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served, these were by no means the only animals of
celebrity bred by him. Susan of Balwyllo 422, and Isa-
bella of Balwyllo 423, who established tribes at Balwyllo,
were bred by Mr Fullerton, as were also Lively 256, the
foundress of the Portlethen family of that name; Flora 70,
the foundress of a family of Floras at The Thorn; Guinea
Pig 120, who went to Mains of Kelly, and from whom Mr
Bowie's Gainsborough bulls are descended; Ardestie 1183,
the progenitrix of the Mains of Kelly Ardesties; and others
of lesser note.
Isabella of Balwyllo 423, Susan of Balwyllo 422, and
Lively 256, bred by Mr Fullerton, were after the bull Earl
o’ Buchan 57, first prize winner in the aged class at the
Highland Society's show at Glasgow in 1850. We are
able, by reference to the letter from Mr Fullerton to Mr
Bowie, already alluded to, to furnish a few interesting
particulars regarding Earl o' Buchan 57. Mr Fullerton
says: “I bought a bull from the late Mr Cooper, Hillbrae,
Buchan, and I fearlessly called this bull Earl o' Buchan.
I found out the bull in this way. His mother was a great
big cow, with splendid back and hooks, and plenty of hair;
she had a ‘snod' rather short head, and had a tap hanging
down over her forehead. If you could have found a fault,
she was thin on her thighs, but on the whole a wonderful
cow, and of great substance. I saw the cow and her calf in
the showyard at the Highland Society's meeting at Aber-
deen in 1846. The cow, I think, calved in the yard, and it
was fancying the calf that made me buy the cow. It
was lying covered up with grass at its mother's head, and
I only saw its head at first sight. Its face was all glazed
like, as you have seen a calf's face when the mother is like
to drown it with milk. I made the man take the grass off
the calf and set it on its feet. It pleased me much. Mr
Cooper would not sell, he said; but by the help of Mr
Paterson, Mulben, Mr M'Combie, and others, I at length
bought cow and calf. I won at Glasgow with the bull.

It is a mistake to say the mark of the blistering was then on his side. He did not take pleuro when my beasts died. I suppose I saved him by keeping him in an end of the straw-barn.”

The last observation as to Earl o' Buchan recalls the disastrous fate of Mr Fullerton's fine herd, which is one of the most melancholy incidents in the records of the breed. Here is Mr Fullerton's own pathetic statement: “My herd was swept off by pleuro in 1859, when in five months I buried 100 head of, I believe, the best herd of polled cattle in Scotland at the time. I reckoned my loss was not under £2000; but had this [1876] been the date of my loss, the figure would have to be raised a little. How my beasts caught the disease, I could never say. I had more polled cattle than my farm would keep, and I had animals on several other farms, both on grass and turnips, which had, I suppose, brought home the fell disease. I had again got a considerable length to recoup my old position, but three times my herd—of nearly thirty at one time, and twenty head or thereby at other two times— was carried away.” But for the sales made by Mr Fullerton in 1843 and 1844, it is possible that his choice cattle would now be without representatives. Thanks, however, chiefly to Mr M'Combie of Tilly four, no families of polled stock are more numerous or more valued than the descendants of those cultivated forty years ago by Mr Fullerton at Ardovie and Ardestie.

Tillyfour.

