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This order being full and decisive, the Lord Baltimore seemed at that time to be concluded by it without any further objection. He therefore, (as has been said) withdrew his men from the Fort he had built some miles from Newcastle. The inhabitants of all those parts held their lands quietly and unmolested by him and the King besides his Deeds of ffeofment given when Duke of York having as far as lay on his part granted a new patent(though having passed all the other offices it was delayed at the Great Seal) with ample power of Government to the proprietor William Penn for the whole, the title to the soil (at least) of these counties remained undisputed till after three and twenty years the same Lord Baltimore (from what instigation we know not) thought fit in the year 1708 to petition the late Queen for a re-hearing of that cause upon which the matter being largely discoursed at the Council Board the motion was entirely rejected, and the Lord Baltimore left as before to be determined by the former order from whence one would think in justice there should now be no appeal as he presumed there can be no line now made in law, because of the antiquity of the possession, for first these lands have continued a distinct colony as they are called in the order for near a hundred years, 'tis about fifty years since they came under the Duke of York's Government, and about thirty-three years they have been under that of William Penn. The much greater part of the whole tract is seated upon titles derives from the several Governments they have respectively been under, the validity of which is the only security the people have for their estates and improvements. After all, which, so manifestly contrary to right, to endeavour a subversion of all these titles and the long possession, had thereupon, carries so evident an injustice with it that it cannot be apprehended any Government whatsoever could countenance the attempt, much less that of Great Britain which is happy above all others in the tender regard always shown to the right of the subject.
That the memorialists represent, that the agricul tural interest of the United States has not received, from the General Government, the protection which has been extended to other branches of national industry; and that additional duties on agricultural productions, imported from abroad, would, by excluding foreign com petition, secure to the cultivator of the soil a just reward for his enterprise and labour.
If the allegation of the memorial is founded in fact, that the agricultural interests has not been fostered in an equal degree with any other whether navigating, commercial or manufacturing, it must be admitted there from, in the opinion of your committee, that a fatal er ror has prevailed, and that an effectual corrective should be speedily applied.
Against all that has been advanced, the Lord Baltimore can have nothing to alledge but that these lands lie within the description in his grant and therefore by the law he ought to have them. But it has been shown that though they fall within that description, yet they are not in reality within the grant it self. Were it even otherwise, it would be no new or strange thing in America in such a case to be disappointed; grants in these parts differ,widely from those in Great Britian. There, lands granted are of a real value at the time, but in A merica 'tis little more than a license to transport a colony and to erect a Government with all necessary pow. ers within such limits exclusive of other subjects. The land itself is the natives and either always is or ought to be purchased of them, which is constantly observed in Pennsylvania and some adjacent colonies, in such case as far as the grantees from the Crown pursue the design of the grant and extend their settlements; these estates will doubtless by such a possession and improvement be as unquestionable in lands as those in Europe, but upon failure hereof there has been but little regard shown by the crown to former grants most of the colonies of those parts being incroachments (if they may be so called) one upon another. The province of Mary-agriculture her liveliest care; and the wealth, power, and happiness, which have made her an object of envy, of dread, and admiration, are mainly attributed to the provident forecast and successful industry with which she has received and cultivated the native productions of other climes. The vines indigenous to France were not superior to those of the American forest. The tender and exquisite varieties of Asia, passing to Italy, were gradually extended to the Southern Provinces. The olive and the fig, now contributing to the riches of the state, were adopted into France at a more recent period. But, perhaps the annals of the world can fur nish no enterprise in rural economy, devised by the genius of a single man, more important in its results
A flourishing agriculture has ever been considered by the wisest statesmen as the indispensable basis of national greatness. By furnishing abundance it becomes the perennial source of population, wealth, and power Population must necessarily be proportional to the means of subsistence. The wealth of a community is but the sum of the disposable products of the soil, and of the avails of that industry which these products may put in motion; and power is the joint result of wealth and population. These principles have been the guides of the enlightened legislator both of ancient and modern times. Rome, who acquired a pre-eminence over other nations by the wisdom of her laws, never ceased to foster her agricultural industry. We know that the period of her liberty and greatness was also the period when agriculture ranked among the most honorable arts-when her soldiers returned from successful campaigns to cultivate the earth they had reluctantly aban doned-when her Consuls were taken from the plough; and the highest efforts of genius were employed in giving dignity to the labours of the field, and embody ing those lessons, which have been the instruction of succeeding ages.
