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deformed calf. Balwyllo Queen 445 cast calf, and none of them ever bred again. Esmeralda, as before mentioned, calved a dried-up foetus more than a year after time. The only pure-bred cows left were Rhoda 566, and Bella, belonging to two of the servants. These animals never had the rinderpest. From the first came Bolshan 420, and from the latter Southesk of Kelly. Bella is not entered in the ‘Herd Book,' but was by Raven 270, out of Bell of Kinnaird 328. Lord Southesk also bought a heifer by Windsor 221, out of Gem 719, with whom he got the first prize as a yearling at the show at Dundee. She was afterwards sold to Lord Airlie.

Ardgay.

Mr John Collie, Ardgay, Forres, had a fine herd of polled cattle, which was dispersed in 1866. In founding the herd, Mr Collie, who was a very good judge, picked up in the locality a number of animals which, although of short recorded ancestry, were of more than ordinary individual merit. Blinkbonny 315, one of these, was the dam of Marion 308, the foundress of the Westertown Rose family. Another was Dorrit 316, calved in 1850, bred by the trustees of Mr Howitt, Rothiemay; and it is in connection with the descendants of this cow that the fame of the Ardgay herd is chiefly perpetuated. Dorvit, when in the possession of Mr Charles Kay, Earnside, bred in 1855 Hinda 322, whose sire is not recorded. In 1857, in Mr Collie's possession, Hinda was put to Lord Southesk's bull Kinnaird 224 (a son of Cup-Bearer 59), and the produce was Normahal 726. Normahal was again put to Kinnaird, and in 1860 gave birth to Zara 1228—the secondprize two-year-old heifer at Battersea in 1862. Zara was bought by Mr M'Combie of Tilly four, to whom she bred, among others, the heifers Kate of Aberdeen, by Black Prince of Tillyfour 366, and Matilda of Tillyfour 1175, by Bright 454. Of Kate of Aberdeen (not entered in the ‘Herd Book”) Mr Dixon says, “She was certainly the best calf of any breed we have ever looked over.” Kate was the first-prize yearling and two-year-old at the Highland Society's shows in 1864 and 1865. It is, however, through the descendants of Matilda and her daughter Pride of Alford 1778, first-prize yearling at Kelso in 1872, that the tribe is now best known. Mr M'Combie also purchased Normahal, who was the dam of the famous Bright 454; while from Zara was bred the bulls Champion 459 and Scotsman 474. Another animal bred by Mr Collie from the cattle obtained in the locality was Marius 564, the first-prize yearling bull of the Highland Society at Inverness in 1865, afterwards passing into the possession of the late Mr Robertson, Burnside. Mr Collie also owned Fair Maid of Perth 313, of the Queen tribe, purchased at Tillyfour in 1857 for £86. She was the firstprize cow at the National show at Edinburgh in 1859. He won with Mayflower 314, bred at Mulben, the first prize for cows at the Highland Society's show at Perth in 1861. The famous Balwyllo cow, Keepsake 427, was at Ardgay for some years, as were also several other cows from Kinnaird and Balwyllo. The chief sires in the herd were Black Douglas 311 and Kinnaird 224—both bred by Lord Southesk, and the latter the second-prize two-yearold at Glasgow in 1857—and Arthur of Balwyllo 478. The Honourable Charles Carnegie, who in November 1857 went to Mr Collie as a pupil, has supplied us with a few notes regarding the Ardgay herd. When Mr Carnegie went to Mr Collie's, he found there the following polled stock—viz., Fair Maid of Perth 313, Empress 312—bought from the Earl of Southesk for 60 guineas—Blinkbonny 315, Cordelia 320, Dorrit 316, Hinda 322, Nannie 321, Duchess 317, Mayflower 314, and some heifer calves. Fair Maid of Perth, afterwards in succession second and first at the Highland Society's shows, was a grand cow. Her fault was, that she was a little too prominent over the hooks. She was a difficult animal to prepare for the show-yard, as she had a tremendous appetite and gave a lot of milk. Empress 312, who had a bull calf–Prince Imperial 223—never bred again, and the calf proved useless. Blinkbonny was a very well-topped cow, but wanted in underline, and had a plain head. Cordelia never bred anything worth noticing, though herself not deficient in second-rate merit. Dorrit was a very meat, sweet little cow, and far superior to her daughter Hinda, who was commonplace in appearance. Hinda, however, always bred well. Dorrit's heifer calf Alice was a prize-taker, but being a free-martin, never bred. One of Hinda's calves was Lala Rookh 730, whose name appears in many pedigrees, and who herself was a very good heifer. Nannie and Duchess were both of a good, useful sort, and the latter was the granddam of Mr. M'Combie's celebrated ox Black Prince. Mayflower turned out a beautiful cow. She was second and first at the Highland Society's shows, though it is believed that in the latter case she failed to qualify, not being in calf. Mayflower ended her show-yard career at the Smithfield show, where she won the first prize for Mr M'Combie, who bought her along with several others a few years later. During the time that Mr Collie continued to keep polled stock, he bred several animals of note. Normahal 726 and Zara 1228, descendants of Hinda, were both very good. The former was a very taking heifer; and though she did not grow very large as a cow, she looked extremely well when Mr Carnegie saw her and bid for her at Mr M'Combie's sale in 1867. Zara, who won the second prize at Battersea, was also a very handsome heifer, and, as previously noticed, could boast of being the ancestress of many prize-takers.