In other portions of the work, we refer to the position and proceedings of Mr M'Combie of Tilly four, as a breeder of polled cattle. Here we shall endeavour to furnish a sketch of the material of which his herd was composed, his system of breeding, and notes on some of the more remarkable animals reared at Tilly four. The Tilly four herd dates from 1830, Mr M'Combie having about that time succeeded his father in the farm. We do not think it is possible to convey a more accurate description of the stock with which Mr M'Combie first acquired his fame as a breeder, than by quoting from the private catalogue of his herd, dated 1st January 1850. In a short prefatory note to the catalogue, Mr. M'Combie says most truly, that “he had directed his earnest attention to the improvement of the Aberdeen or Angus polled breed, with respect to size, symmetry, fineness of bone, strength of constitution, and disposition to accumulate fat, sparing no expense in obtaining the finest animals from the purest stocks.” The following is a list of the cows that were in the Tillyfour herd in 1850: 1, Young Charlotte 103, bred by Colonel Dalgairns of Balgavies, sire Black Hugh 316, dam Charlotte; 2, Lady Ann of Balgavies 102, bred by Colonel Dalgairns of Balgavies, sire Black Hugh 316, dam Lady Ann ; 3, Jean Ann 206, bred by Mr Fullerton, Mains of Ardovie, sire Panmure 51, dam Queen of Ardovie 29; 4, Princess, bred by Mr Fullerton, sire Panmure 51, dam a pure Angus cow; 5, Lady Scott, bred by Mr Scott, Balwyllo, sire Albert, dam belonging to Mr Scott; 6, Cleopatra, bred by Mr Scott, Balwyllo, sire Albert, dam belonging to Mr Scott; 7, Balwyllo, bred by Mr Scott, Balwyllo, got by the first prize two-year-old bull at the Eastern Forfarshire Society's show in 1843, dam May Rose; 8, Queen Mother 348, bred by Mr Fullerton, Ardovie, sire Panmure 51, dam Queen of Ardovie 29; 9, Victoria, bred by Mr Watson, Keillor, sire Second Jock (Old Jock 1), dam belonging to Mr Watson; 10, Clara, bred by Mr Watson, Keillor, sire Second Jock (Old Jock 1), dam belonging to Mr Watson; 11, Violet, bred by Mr Watson, Keillor, sire First Jock (Grey-breasted Jock 2), dam a pure Angus cow; 12, Matchless, bred to the owner, sire Panmure 51, dam Matilda; 13, Duchess, bred by Colonel Fraser of Castle Fraser; 14, Matilda, bred by the late Mr Williamson, St John's Wells; 15, Diana, bred by the owner, sire Monarch 44, dam Georgina; 16, Mary, bred by Mr Wilson, Netherton of Clatt; 17, Jenny Lind 27, bred by Mr Pirie, Colithie ; 18, Georgina, bred by the owner; 19, Amelia, breeder unknown; 20, Susan, bred by Mr David Watt, Kintocher, sire Rory; 21, Lola Montes 208, sire Monarch 44, dam Queen Mother 348; 22, Young Jean Ann 144, sire Monarch 44, dam Jean Ann 206; 23, May Rose, bred by the owner, sire first prize bull at Eastern Forfarshire Agricultural Association's show, dam Balwyllo; 24, Fair Maid, bred by the owner, sire Monarch 44, dam Lady Scott; 25, Sophia, bred by the owner, sire Monarch 44, dam Georgina; 26, Young Mary, sire Monarch 44, dam Mary; 27, Annabella, bred by the late Mr Walker, Wester Fintray. The bulls in the Tillyfour herd in 1850 were Victor 46, bred by Mr M.Combie, sire Monarch 44, dam Jean Ann 206; Angus 45, bred by Mr Watson, Keillor, sire Second Jock (Old Jock 1), dam No. 1 at Mr Watson's sale (Old Favourite); and Victor 2nd 47, bred by Mr M'Combie, sire Monarch 44, dam Jean Ann 206. The bulls referred to, as most intimately connected with the herd at the time, were Panmure 51, and his son Monarch 44. In order to provide sufficient information to enable the reader to identify the cows and bulls in the Tilly four herd in 1850, we have filled in the ‘Herd Book’ numbers where possible. We have also in most cases omitted Mr M'Combie's description of the variety to which the animals belonged. His practice apparently was to refer to animals bred in Forfarshire as “Angus;” to those bred in Aberdeenshire, and unconnected with the Forfarshire stock, as “Aberdeen; ” and to those bred by himself in which the “Angus" and “Aberdeen" blood was mingled, as “Aberdeen and Angus.” The strain with which Mr M'Combie's name is most closely identified is that of the Ardovie Queens, and to the members of this tribe we shall now particularly

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allude. The notes in a former chapter on famous polled cattle, and our remarks on the herd of Mr Fullerton, Ardovie, convey details, so far as known, as to the breeding and characters of Black Meg 766, and her daughter, Queen of Ardovie 29, whose sire was Captain 97, bred by Mr Sim, Panlathie. Mr. M'Combie was present at the Ardovie sale in 1844, and purchased a yearling heifer out of Queen of Ardovie 29, that he afterwards called Queen Mother 348, the name having been suggested by the controversy then raging in reference to the Spanish marriages.

Queen Mother was after the celebrated bull, Panmure 51,

and the price paid for her was only £12, 10s. The cow
proved somewhat obstinate as a breeder. Mr Dixon, in
‘Field and Fern,’ says: “As she turned from her few
first services, she was put for a penalty to draw wood, and
did all the ridging-up of thirty acres of turnips as well.”
It was not till 1847 that she had her first calf. Queen
Mother gained numerous prizes at the national and local
shows, being, when thirteen years old, the second prize
cow in a very strong class at the Highland Society's meet-
ing at Inverness in 1856. She was then sold to Mr Bowie,
Mains of Kelly, and died on 20th August 1858, apparently
from old age.
The ‘Herd Book” records four calves out of Queen
Mother—Lola Montes 208, Bloomer 201, Windsor 202,
and Victoria of Kelly 345. The first three were bred by
Mr. M'Combie, and the last was bred by Mr Bowie after
he obtained the cow in 1856. In Mr M'Combie's book,
‘Cattle and Cattle-Breeders,’ he enunciates opinions as to
breeding which it will be useful to quote here. “In-and-
in breeding,” he says, “may be pursued for a time, until
the type is developed; but to continue for any length of
time to breed in-and-in is not only against my experience,
but, I believe, against nature.” In the breeding of these
three daughters of Queen Mother, the principle on which
Mr. M'Combie proceeded is illustrated. He desired to

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