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not cut well, he was in the mind it was: This is called the Retort courteous. If I sent him word again, it was not well cut, he would send me word, he cut it to please himself: This is called the Quip modest. If again, it was not well cut, he disabled my judgment: This is call'd the Reply churlish. If again, it was not well cut, he would answer, I spake not true: This is call'd the Reproof valiant. If again, it was not well cut, he would say, I lie: This is called the Countercheck quarrelsome: and so to the Lie circumstantial, and the Lie direct.
JAQ. And how oft did you say, his beard was not well cut?
TOUCH. I durst go no further than the Lie circumstantial, nor he durst not give me the Lie direct; and so we measured swords, and parted.
JAQ. Can you nominate in order now the degrees of the lie?
TOUCH. O sir, we quarrel in print, by the book';
"In circle, or oblique, or semicircle,
"Or direct parallel? you must challenge him."
9 O sir, we quarrel in print, by the book ;] The poet has, in this scene, rallied the mode of formal duelling, then so prevalent, with the highest humour and address: nor could he have treated it with a happier contempt, than by making his Clown so knowing in the forms and preliminaries of it. The particular book here alluded to is a very ridiculous treatise of one Vincentio Saviolo, intitled, Of Honour and Honourable Quarrels, in quarto, printed by Wolf, 1594. The first part of this tract he entitles, A Discourse most necessary for all Gentlemen that have in regard their Honours, touching the giving and receiving the Lie, whereupon the Duello and the Combat in divers Forms doth ensue; and many other Inconveniences, for lack only of true Knowledge of Honour, and the right Understanding of Words, which here is set down. The contents of the several chapters are as follow:-I. What the Reason is that the Party unto whom the Lie is given ought to become Challenger, and of the Nature of Lies. II. Of the Manner and Diversity of Lies. HI. Of Lies certain, [or direct.] IV. Of conditional Lies, [or the lie circumstantial.] V. Of the Lie in general. VI. Of
as you have books for good manners': I will name you the degrees. The first, the Retort courteous;
the Lie in particular. VII. Of foolish Lies. VIII. A Conclusion touching the wresting or returning back of the Lie, [or the countercheck quarrelsome.] In the chapter of conditional Lies, speaking of the particle if, he says, "— Conditional lies be such as are given conditionally, as if a man should say or write these wordes :-if thou hast said that I have offered my lord abuse, thou liest; or if thou sayest so hereafter, thou shalt lie. Of these kind of lies, given in this manner, often arise much contention in wordes,-whereof no sure conclusion can arise." By which he means, they cannot proceed to cut one another's throat, while there is an if between. Which is the reason of Shakspeare making the Clown say, "I knew when seven justices could not make up a quarrel: but when the parties were met themselves, one of them thought but of an if; as, if you said so, then I said so, and they shook hands, and swore brothers. Your if is the only peace-maker; much virtue in if" Caranza was another of these authentick authors upon the Duello. Fletcher, in his last Act of Love's Pilgrimage, ridicules him with much humour. WARBURTON.
The words which I have included within crotchets are Dr. Warburton's. They have hitherto been printed in such a manner as might lead the reader to suppose that they made a part of Saviolo's work. The passage was very inaccurately printed by Dr. Warburton in other respects, but has here been corrected by the original.
See also The Booke of Honor and Armes, wherein is dicoursed the Causes of Quarrel and the Nature of Injuries, with their Repulses, &c. 4to. 1590, b. iii. c. 20:
"Another way to procure satisfaction is, that hee who gave the lie, shall say or write unto the partie belied to this effect: I pray you advertise me by this bearer, with what intent you spake those words of injurie whereupon I gave you the lie. The other will answere, I spake them in choller, or with no meaning to offend you. Thereunto may be answered by him again that gave the lie thus: If your words were said onelie in anger and no intent to challenge me, then I do assure you that my lie given shall not burthen you, for I acknowledge you to be a true speaker and a gentleman of good reputation: wherefore my desire is that the speech passed between us may be forgotten. This mode of pacification may serve in many cases, and at sundrie occasions.""
books for good manners:] One of these books I have. It is entitled, The Boke of Nurture, or Schole of good Manners,
the second, the Quip modest; the third, the Reply churlish; the fourth, the Reproof valiant; the fifth, the Countercheck quarrelsome; the sixth, the Lie, with circumstance; the seventh, the Lie direct. All these you may avoid, but the lie direct; and you may avoid that too, with an If. I knew when seven justices could not take up a quarrel; but when the parties were met themselves, one of them thought but of an If, as, If you said so, then I said so; and they shook hands, and swore brothers. Your If is the only peace-maker; much virtue in If.
