirits was regarded not only as excusable, but polite, would soon low in the train of drunkenness. usher in the whole appalling catalogue of vices that fol
The Manager of "The Pennsylvania Society for Discouraging the Use of Ardent Spirits," beg leave to present the following Report.
Since the formation of the "Pennsylvania Society for Discouraging the Use of Ardent Spirits," nearly three years have elapsed; during which time there has been an increasing conviction of the nesessities of the country, in relation th the objects of our Association, and a very general admission of the power and efficiency of such combinations, to arrest, and in some measure wholly to eradicate, the vice of Intemperance, with its concomitant evils-misery and crime.
It is believed that the annals of mankind can furnish few examples, more strikingly evincive of the force of public sentiment, in controlling and modifying the private customs and habits of any people, than that which has been so happily manifested in the United States of America, in regard to the common and prevalent use and abuse of intoxicating drinks. It is easier to fall from virtue, than to retrace the thorny and ascending heighths of repentance and restoration.
Without entering into a lengthened argument to prove the pernicious tendency of such a custom or habit, on the honour, happiness, or political stability, of any country, your Board of Managers deem it sufficient to call your attention, again, to the events of the day; events which are known and appreciated by all class es of their fellow-citizens,-to refer you to the organization of new societies for the suppression of intemperance, in every state of the Union,-to the change so visible, and so universally acknowledged, in the views and customs of the people;-and to documents that show in the most irrefragable manner, the diminished consumption of spirits, whether foreign or domestic. The Board therefore deem it useless, in this place, and in this day of light and knowledge, to say more than this, namely, that where drunkenness, and its inseperable companions, irreligion, immorality, and crime, are most prevalent, there will be the earliest decline of free government, the profoundest oblivion of all patriotic aim and effort, the greatest amount of private distress, and the most shocking spectacles of poverty and depravity.
The victims of this fiery Moloch, immolated before your eyes, have been too numerous to require more than a single moment of reflection, to convince every member of the and every good citizen indeed, of the importance, and the beneficence, of the opera tions in which you are engaged.
What are the facts of the case before us?
The French Revolution found this country just recovering from the exhaustion of a seven years' struggle for its political existence and independence;-her wounds yet bleeding her wealth, public and private, drained; she had brought out of that great contest, nothing save her independence her morals, which, to an astonishing degree, had resisted the usual conta a nation of civil discord and war, and that inherent and native spirit
Accordingly, the American people, in their individual capacities, felt for many years the ruinous extent to which they had been enthralled by this tyrant custom, but there was no public opinion on the subject. The poisonous bowl had infused its "leperous distilment" far and wide into the very vitals of the country. The elec tions, those palladia of the republic, were contaminated and vitiated. By the admission of distinguished judges, it is universally understood, that the courts and prisons were crowded with victims of this atrocious habit; thou sands of our fellow-citizens, from every rank of life, and countless widows and orphans, had tasted the infusion of the poison in the cup of their happiness. The evil had become intolerable.
Public opinion at last, armed with truth, as with the spear of Ithuriel, touched the foul and bloated vice, dis closing to the startled sense of the universal people, all its odious, and hideous, and portentous deformity. The effect was electric. Not a state, not a county, not a town, nor village, nor settlement, in the vast domain of the United States, but has heard the cry raised by a dis tressed nation, as with one voice and accord; and we thank God for liberty to say, that in the few years that have passed away since the institution of the American Temperance Society at Boston, a wide spread and still flow. ing flood of light, and reform, and melioration, has ta ken place of the dismal declension which had sunk us in our own esteem, and drawn upon us the sarcasm and derision of the European nations.
and one cry have resolved to escape from the verge of
PENNSYLVANIA TEMPERANCE SOCIETY.
What is the state of the country at the present time? Let an unprejudiced citizen answer the question.
Witness the manners of the higher classes, where the offer of ardent spirits no longer enters into the rites of elegant hospitality. Witness the steam boats, those floating epitomes of the American manners and character, where the promiscuous concourse of citizens from every meridian and latitude of this vast empire, often presents not a solitary instance of the use of ardent spirits. Witness the towns and districts in the eastern states, where the specious poison forms no part nor parcel of the grocer's establishment. Witness the ships that sail to the most distant and stormy oceans, bearing with them no provision of this heretofore indispensable article of sea stores, Witness this numerous auditory, assembled this day to inquire what of the cause? And lastly, witness the Treasury Reports of the United States, exhibiting the most soul-cheering testimony of the success of our efforts, in the diminished importation of foreign spirits, the decline of the domestic manufacture, and the increasing amount of drawback on spirits for exportation.