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CHAPTER IX.

EXTINCT HERDS-CONCLUDED.

(1) The Balwyllo herd : Its characteristics—The Princess, Isabelli, Victoria, Keepsake, Annie Laurie, Emily, and other families. –(2) The Mulben herd: Origin and progress–Sires used by Mr Paterson.— (3) The Castle Fraser herd : Position in show-yard–Breeding of bulls used—Sale in 1870.-(4) The Aboyne Castle herd : The Marquis of Huntly's services to the breed, and their recognition—Sketch of animals composing the herd—Madge of Portlethem 1217. –(5) The Duff House herd : Notes regarding chief animals—Their wonderful success in exhibition.—(6) The Balquharm herd : Mr Adamson's aim in breeding—Dispersion in 1881 the best public sale of polled cattle that has ever been held.—(7) Other herds: Fyvie Castle, Tullochallum, Brucklay, Fernyflatt, Bognie, Indego, Garline, &c.

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AMONG the early Forfarshire herds, that at Balwyllo occupied a high place, and its blood still circulates in many famous stocks. We are indebted to the Honourable Charles Carnegie for the following account of the herd: The late Mr Robert Scott of Balwyllo, who died somewhere about 1846 (I am not sure of the precise date), had a herd of polled cattle that was well known in my boyhood, After his death the herd was carried on by his son, also Robert Scott, who took a great interest in it, and was very successful in the show-yard. After his early death his mother continued to manage the farm of which, in 1863, she herself took the lease. At this date the whole of the stock was brought to the hammer, but Mrs Scott bought one or two very good animals. They, however fell victims to the rinderpest, and since then no pure stock has been kept at Balwyllo. Previous to the final dispersion in 1863, the trustees had a large draft-sale on the termination of the lease of the farm of Powis, on the Southesk estate, and it is to the descendants of the animals sold at these sales that we must now look for the blood of this fine herd. The characteristics of the herd in my memory were great size and fleshiness, and very early maturity, which made the Balwyllo yearlings always very hard to beat in the show-yard. There was, however, a slight tendency to coarseness in the bone, or unlevelness of flesh, as they grew up, and a slight roughness of hair, especially in the males, which detracted from the general sweetness in appearance of many of the mature animals. I will note in detail, as far as my memory serves me, some of the most remarkable animals, taking them, for convenience' sake, in families:– The Princess Family.—This family—descended from Princess 47—must not be confounded with the Kinnochtry family of the same name, although, curiously enough, there is a descent in the male line of the latter family from the former. The foundress of the family, Princess 47, was bred by the late Mr Ruxton, Farnell, and was got by the celebrated Panmure 51. Princess herself was a considerable prize-taker, and I have always heard her spoken of as a very handsome cow, and free from the defects I have mentioned as sometimes to be seen in the Balwyllo cattle. From Princess 47 were bred three bulls, all of whom were used in the herd, one being Stanley 52, by Joseph 53, a Balwyllo-bred bull, and the other, President 205, by the Keillor-bred Adam 39. I have no recollection of Stanley, but I have seen President 205, though I have no further memory of him than that he was handsome. He was a very successful prize-taker, as will be seen from the record

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