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in two parallel rows, an inch and a half apart, and hold the odometer over the middle of the interval. ResultLongitudinal oscillations.
XII. Modify experiment XI. by holding the odometer not midway, but nearer one of the rows of sovereigns. Result-Oblique oscillations.
XIII. Dispose ten sovereigns heaped in a short longitudinal group, and hold the odometer over the table half an inch to one side of the middle of the heap. Result Transverse oscillations.
From the latter experiments and their modifications, it became evident that the magnitude and shape of the odsubject have each a direct influence on the result. A greater force of attraction evidently exists towards the greater mass.
XIV. Odometer held over the northward pole of a magnetic needle contained in a compass-box under glass. Result-Rotatory motion in the direction of the hands of a watch.
XV. Odometer held over the southward pole. Result - Rotatory motion in the direction contrary to the motion of the hands of a watch.
XVI. Repeat experiments XIV. and XV., with the difference of touching the forefinger implicated in the odometer with the thumb of the same hand. ResultsThe rotatory motions observed in the two experiments referred to become exactly reversed.
XVII. Hold the odometer over the centre of the needle. Result-Oscillations at right angles, or transverse, to the axis of the needle.
XVIII. Hold the odometer over, and half an inch to one side of, the centre of the needle. Result-Oscillations parallel to the axis of the needle.
XIX. Repeat experiment XIV. Then, during its continuance, place a pile of three sovereigns on the com
pass-box, in front of the northward pole of the needle, and about an inch from it. Result– Direction of original rotatory motion reversed.
Then follow experiments with results exactly parallel to the preceding, having the greatest physiological interest.
XX. Hold the odometer over the tip of the forefinger of your disengaged hand. Result-Rotatory motion in the direction of the hands of a watch.
XXI. Hold the odometer over the thumb of your disengaged hand. Result-Rotatory motion against that of the hands of a watch.
XXII. Hold up the forefinger and thumb of the disengaged hand, their points being at two and a half inches apart. Hold the odometer in the centre of a line which would join the points of the finger and thumb. Result-Oscillations transverse to the line indicated.
XXIII. Modify the preceding experiment by holding the odometer half an inch to one side of, and over, the middle of the line indicated. Result — Oscillations parallel to the said line.
XXIV. Modify experiment XXIII. by approximating the ends of the forefinger and thumb of the disengaged hand, so that they touch. Result—The odometer no longer moves.
XXV. Forefinger and thumb of the disengaged hand held upwards and apart, sustaining a short file longwise between them. Odometer then held over the last joint of the finger. Result-Odometer stationary. Odometer then held over the last joint of the thumb. Result -Odometer stationary.
XXVI. Odometer held over the northward pole of the magnetic needle, and its consequent rotatory motion in the direction of that of the hands of a watch established. Then advance the finger or the thumb of the other hand towards the odometer. (The odometer should be held in these experiments half an inch above, and a little wide of, or before, the apex of the needle.) The finger, or the thumb, is then to be brought as near to the odometer as is consistent with not touching it in its rotation. Result-Direction of the rotation reversed.
Then join the finger and thumb, and hold the two thus brought into contact in the same proximity to the odometer. Result—The rotation returns to the former direction; that is, to the direction of the motion of the hands of a watch.
XXVII. Odometer held over the radial (or thumb) edge of the wrist. Result—The same as when held over thumb. Odometer held over the little-finger edge of the wrist. Result—The same as when held over either of the fingers. This difference in result extends a third the length of the fore-arm, over the middle of which the odometer becomes stationary.
XXVIII. A portion of rock-crystal five inches long, about two wide and deep, placed on the table with its long axis transverse to the operator. Glass odometer held over the middle of the upper plain surface. Result - Oscillations parallel to the axis of the crystal. Position of the crystal shifted, so as to make its axis point from the operator. Result--Oscillations as before parallel to the axis of the crystal, but longitudinal to the operator. Then the thumb applied to the forefinger. Result-Transverse oscillations.
XXIX. Glass odometer held suspended over one apex of the crystal. Result-Rotatory motion in the direction of the hands of a watch. Odometer held over the opposite end. Result-Rotation in the direction contrary to that of the hands of a watch.
XXX. The last experiment repeated. The forefinger of the operator's unengaged hand brought near to the
odometer in each of its two varieties. Result—The previous rotatory motion reversed. Then the point of the thumb brought into contact with the odometer finger. Result—The original rotatory motion re-established.
I will add in reference to the first and simplest experiments, that the interposition of several folds of silk between the od-subject and the odometer renders the motions of the latter less brisk.
The development which I have thus given to the few, isolated, and long-hoarded experiments of Herr Caspari, was not so simple an affair as it may seem to be. For several days I was in doubt as to the genuineness of the results, so capricious and contradictory were they. It was only when I had discovered, first, the reversing effect of touching the odometer finger with the thumb of the same hand, and, secondly, that approaching the thumb towards the odometer finger, or even allowing the other fingers of the odometer hand to close upon the ball of the thumb, has the same effect with bringing the point of the thumb into contact with the odometer finger, that I succeeded in obtaining unvarying results. The interest of these experiments is unquestionably very considerable. They open a new vein of research, and establish a new bond of connection between physical and physiological science, which cannot fail to promote the advancement of both. They contribute a mass of objective and physical evidence to give support and substantiality to the subjective results of Von Reichenbach's experiments. They tend to prove the existence of some universal force, such as that to which he has given theoretical form and consistence under the designation of Od. And such a universal force, what other can we deem it to be than the long-vilipended influence of Mesmer, rendered bright and transparent and palatable by passing through the filter of science ?
THE SOLUTION.—Examination of the genuineness of the phenomena
Od-motions produced by bodies in their most inert state-Analysis of the forces which originate them-Od-motions connected with electrical, magnetic, chemical, crystalline, and vital influences—Their analysis.
The present letter might be entitled “ An account of some motions recently discovered, to the manifestation of which an influence proceeding from the living human body is necessary.” The contrivance by which these motions are elicited I have called an Odometer, from the conviction that the force which sets it in movement is no other than the Od-force of Von Reichenbach. For the same reason I have called the objects with which it is tested Od-subjects, and the motions themselves Odmotions.
The odometer is a pendulum, formed of a ring, or other small body attached to a thread, the other end of which is wound round a finger or the thumb. The odometer employed in the following experiments was a light gold ring having a greater mass of metal on the unattached side, and suspended to the last joint of the right forefinger, the suspending medium being either silk, or fine cotton, or the hair of a horse. The experiments were made by myself. In order to avoid the confusion resulting from a multiplicity of details, I shall state the results