The Board most joyfully seize this occasion to lay before you some extracts from the annual reports present ed to congress by the secretary of the treasury; from which it appears, that—
In the year, from October 1st, 1826, to Septemberbe 30th, 1827, there were imported into the U. States 3,537,426 gallons of foreign spirits.
In the year ending on the 30th September, 1828, there were imported 5,102,599 gallons; and, in the year ending September 30th, 1829, there were imported 3,420,884 gallons.
The export of ardent spirits amounted, in the above named years, to the following quantities, viz:
In 1826-27, 223,815 gallons, which, deducted from the amount imported, leaves for home consumption 3,313,611 gallons.
In 1827-28, the export was 255,341 gallons, leaving for home consumption 4,847,258 gallons.
In 1828-29, the export was 905,006 gallons, which, deducted from the import, leaves for home use only 2,515,878 gallons; against 4,847,258 gallons, supposed to be consumed in the country in the preceding year.
From the foregoing, it appears, then, that the import in 1828-29, was less than the import of 1827-28, by 1,681,715 gallons, or nearly one-third of the total quantity imported—a most encouraging fact; but far less encouraging than that derived from a comparison of the export of 1828-29, with the import of the same fiscal year,-a comparison which shows that the quantity left for home consumption, was actually lessened by nearly one-half in that year.
Lest it should be said by the enemies of our cause, that this view of the progress of temperance is fallacious -that we consume more domestic spirits, to the exclusion of an equal quantity of foreign sorts-the Board will now present to you another statement, equally gratifying and unanswerable.
dence of success, disenergize their efforts to promote the march of improvement.
In 1828, there was inspected 2,714,204 gallons of whiskey.
In 1829, only 1,822,400 gallons, showing a diminution of no less than 891,804 gallons, or nearly one-third part of the whole quantity of that cheap and most noxious material.
These evidences, taken in conjunction with the admission so freely made on all hands by the principal dealers, of a certain and great decline in the demand, might, with the unwatchful and secure, have a tenden. cy to abate their zeal, and, by an overweening confi.
We trust, however, that these good hopes and proofs of success will not be permitted to damp the ardor, and lessen the energy of the friends of the cause. The blow has been struck; truth with her trenchant battle-axe has cloven down the ranks of our remorseless and hitherto successful enemy; but deeply entrenched as he is in the very constitution of American society, we can hope only by continued vigilance and unrelaxed exertion to expel, him from our borders, or reduce him to some safe and harmless submission.
The Board, believing that the influence of good example, set by persons high in official station, high in the confidence of the people, and high in intellectual and moral attributes, ought not to be withheld on such an occasion as this, beg leave to lay before you a letter from his excellency the governor of the state of Pennsylvania, and addressed to the president of the Society, expressing his warm approbation of the cause in which you are engaged, and his paternal wishes for your success.
It consists of an abstract from the registers of the whiskey inspection for the western district of Philadel phia, for the years 1828 and 1829, a document for which we are indebted to the officer who presides over that department of the public service. It is scarcely neces-ings sary to state in this meeting, that by far the largest proportion of whiskey arrives at this market from the west, and is consequently inspected at that office.
Southard of New Jersey, from Hugh Maxwell, Esq. of Letters are also submitted from the honorable judge New York, from John Sergeant, Esq. and from professor not the least of your encouragements, that such men Chapman, of the University of Pennsylvania. It should as these have set the seal of their approbation to the righteous cause you are prosecuting.
