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In our judgment, it is both legally right and morally right to retain these assets in this Nation. While we recognize the fact that consideration of the return of enemy assets is not properly within the jurisdiction of this committee, we strongly recommend that you report favorably H. R. 5930, thereby demonstrating your intent with respect to the disposition of these funds.

We of AMVETS can think of no finer use that could be made of these funds than the purpose contemplated by H. R. 5930. The use of assets seized from our former enemies to finance the education of the children of those servicemen whom they maimed and disabled is most certainly a form of poetic justice.

AMVETS, therefore, urge its favorable consideration. That completes my testimony, sir.

Mr. Dorn. Thank you, Mr. Henry. I was very interested there in your testimony about the United States having been very benevolent and waived all reparations rights against Germany and Japan and accepting only rather this very small amount received by this Government upon reparations of the war in assets held in this country.

In all previous wars in the history of the world, the winning nation, if I can recall history-recall that Germany, when they licked the French, levied reparations on them and also when there was the war involving the Hapsburg nations, there was a reparation levied against them; and in this enlightened age, we, as a great Nation, chose not to follow a policy of vindictiveness and spite, and chose not to follow this policy, but chose to follow one of brotherhood.

And, now here come these strange forces, who have a very strange love now, who are coming now and saying that you should return all this money not to the ravaged countries of Europe and most of the countries in the world, but you should return it to them.

I do not see any valid argument against the use of this money to put it to a worthwhile cause, and, certainly, at this advanced time, when it is absolutely necessary for the young people to have an adequate education, not only from an international point of view, but to maintain a home and a family, certainly this will help him to educate children who otherwise might not receive a formal education.

Mrs. Dwyer, do you have any questions?
Mrs. DWYER. No questions, Mr. Chairman.
The CHAIRMAN. Mr. Whitener?
Mr. WHITENER. No questions.
The CHAIRMAN. Any questions from the staff director?
The CHAIRMAN. Thank you.

Mr. Daley. We certainly would have to agree with you that it is small enough penance for our enemies to pay for the sins they committed, as it were.

Mr. Dorn. On top of that-I have no figures at my fingertips—but we spend millions of dollars to rehabilitate those people until they are enjoying today a level of income which they have never enjoyed, even in 1938 when they marched into Austria. . They have agreed to pay some of them. I just cannot understand some of the things I hear going on in Washington today. Thank you.

Our next witness will be Mr. Bertram Davis, of the American Legion.



Mr. Davis. Mr. Chairman and members of the subcommittee, I am Bertram G. Davis, legislative representative of the national legislative commission of the American Legion.

We, of the American Legion, consider it a privilege to appear before you today in support of H. R. 5930, a bill introduced on March 13, 1957, by Congressman Dorn amending the War Orphans' Educational Assistance Act of 1956.

For many years the American Legion has concerned itself with and supported better educational standards and opportunities, believing that education is one of the principal factors in our national security, our Nation's well-being, and our Nation's strength.

Exemplification of this statement may be found in our tireless and continued support of the GI bill of rights, which Congress, in its wisdom, enacted into law and which proved to be a sound investment rather than a governmental expense.

Cognizant of the fact that fully 55 percent of the children of this Nation are of veteran parentage, we know that, for better or for worse, the welfare of 30 million children of veterans is inextricably woven into the problem of promoting better and greater educational standards and opportunities.

A more recent manifestation of our continued and deep concern with this problem transpired during the 1955 National Convention of the American Legion when Resolution 590, emanating from the childwelfare committee, was adopted. And, Mr. Chairman, I should like at this juncture to quote this resolution in full:

RESOLUTION No. 590 Committee : Child Welfare Subject: Objectives and policies for future planning of the American Legion

education and scholarship program Whereas it seems advisable for the American Legion to adopt objectives and policies for future planning of its education and scholarship program: Now, therefore, be it

Resolved, That the major objectives of the education and scholarship program of the American Legion shall be:

1. To help make it possible for any child of a veteran who has ability and desire, to receive an education beyond the high-school level.