Nor is agriculture less an object of regard among the most enlightened of modern nations. France, enjoying a temperate climate and a fruitful soil, has bestowed on
land it self, as well as many others lies all within the bounds of the first grants for Virginia, New England, extended to the 40th degree as 'tis called and was so understood at the time of the grant for Maryland as appears by express words in their patent, yet there have been divers other grants made from the crown within these bounds, which to the south-west include no less
[* See page 218.]
only argument that can be advanced by the Lord Balti more will be found to have very little force in it.
Thus both the boundaries between Maryland and Pennsylvania and the title to the lower counties have been considered, and from the arguments offered it will appear ('tis hoped) that the northern limits of Maryland should extend no higher at most than a parallel drawn from Newcastle or some place near it, and that the lower counties ought to be forthwith divided pursuant to the directions of the Kings orders in Council in 1685.
IN SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES.
Mr. MARKS, from the Committee on Agriculture, made
The Committee on Agriculture to whom was referred the *memorial of a number of Farmers and Graziers of Phil adelphia, and some adjoining Counties, in Pennsylva nia, report:
than all New New and Penn
sylvania. It should therefore scem that Maryland can
been more modest than to pretend, so that even that
REPORT ON AGRICULTURE.
than the first plantation of the mulberry, formed in the person, he does not feel the restraints of Government. royal garden of the Tuilleries, at the commencement of The fertility and cheapness of the land invite the hand the 17th century, by the command of Henry IV. From of industry; navigable rivers, penetrating far into the this great nursery the mulberry was quickly propagat-interior, aided by canals and artificial roads, formed and ed over the entire kingdom; ample subsistence was pro-forming by the enterprise of the people, present facilivided for the silk-worm; edifices were erected for their ties, never surpassed for bearing the production of the propagation; persons competent to instruct his subjects soil to distant markets; the arieties of soil and climate in the art of rearing worms and manufacturing the ma- to be found upon her ample surface not only favor the terial which they furnished, were sought for and em- cultivation of native products, but encourage the adopployed; success crowned his efforts; established habits tion of esteemed exotics. The American cotton has were overcome; prejudice yielded to the force of dem-long maintained an uncontested superiority in foreign onstration; national industry was directed into a new and markets. The sugar of Louisiana and Florida, superior profitable channel; millions, which before were sent to those of even tropical climes, will soon be equal to abroad, were retained at home; and a rich material was our entire consumption, and the day cannot be distant provided for the manufacturers of France, not liable to when the vine, the olive, and the mulberry, will reward the contingencies of foreign wars, and which could not the labors of the American husbandmen, and swell the be cut off by foreign rivalry. The value of the mulber- amount of American exports. ry, thus wisely introduced, may be inferred from the statements of a writer, of established credit, who estimates the raw silk, annually raised in France, at upwards of four millions of dollars, and the value of the manufactures which it produces, at more than treble that amount. The example of the great Henry has not been lost to his successors; agricultural societies have been formed and supported by Governments; through their influence rewards are offered for improvements; valuable information is collected and dispensed; the advances of one department, impelled by science, or suggested by experience, are communicated to another; works of established celebrity have been published by the direction and at the expense of Government; and the contributions of genius and science have been called into requisition, for the purpose of giving to agricultural labors a skilful and profitable direction.