Intemperance has not been the sin of a state, nor the crime of a section of this Union;-It has pervaded the land from north to south, and from east to west. The friends of melioration are of no state, of no section; they desire the happiness of their common country; hence they rejoice unfeignedly in the success of their brethren, wherever they are engaged in their sacred enterprise. But your Board, without disparagement of other noble and successful institutions, desire to take this public occasion to express their admiration of the zeal, and prudence, with which the cause has been promoted by the American Temperance Society established at Boston. Agents employed to traverse the country in every direction; to preach, to write, to use every means, and cite every motive that may haply arouse the public mind to a full sense of the dangers of intemperance-a true philanthropy, which is not confined in its sensibilities and charities, to a single state or district, but broad and expansive, and enlightened and liberal, directing the energies of truth in its awakening and convincing power, to the whole American people. These are titles to gratitude that will not be gainsaid or denied.The St. Lawrence, the Mississippi, the Susquehanna, and the Potomac, flow through vast regions which are experiencing the reclaiming and protecting influences of a public sentiment, whose first impulses are clearly traceable to our brethren of the American Temperance Society at Boston. We bid them all hail in their errand of mercy; we bid them God speed in their work and labour of love.
In Pennsylvania, the work of reform is progressing with a satisfactory rapidity; numerous societies, supported by gentlemen fully aroused to all the pregnant bearof the glorious cause, are at once the fruits and guarantee of an unblenching and untiring zeal.
Your Board of Managers have now under their direction, an able and faithful agent, whose heart is warmed to the work, and whose labours promise a rich addition to the harvest of benefits that have accrued already. We say, therefore, let us go boldly on, let us exert ourselves, unitedly and individually, to beseech and induce our fellow-citizens to lend the sanction of their names, and thus, by a public profession, the sanction of their whole lives and conversation, to the truth and justice of our claims on the help and concordance of the whole community.
You have struggled for existence through many discouragements and difficulties, either by direct opposi
tion, or a scarcely less culpable coldness. While other societies for the melioration of the condition of man in distant climes and regions, have received bountifully of Mr. Boyd, from the committee to whom the subject the overflowings of a munificent charity, you have found had been referred, reported a bill to fix the the regula your resources constrained and crippled, and your option of 9th street, between Walnut and George. It was portunities of doing good very greatly circumscribed. If it be true, that intemperance and idleness are the most fruitful sources of irreligion, of crime, and poverty, then we submit it to our fellow citizens, the friends of religion, the favourers of virtue, the bright exemplars of philanthropy, whether they will longer withhold their aid from a systematic and prudent attempt to expunge these pregnant vices from the national scutcheon; an attempt, which, if successful in any moderate degree,cannot but redound to the stablishment and the perpetuity of those free institutions with which Almighty God has favoured us, above any other nation, or kindred, or people, or tongue, under the whole canopy of the out-of sundry citizens, for a general re-numbering of the stretched Heavens. Houses, request leave to Report
The Committee to whom was referred the Memorial
That in the examination of this subject, they have been made sensible of the inconvenience that is occasioned by the present numbers, many of which are incorrect; and although the difficulty may be submitted to, for want of a general modification, your committee are satisfied that a more regular system could be adopt ed, which would soon be understood by our citizens, and would tend greatly to their convenience as well as to that of strangers. To make a correction in the num bers as they now exist, would require much labour and expense; and in a few years the same difficulty and inconvenience, would occasion similar complaints, It has therefore been a subject of inquiry with the committee, that some plan should be devised, which would be permanent, and not liable to the changes that are now occasioned by the improvement of new buildings and other alterations that are made. These objects would be accomplished by a regulation which would establish permanent numbers to the corners of each street, letting the same numbers be found to correspond at all the principal streets, running north and south; so that one part of the city would be a complete index for the other. As the Delaware and Schuylkill fronts form curved lines, diverging from each other, the distance from river to river is much greater at Cedar and Vine streets, than it is at the intermediate streets, running east and west. In order therefore to render the num bers more regular, it would be necessary to begin at the centre of Penn Square, the intersection of High and Broad streets, and count in all directions from it; the streets would then be designated from Broad street East and West as they now are from High street North and South. There would be an allowance of six or seven numbers to every one hundred feet; and, the only material change would be, in commencing at Broad st., instead of the Delaware front, and in establishing uniform numbers at the corners; as the present system would be adhered to, in the streets running East and West, the odd numbers would be on the north side and the even numbers on the south side; and in the streets north and south, the even numbers would be on the west side, and the odd numbers on the east side. This plan has been strongly recommended to the committee, by Samuel Hains, the Recording Surveyor of the City; and as it becomes generally understood, there can be little doubt but it will be highly approved of by our fellow citizens.