JAQ. Is not this a rare fellow, my lord? he's as good at any thing, and yet a fool.
DUKE S. He uses his folly like a stalking-horse 2, and under the presentation of that, he shoots his wit.
Enter HYMEN3, leading ROSALIND in woman's cloaths; and CELIA.
HYM. Then is there mirth in heaven,
for Men, Servants, and Children, with stans puer ad mensam ; 12mo. black letter, without date. It was written by Hugh Rhodes, a gentleman, or musician, of the Chapel Royal; and was first published in 4to. in the reign of King Edward VI.
Another is, Galateo of Maister John Casa, Archbishop of Benevento; or rather, a Treatise of the Manners and Behaviours it behoveth a Man to use and eschewe in his familiar Conversation. A Work very necessary and profitable for all Gentlemen or other; translated from the Italian, by Robert Peterson of Lincoln's Inn, 4to. 1576. REED.
2 like a stalking-horse,] See my note on Much Ado About Nothing, Act II. Sc. III. STEEVENS.
3 Enter HYMEN,] Rosalind is imagined by the rest of the
Good duke, receive thy daughter,
That thou might'st join her hand with his,
company to be brought by enchantment, and is therefore introduced by a supposed aerial being in the character of Hymen.
In all the allegorical shows exhibited at ancient weddings, Hymen was a constant personage. Ben Jonson, in his Hymenæi, or the Solemnities of Masque and Barriers, at a Marriage, has left instructions how to dress this favourite character. "On the other hand entered Hymen, the god of marriage, in a saffron-coloured robe, his under vestures white, his sockes yellow, a yellow veile of silke on his left arme, his head crowned with roses and marjoram, in his right hand a torch." STEEVENS.
That thou might'st join HER hand with his,
Whose heart within HER bosom is.] The old copy, instead of her, reads his in both lines. Mr. Rowe corrected the first, and I once thought that emendation sufficient, and that whose might have referred not to the last antecedent his, but to her, i. e. Rosalind. Our author frequently takes such licences. But on further consideration it appears to me probable, that the same abbreviation was used in both lines, and that as his was certainly a misprint in the first line for her, so it also was in the second, the construction being so much more easy in that way than the other. "That thou might'st join her hand with the hand of him whose heart is lodged in her bosom," i. e. whose affection she already possesses. So, in Love's Labour's Lost, the King says to the Princess:
"Hence ever then my heart is in thy breast." Again, in our author's Venus and Adonis":
"Bids him farewell, and look well to her heart,
Again, in King Richard III.:
"Even so thy breast incloseth my poor heart." Again, in Romeus and Juliet, 1562:
Thy heart thou leav'st with her, when thou dost hence depart,
"And in thy breast inclosed bear'st her tender friendly heart." In Love's Labour's Lost, vol. iv. p. 412, we meet with the error that has happened here. The Princess addressing the ladies who attend her, says:
"But while 'tis spoke, each turn away his face."
Ros. To you I give myself, for I am yours.
To you I give myself, for I am yours.
[To Duke S.
DUKE S. If there be truth in sight, you are my
ORL. If there be truth in sight, you are my Rosalind.
PHE. If sight and shape be true,
Why then, my love adieu!
Ros. I'll have no father, if you be not he :
[To Duke S.
I'll have no husband, if you be not he :
Nor ne'er wed woman, if you be be not she.
HYм. Peace, ho! I bar confusion : 'Tis I must make conclusion
Of these most strange events:
If truth holds true contents".
[TO ORLANDO and ROSALIND.
You and you are heart in heart:
[TO OLIVER and CELIA. You [To PHEBE] to his love must accord, Or have a woman to your lord:
Again, in a former scene of the play before us:
"Helen's cheek, but not his heart." MALone.
5 If there be truth in sight,] The answer of Phebe makes it probable that Orlando says:
"If there be truth in shape:
that is, if a form may be trusted; if one cannot usurp the form of another. JOHNSON.
f my sight does not deceive me : Phebe's answer will support one word as well as the other.
6 If truth holds true contents.] That is, if there be truth in truth, unless truth fails of veracity. JOHNSON.