Nor is Great Britain behind her powerful rival in her solicitude to foster her agricultural industry. By her bounty on wheat and barley exported, she has encouraged production. Her duties on these articles, when imported, amount to a prohibition, except in years when prices rise to the standard which indicates scarcity or famine. Although more dependent than France on commerce and manufactures, and limited in the products of the soil by her insular position, her attention has never been diverted from the primary objects of her legislation-the monopoly of supply to her own agriculturists; and she therefore excludes the products even of her dependencies from rival competition.
The Government of Russia is also vigilantly employed in drawing forth the agricultural riches of her vast dominions; and although less is known of the internal economy of this vast empire, it is apparent, from the amount of valuable staples she exports, that her enterprise and industry are skilfully exerted. While the nations of Europe are engaged in protecting their domestic industry, increasing the products of the soil, and affording the means of cheap subsistence, or of an extended commerce, the statesmen of our land cannot be indifferent to the interests of those who constitute a great major ity of the community, and to whose successful ef forts our country is mainly indebted, under a beneficent Providence, for her unprecedented growth and unrivalled prosperity. If it be true that the physical characteristics of a country, the spirit of the people, and the peculiar circumstances in which they are placed, should be consulted by the Government that wishes to give encouragement or direction to national industry, it must be obvious to the most cursory observer, that, in the United States, agriculture must long remain the predominating interest; and that no country, of which history furnishes a memorial, has presented a more noble theatre for her highest efforts. In no part of our republic is the landlord borne down with feudal tenures, vexatious tithes, oppressive taxes, or exhausting poor rates. Man every where walks forth in almost native indepen. dence, and is encouraged to exert his utmost energies while his land is free from burdensome impositions; his acquisitions are protected by equitable laws, and in his
While these physical characteristics invite the successful prosecution of agriculture, the spirit of the American people equally prompts to rural pursuits. It is in these that they can train up a vigorous offspring; and in these that they can cherish their love of liberty; it is in these, too, do they find full scope for mental and corporeal energy. With such considerations before him, no American statesman can, for a moment, hesitate in giving to the cultivators of the soil all the encouragement and protection that laws can impart.
forth in the memorial, that a just degree of protection
Spirits from grain,
other, Beer, Ale, Porter,.
Beef and Pork,.
Hides and Skins, raw...
Spirits from grain,..
Hides and Skins, raw......
Of these articles, some, like the hemp from Russia, may possibly be regarded as of indispensable necessity; and if any duty can prevent its importation, the one now imposed will effect that object; others, like bristles, hides, and skins, may not be supplied in sufficient abundance from our own resources, or may be deemed essential to our infant manufactures, Others, like beef, pork, butter, wheat and oats, are either not imported in sufficient quantities to require legislative prohibition, or do not yet enter materially into the consumption of the country. Still, however, there are a few, such as wines, silks, spirits, beer and ale, the importation of which, drawing from the country a great annual expenditure, might, perhaps, be discouraged by additional duties, or more effectually prevented by the awakened enterprise of our citizens. The memorialists have referred to the
berry now yields. The same author presents the fol lowing exhibit of what France has effected within a little more than two centuries.
SILK. Average product of cocoons in one year
Which estimated at 3 francs per
being about 2 lbs.) yields 15,442,827 francs. Its value, when spun, is estima
23,560,000 francs. The raw silk, then, raised in France, annually, amounts to
The same quantity, nearly, is imported,
When manufactured it produces
Gives the Agriculturist
to foreign countries.
The committee have before alluded to the advantages which might result from the cultivation of the mulberry, or, perhaps, to speak more properly, from availing ourselves of the riches which the indigenous mul
And yields the manufacturer
duties on the importation of foreign agricultural imple-
If, in addition to the mulberry and the vine, the olive should also be added to the products of our country; and if to these we also add the value of the sugar, which may be raised within the sugar district of Louisiana destined to yield, if the estimate of a judicious writer can be relied on, not less than one hundred and thirty millions of dollars annually-some idea may be formed of the immense resources which already invite the enterprize of individuals, and deserve the protection of an enlightened Government.