That the subject may be rendered more plain, before any measures are taken for its adoption, the committee would recommend the following resolution:
Resolved, That the Recording Surveyor be request ed to have prepared a draft of the city, designating thereon the numbers proposed to be made permanent at the corners of the respective streets,, according to the foregoing_report.
We demand from this public an additional aid and countenance; we claim for the commonwealth the support of all classes who are favorable to its best interests; we rely on the good sense, on the patriotism, on the morality of the stern and just Pennsylvania, the keystone of the Federal Arch, for a powerful and over whelming expression of her abhorrence, of a vice, which, although it has not prevented the great work of human ity, which renders her penal code the admiration of the world, has retarded its accomplishment, and furnishes daily cause for the exercise of its severe but reclaiming inflictions.
This great state, which has long held the political balance of the Union with unswerving integrity; which has done so much for the rights of man; whose charitable institutions are so numerous and munificent, will not be the last in the career of reformation. Yes, gentlemen, we see in the past, the sure earnest of our future triumphs; we look for a not distant period, when the vine shall yield its produce to cheer the heart of man, to the exclusion of the noisome concoctions of the still, to a period when temperance shall become the character of the free people of our great and happy country; a period when a population of one hundred millions of free and sober republicans, shall present to the eyes of mankind the irrefragable evidence, that with temperance, knowledge, and sound morals, man may live free from the burdens, and restraints, and chains, which ignorance and depravity have fastened on him in the nations of the eastern continent.
Gentlemen, your cause is the cause of Hancock, of Adams, of Washington;-none knew better than those illustrious men, that "Righteousness exalteth a nation, but sin is a reproach to any people."
PROCEEDINGS OF COUNCIL.
the premises of the Mint, to the public culvert at the corner of High and Juniper street. It was passed.
Thursday Evening, June 10th.
Petitions were presented for opening Franklin Square, as a public promenade: and for repaving Chesnut street, from 5th to 11th.
A proposal was received from John Conard and James Elliot, for taking on lease "that part of the city property lying between the property of the Permanent Bridge Company, and the distance of fifty feet from the north line of Chesnut street, and between the west line of Ashton street and the river Schuylkill. For which they offer $200 per annum, payable quarter yearly-and to make such improvements on the wharves and docks as may be mutually agreed upon between the subscribers and the Commissioners, or such other agents as the City Councils may appoint." Referred to the committee on Public Wharves.
The Paving Committee reported a bill to authorise the Director of the United States to lay iron pipes from
On motion of Mr. Donaldson, the City Commissioners were instructed to cause the alley running from Water street, between Walnut street and the Drawbridge, and between Cox's and Morton's store, to be regulated, curbed, and paved.
The following report, signed by Messrs. Price, Cuthbert, Rawle and Neff, was read, and, with the resolution appended to it, laid on the table.
To the Select and Common Councils.
The three following reports were received from the Market Committee; and the resolution attached to each, was adopted,
To the Select and Common Councils.
The Committee on Markets, report, That the petition referred to them, praying for the repeal of the Ordinance, which allots the space, under the eaves of the western moiety, of the north side of the Market House in High street, between 3rd and 4th streets, as a stand for the sale of Shoes, has been considered; and the Committee would refer to the reasons given in a previous report, against the extension of the Shoe stands, as applicable in the present case; but, as the occupiers of these stands have possession, and paid their rent, until the end of the present year; your Committee think, that any measures on the subject, at the present time, would be premature; and therefore propose the follow ing. Resolved, That the Committee on Markets be discharged from the further consideration of this subject. To the Select and Common Councils.
[FROM THE "VOTES OF ASSEMBLY," FOR THE YEAR 1758.]