2. To encourage the membership of the American Legion and its affiliated organizations to take an active part in the development and maintenance of a school system that will serve the needs of all children at every level of education;

3. To encourage students to select careers where personnel shortages exist; and be it further

Resolved, That the following principles are to be followed to accomplish these objectives :

1. To explore and summarize existing scholarship resources ;

2. To make known to potentially eligible children the sources of scholarships that exist;

3. To develop new scholarship opportunities for the increasing number of students who will reach college age in the years ahead;

4. To cooperate with established organizations in the recruitment of students for careers where personnel shortages exist.

If the amendments offered in II. R. 5930, to the War Orphans' Educational Assistance Act of 1956, are enacted into law, educational

benefits will be extended to thousands of children of veterans who are seriously disabled as a result of their experiences in World Wars I and II or in the Korean conflict. This is most commendable.

The need for such legislation is most urgent. Requests for assistance directed to the American Legion from students who have a veteran parent with a permanent and total service-connected disability, continue to increase in number.

The reasons, we think, are obvious; first, veterans suffering with permanent and total service-connected disabilities are faced with the problem of an income seriously impaired; secondly, in numerous instances the Veterans’ Administration benefits represent the principal or only income for the veteran and his family.

H. R. 5930 would be a giant stride forward in alleviating this unfortunate situation which now exists.

A very impelling reason for giving serious consideration to this legislation may be found in the ever-increasing concern expressed by not only our Congress, but also by many of our larger educational institutions, with respect to the shortage of trained scientific and technical personnel in our country.

This problem has assumed gigantic proportions. If we are to de feat our wily opponent, the Soviet Union, in our struggle for scientific superiority we must, as they, develop the most ambitious, technical and educational program ever undertaken by any country.

We are certain that among the thousands of children who will benefit from the legislation now under consideration, there are a goodly number of potential scientific minds, capable of coping with the highly complex problems of atomic reactors, electronic brains, thermonuclear developments, and supersonic missiles.

In closing, we should like to say that we can think of no better way to invest the proceeds of seized enemy assets than in the youth of our Nation.

The youths of today are our citizens of tomorrow. It is upon their shoulders that the cloak of responsibility shall be thrown. We hope it shall rest lightly.

Mr. Chairman, we believe that we must not through inaction, negligence, indifference or indecision, fail in our sacred trust to those who will one day assume the gauntlet to preserve and defend our way of life. Our forefathers did not fail us, and we are confident that we shall not fail those whose future is dependent upon our actions now.

Mr. Dorn. Mr. Davis, is it your opinion that the more than $130 billion that this country has spent i n foreign assistance—that every penny of it will be thrown away if we lose this, or spend this all on foreign education?

Mr. Davis. Yes, I certainly do, sir.

Mr. Dorn. I agree with you 1,000 percent. So would you encourage people in science and other fields of education.

Mr. Davis. That is correct. I would, sir.
Mr. DORN. Are there any questions?

Mr. WHITENER. I would just like to say that I think your basic premise is sound; and when you talk about international relations, I find that your organization bears in mind that the primary thing, insofar as we are concerned, is the strength of our own country.

Mr. Davis. Yes, sir.

Mr. WHITENER. This business of education is something that I think is probably the most vital think we are faced with, and I want to ask you this as one who works regularly with the veteran: Is it not the truth that with the accelerated cooperation of education that a veteran who had no resources other than the money that is received monthly from the VA, if he is totally disabled, would not have a chance in the world of paying for the education of his own children?

Mr. Davis. That statement is true; yes, sir.

Mr. WHITENER. Is it not your further observation that these young people coming along sometimes form their plans for life based upon that financial picture at home, and, therefore, abandon any hope of education and are lost to prospective intellectual work permanently in this country?

Mr. Davis. Yes, sir; I believe that statement is correct.

Mr. WHITENER. And do you feel that the enactment of Mr. Dorn's bill would result in the goals which you say would be desirable! That is, more trained technicians and scientific people in this country.

Mr. Davis. Yes, sir; I have no doubt that among these youths that would benefit from this legislation, there are minds capable of coping with scientific data and with the educational problem we now have of a shortage of trained scientific minds.