Next in importance to the cultivation of profitable staples is the encouragement to be extended to agricultural industry.
While then your committee can perceive so little in the general provisions of our laws of which the memori alists can justly complain, an important inquiry remains to be considered. What are the means, within the legitimate sphere of the General Government, by which the agricultural interest can be best promoted? Among the means for the encouragement of agricultural industry, few can be considered more advantageous than the introduction of staples best adapted to the soil, and yielding the greatest returns for capital and labor. The selection of those staples may, in general, be left to the prudence and enterprise of the cultivator of the soil. Self interest, if not the strongest, is the most universal principle of action, and this principle will ultimately lead to the cultivation of those agricultural products which shall most contribute to the prosperity of individuals, and the welfare of a State. Still, however, an enlightened government, surveying the wants and resources of a whole community, may co-operate beneficially with individual enterprize, and thus facilitate the march of agricultural improvements. In directing their attention to those productions, the cultivation of which might be advantageously encouraged by the Government of the Union, as well as by the authorities of the States, none, in the opinion of your committee, can claim preeminence over the vine and mulberry. No one can advert to the variety of soil and climate to be found within the United States, or to the success which has already attended the cultivation of our native grapes, without being convinced that time, experience, and enterprize, are alone wanting to introduce the extensive and profitable cultivation of this valuable Its immense
It is an admitted principle in political economy, that a flourishing agriculture depends not so much on either the fertility of the soil, or the numbers engaged in the business of production, as upon an adequate and certain demand for the superabundant products of the earthPrices are regulated by demand; and in the proportion that these prices present inducements for the exertions of industry and investment of capital, will agriculture prosper or decline. To afford then a certain and adequate demand for the remaining products of the soil, af ter supplying the wants of those engaged in the cultiva tion of the earth, becomes a leading object of every wise Government. Whence, then, this demand, upon which agriculture depends? It is created by the necessities of industrious consumers, inhabiting villages and cities, and must be found either in our own, or a foreign land. If it arises abroad, it is necessarily contingent and pre carious; subject to the caprice or policy of those who wield the powers of a rival State. If it arises from consumption at home, it becomes more regular and certain. It is then free from the control of a foreign Govern ment, and can be only greatly effected by the irregular. ity of the seasons.
Hitherto the demand for the surplus products of Aduct, wherever successfully cultivated, may be seen by merican agriculture has principally arisen from abroad; adverting to its rich returns in a country not more favor- and hitherto, therefore, it has fluctuated with capricious able to its growth by nature than our own. Chaptal, in regulations and uncertain events. At one time, a nation his valuable work upon the industry of France, pub-threatened with scarcity, or appalled by famine, opene lished in furnishes the results:
The lands of France applied to the cultivation of the grape are estimated at 35,358,890 hectares, each hectare equal to 100 acres.
The average annual product from the vine is $122,000,000; and of this product $9,000,000 are exported in
her ports to American industry; at another, a favourable with inflexible pertinacity. At one time, a European population withdrawn from the peacful labours of the field, and arrayed against each other in opposing armies, welcome the approach of American supplies. At anoth er, the return of peace restores the husbandman to his neglected farm; the fountains of domestic supply are once more opened; the protection of domestic industry becomes the policy of the State, and prohibitory duties debar the entrance of American products. Exposed to
these vicissitudes, the American agriculturist tills the earth in fearful uncertainty. He knows not by what standard to proportion efforts. At one time his profits are immense, and the influx of riches tempts him to indulge in extravagant expenditure: at another the whole returns from his estate scarcely repay the labor of cultivation. In one year, foreign demand and enhanced prices induce him to retain upon his hands barely sufficient for a scanty maintenance. In another, having enlarged his fields, expended his capital, and put forth efforts excited by success, the demand has ceased; the streams of commerce are arrested by arbitrary decrees, or capricious legislation, and he beholds his abundant harvest perishing on his hands.