The memorial of sundry citizens, residing in Mulberry street, near to the Delaware, complaining of the down the bill for preventing abuses in the Indian Trade, The Governor, [DENNY,] by Mr. Secretary, sent practice of the Venders of Charcoal, in blowing their &c. with the following verbal message, viz: “That as trumpets, without intermission, from daylight until seven o'clock, P. M. and praying Councils to prohibit the soon as his Honour is satisfied by the Commissioners practice by Ordinance, before a certain hour in the bill to be laid out in goods, and consigned to John Carthat the one thousand pounds, mentioned in the said morning. And which memorial was referred to "The Committee on Markets," by whom it has been duly son, at Fort Augusta, have been so expended, he shall considered, with a disposition, that is at all times desir-be ready to pass the said bill whenever offered to him ous of relieving their fellow citizens, from any annoyfor that purpose." ance to which they may be subjeced. But, in examining into this matter, so many other practices have been presented, which are considered as an annoyance to different portions of our city, that, to effectually prevent the practices, it would be necessary to prohibit, under penalty, any person for calling the attention of the people to their occupation or business, by the blowing, or sounding of any horn, trumpet or other wind instrument, by the ringing of bell or bells, or by crying aloud the articles they have for sale, within the limits of the city. Your committee are not prepared to recommend such a course to Councils; but believe, that the difficulty would be more effectually prevented, if the citizens would not purchase articles of those who give notice, by means that are an annoyance to the neighbourhood.
Mr. Fox, one of the Provincial Commissioners, appoin ted by that board to lay out a thousand pounds of the public money in Indian goods, to be consigned to John the Indians, on account of the Province, in pursuance of Carson, agent at Fort Augusta, for opening a trade with the message sent down by the Governor in the forenoon, with the Indian bill, delivered at the table an account of the application of the said sum to the above purpose, which was read, and the House being satisfied therewith, as clearly and properly stated,
Ordered, That Mr. Fox and Mr. Hughes wait on the Governor with the said account, whereby his honour may be also satisfied that the said sum hath been applied to the use for which it was deposited in the hands of
the said commissioner.
may be lawful for any person or persons, to sell or expose to sale, provisions, vegetables, or fruits, in the Markets of any City,borough, or corporated town, within this commonwealth: Provided always, that such provisions, vegetables, or fruit, shall not have been previously purchased within the limits of such city, borough or corporate town; any law to the contrary notwithstanding." It therefore becomes necessary, that the Legisit would properly become a subject for legislation, in lature should first repeal this act of Assembly; and then, the City Councils.
Be it Resolved, That the Committee on Markets be
discharged from the further consideration of the said petition.-Phila. Gazette.
The members appointed to wait on the Governor with an account of the application of one thousand pounds, lodged in the hands of Mr. Fox to be laid out Fort Augusta, in behalf of the Government, reported, in suitable goods for opening a trade with the Indians at that, in obedience to the order of the House, they had waited on his honour, and attempted to deliver the said account, with the message committed to their charge, but the conduct and behaviour of the Governor, and the treatment they met with from him, were of such an exal-traordinary nature, they thought it their duty to communicate it to the House in writing, and the same being read, follows in these words, viz:
Being admitted into the Governor's room, Mr. Fox, addressing himself to his Honour, said, Sir, as you were pleased to send a message to the House this morning, in which you desired to be informed of the application of the one thousand pounds, allotted by yourself and the Provincial Commissioners, for opening a trade with the Indians at Fort Augusta, we have waited on your honour with an account of the goods purchased for that use, and sent up to Mr. Carson, agent at the said Fort; we also lay before you the said Carson's receipt for such goods, to the amount of eight hundred and thirty-four pounds, and here is my acknowledgment of the balance, which I am ready to pay, as your Honour may think most proper, either to Mr. Carson, or into the hands of the Provincial Commissioners. The Governor interrupting Mr. Fox, replied, Sir, your eloquence is very great-Sir, your eloquence is very good, but let it be short.It is very good, Sir,-but let it be short. Your account will speak for itself, I suppose. -What sort of treatment is this to a Governor? Half an hour
The following resolution is therefore submitted. Resolved, That "The Committee on Markets," be discharged from the further consideration of the subject.
To the Select and Common Councils. Report from the Committee on Markets. Due consideration has been bestowed on the Petition for a repeal of the Ordinances which prohibit the resale of provision &c.; and that, under such restrictions as may be reasonable and just, a resale may be lowed. The petitioners propose, for the relief of those who follow the business of purchasing and selling provisions, that after repealing the Ordinances, which subjects them to penalty, a restriction or restraint upon prices, should be placed, to prevent extortion, and the prices asked by persons from the country should be the standard. It appears evident to the Committee, that very great difficulty would attend, the carrying into effect, of such a measure; and, if attempted, would lead to many disputes, as the country people themselves, are not uniform in their prices. It is further proposed, that additional power be granted to the Clerks of the Markets, in order to notice and restrain all violations of good order and propriety; your Committee believe, that sufficient power is already placed in their hands, to perform every duty, in preventing fraud or imposition; and the sale, or exposure for sale, of any unsound and unwholesome provisions, by seizing the same.