Mr. WHITENER. Mr. Chairman, there is one other thing—I am not going to try to talk long on this, or ask it, but this is just a matter of opinion, but I would like to have his opinion on this: When you talk about the defense of our country and the security of our country as you did, do you feel that the failure to deal equitable, we will say, with the children of these disabled veterans would have some harmful effect upon the security of the country in that it would cause these children raised in an atmosphere of hopelessness, when they themselves are drafted into the military service-do you feel that they would have the proper attitude toward the military service?

Mr. Davis. I do not know whether I can corner that one, Mr. Whitener.

Mr. WHITENER. Let us say Mr. Bobby Jones is brought into the service involuntarily. His father is permanently disabled.

Bobby from the time he was 12 years old realized that the financial plight of his family was directly because of injuries sustained by bis father in defending this country which made it impossible for him to get an education and enjoy the benefit which his neighbor enjoys. Do you think that will affect his attitude toward military service?

Mr. Davis. What we are dealing with here is a psychological prohlem, a state of mind; and I would certainly say such a situation would have an impact on this young man's thinking, probably along the adverse lines you put forward in your hypothetical question to me.

Mr. WHITENER. Further than that, it would chip away at our Nation's security ?

Mr. Davis. Yes, sir; indirectly it would affect it.

Mr. WHITENER. It is a very far-reaching thing, is it not--this whole attitude toward the military service?

Mr. Davis. Yes, sir; it involves a considerable psychological problem.

Mr. WHITENER. Just to get the record straight that I do not think we should give the country away to the veterans, those of us who served



in the war and had no injuries and got back all right, in my opinion, have no right to demand a bunch of benefits for it; so what I have asked you and the statements I have made relate to these people who are totally disabled to go out and compete with you and me for employment and provide for their children as you and I do—as you and Í are privileged to do—because of their misfortune in the war.

Mr. Davis. Yes, sir.

Mr. Dorn. Mr. Davis, I would like the record to clearly show this: That your testimony as a whole represents the thinking, of course, of the American Legion; and I want to know if you are supporting and is the Legion supporting H. R. 5930.

Mr. Davis. Absolutely.

Mr. Dorn. There have been several bills introduced in the other body.

Mr. Davis. Yes; we think it is very commendable legislation.
Mr. Dorn. Thank you. Mrs. Dwyer.

Mrs. DWYER. I would like to ask a question to you, Mr. Chairman. Would you think that the cost of such a program would eliminate eventually the drafting of fathers ?

I mean would such a consideration be made, because of the cost of such a program, that eventually they would not draft fathers, or they would not be acceptable in the armed services?

Mr. Davis. On what grounds, Mrs. Dwyer?

Mrs. DWYER. On the grounds that a program such as this would be a very costly one eventually.

What I am trying to say is that a program like this is a costly program and to eliminate the cost of such a program they could very well be thinking in terms that fathers should not be serving.

Mr. Davis. First of all, I doubt very much whether 100 percent disabled fathers—that is the class of veterans we are talking about here would ever be drafted. They would not be eligible.

Secondly, if you are talking about the fact that we might have wartime disabled fathers, who eventually would come under this legislation, ergo, we should not have them drafted, I would be in no position to make a statement on that.

Certainly, this money is here and it would be put to good use.

Mrs. DWYER. The money is here, but there is not any program that is enacted into law that is not more costly than was anticipated, so you have to look at it.

How do we know 10 years from now, the dollar will not be worth 20 cents, so more money will have to be used to carry it out; so when you are thinking of a program such as this, I think you have to think of the into-time feature and use it--not necessarily the money we have here now.

My question then was this: If such an occasion arose, then the question was then that we had better be careful of who goes in the armed services so we do not have this responsibility. That is my question.

Mr. Davis. I see your problem.
Mrs. DWYER. So that is my question.
Mr. Davis. I would have no way of gaging that.

Mrs. DWYER. I am talking about the responsibility for starting the new program. Of course, I am talking on the possibility that there might be another world war.


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