While the wars prevailed in Europe, the demand for agricultural products was more regular and certain; and the profits derived from agricultural industry quickened it into a rapid, and, perhaps, into an unnaturally expanded growth. But the restoration of peace has lessened the demand from abroad. The supply has exceeded the wants of the consumers. The consequence has been, that the hand of agricultural industry has relaxed; cultivated fields are turned into pasture; landed estates have greatly fallen; and the enterprising husbandman is seen, every where, directing his attention to other pursuits for the profitable investment of acquired capital.
If, then, it is desired to give impulse to American industry, it becomes an indispensable duty to create at home a body of profitable consumers. Instead of relying upon the workshop of Europe we should exert the means which we posses to plant them here. Instead of swelling the number of foreign manufactures, whose government will not permit them to derive subsistance from us except in years of scarcity and famine, we should bend every effort to increase our own. And when the villages and cities of our land, drawing from the country its superfluous population, shall be filled with industrious artizans and intelligent manufacturers-who, beside, relieving us from dependence upon foreign countries, shall consume the products of our soil, and add, by their industry, to the riches of the State-then, and not before, will American agriculture be raised from its present state of languor and depression. The combined operations of agriculture and manufactures will furnish the materials for an extended and profitable commerce; the energies of an intelligent and free population will be called into action by the strongest stimulus; and then will it be found that the prosperity of the farmer is inseparably connected with the prosperity of the country.
Your committee have dwelt the longer upon the benefits which agriculture will derive from affording protection to our manufacturing industry, thereby creating in our own land a body of industrious consumers, in consequence of the earnestness with which this policy has been frequently assailed, and their firm conviction that it is closely interwoven with the permanent welfare of the country.
must be based upon a judicious system which shall connect the interests of husbandry, navigation, commerce and manufactures; sectional jealousies must give way to, liberal views. Unjust and partial measures, which would elevate one interest by the depression of another,should be carefully avoided; and all must unite in promoting the prosperity of the whole by affording profitable employment for the industry of the nation.
Connected with the great object of providing an adequate and constant demand for agricultural products is the adoption of a system of internal improvements, by which these products can be conveyed to market at the least expense. Roads and canals are important to all classes of society, but more especially to the farmer: for in proportion as they diminish the expense of transporting his products, they enhance his profits, and enable him whem commerce is unrestricted, to compete successfully with foreign producers in foreign markets. Experience teaches that in all countries roads and canals have either been encouraged by the enterprize, effected by the wealth, of cities; and hence, while the enriching streams of commerce and manufacturing industry are ultimately spread over the whole surface of the country, it becomes the interest 'of agriculture to feed the fountains from whence they are supplied.
If American agriculture is destined to advance, it
Your committee are of opinion that frequent alterations in our impost duties would be a very unwise policy to be adopted by the National Legislature. The tariff of 1828 has scarcely had its trial on the national prosperity. Your committee are sanguine in the belief that it will be found to be beneficial, and, therefore, believe it would be unwise at this time to recommend any alteration of its provisions.
They therefore offer the following resolution: That the committee be discharged from the further consideration of the subject.
EXPENDITURES OF THE JUDICIARY DEPARTMENT OF THE GOVERNMENT OF PENNSYLVANIA, FROM 1791 TO 1829, (INCLUSIVE.) Compiled from the Auditor General's Reports.
COURTS OF COMMON PLEAS.
Circuit Ex- Attorney Total Expen-
¡ 4000 00
11,001 28 10,849 28 10,831 67 9,453 28 12,425 28
16,666 04 16,134 64
OF ERRORS COURTS. & APPEALS. JUDICIARY.
2100 00 2100 00
20,437 01 23,168 94 29,002 24 29,165 21 29,717 69