The prohibition, from which the Petitioners desire to be relieved, has its origin from a higher source, than that of City Authority; as by an act of Assembly passed the 6th April 1802, it is declared, "That it shall and VOL. V 50
the general features of the work, the board avail themselves of the opportunity now afforded of giving an outline of it, with a brief sketch of some of the promi nent difficulties and causes which have contributed to increase its cost, and delay its completion.
The canal is 13 5-8 miles in length, 66 feet wide on the surface, with 10 feet depth of water; having two tide, and two lift locks, of 100 feet in length, by 22 feet in breadth, within the chamber, and capable of passing the class of vessels usually employed in the bay and coasting trades. At the eastern termination of the canal at Delaware city, a harbour of substantial wharf-work extends 500 feet along the shore; from which two piers, that distance apart, now project 250 feet into the river, being nearly opposite Fort Delaware, within the range of its guns, and under their protection during war.Between this harbour and the canal, the Delaware tide lock opens the communication. This lock being situa ted on the margin of the river, and its pit dug about 18 feet below high water, through peat and soft mud, was tedious and expensive in its excavation, and presented difficulties in obtaining a suitable foundation. This, however, was effected by upwards of 800 deeply driven piles, on which two platforms of heavy timber, crossing each other were laid; on these the walls were built, and have firmly stood, notwithstanding the severe trial they have had by the water from the canal having forced its way through the piles under the lock. This evil has been remedied, under the immediate supervision of the engineer-in-chief, in a manner in which he has full confidence, and believes to be entirely effectual; and which has been fairly tested by several months' use of the lock, and by the continued pressure of a full head of water in the canal adjoining the lock in the first section; the canal is enlarged to 90 feet in width, for the pur pose of forming a basin in which vessels may remain while waiting to pass the lock; or, during severe storms, take shelter in a land-locked harbour.
Section No. 1, was excavated through the soft mud of which was cut principally through loam and sand, the river marsh, and extends 29 chains to section No. 2, depth of 16 feet. The earth from this section, which is to form embankments. On the western part of the sece 32 chains long, was taken to the adjacent low grounds, tion, a pivot bridge is erected for the accommodation of
ago, or a quarter of an hour, or twenty minutes, or less,
The House taking the foregoing Report of Mr. Fox and Mr. Hughes into consideration,
Resolved, N. C. D. That it is an undoubted right of this House, either by themselves, or any of their members, to have free access to, and decent treatment from, the Governor, on the public business, at all seasonable times.
"Resolved, N. C. D. That the manner of the Governor's receiving the members of this House, and the treatment he gave them, when they were about to deliver their message, were extremely unbecoming his station, indecent, unparliamentary, and such as hath an evident tendency to subvert and destroy that freedom of access which the representatives of the freemen of his Province have a right to, and without which the affairs of government cannot be transacted.
a public road.
Section No. 3, extends from section No. 2, to the village of St. George's, a distance of 34 miles through a deep morass or peat bog, in its course several times cros sing the bed of St. George's Creek. This section presented difficulties of no ordinary character, that were not anticipated at the commencement of the work, nor can they be appreciated by viewing it since its comple tion. The excavation through this section, as well as in the two preceding, was made about six feet below low tide in a loose soil, much of it of peat, so light and spongy in its texture as to float, and readily burning when dry, consequently unsuitable for the embank ments, which were formed of earth brought from the nearest points of fast land.
These embankments were among the most expensive parts of the work, when taken in comparison with the amount of the original estimate of their cost. They are supposed to have sunk in many places from 60 to 100 feet, before they met a solid foundation on which to rest, after spreading out to an enormous base, and con suming vast quantities of earth in their construction; and by their pressure, causing large masses of peat and oth er light substances to rise in the bottom of the canal, which added largely to the quantity of excavation, and consequently to the cost of this part of the work.
At the village of St. George's a lock of eight feet lift opens the communication with section No. 4, on the summit level. At this place a pivot bridge is thrown across the canal, for the accommodation of the Dover
On section No. 4, for about half a mile, a very heavy