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lished towards the end of the first decade of the nineteenth century, all testify that, at the time they wrote, the majority of the cattle in these districts were hornless. The Rev. Mr Gillespie, editor of the “Galloway Herd Book,' says: “I think there can be very little doubt but that the Galloway and the West Highland breeds of cattle have sprung from the same parent stock at a very remote date. There is a close resemblance, even at the present day, between a well-bred polled Galloway and a West Highlander minus the horns. Indeed the similarity is so great, that when we bear in mind the fact that previous to the close of the eighteenth century almost all the Galloways were horned, it is easy to understand how any difference between the two types of animals may have been produced by the different circumstances in which they have long been placed, and the different treatment to which they have been subjected.” These and other considerations support the conclusion that the polled Galloway cattle had originated in the manner already set forth as the most likely source of hornless cattle—i.e., by the sudden appearance of one or more animals without horns, and the preservation of the new feature through selection in breeding. At what time the first hornless animals may have appeared in Galloway we cannot presume to say. We know from Youatt that about 1750 “only some of them were polled,” and from the several other writers named, that fifty or sixty years thereafter only a “very few "had horns. We may thus infer that the absence of horns had been favoured by the Galloway farmers, and that they had so managed their herds as to ultimately “breed out” the horned strains. Indeed we know, from authentic sources, that the farmers of Galloway had strong inducement from exterior quarters to cultivate and extend their polled herds. Shortly after the union of England and Scotland in 1707, there arose an active trade in cattle between the two countries; and

"towards the end of the first decade of the nineteenth tury, all testify that, at the time they wrote, the ma. ty of the cattle in these districts were homes T. * Mr Gillespie, editor of the ‘Galloway Herd Bo s: “I think there can be very little doubt but that Galloway and the West Highland breeds of Cattle e sprung from the same parent stock at a very remo 2. There is a close resemblance, even at the present , between a well-bred polled Galloway and a Wes: shlander minus the horns. Indeed the similarity is so it, that when we bear in mind the fact that previous the close of the eighteenth century almost all the loways were horned, it is easy to understand how any erence between the two types of animals may have n produced by the different circumstances in which have long been placed, and the different treatment which they have been subjected.” hese and other considerations support the conclusion the polled Galloway cattle had originated in the ner already set forth as the most likely source of loilo cattle—i.e., by the sudden appearance of one or Ilio als without horns, and the preservation of the II* re through selection in breeding. At what time the ormless animals may have appeared in Galloway" t presume to say. We know from Youatt that about only some of them were polled,” and from the other writers named, that fifty or sixty years tlee. ly a “very few " had horns. We may thus infer absence of horns had been favoured by the G* rulers, and that they had so managed their herds mately “breed out" the horned strains. Indeed from authentic sources, that the farmers of had strong inducement from exterior quarters e and extend their polled herds. Shortly after of England and Scotland in 1707, there arose ade in cattle between the two countries; and

in the exportation of lean cattle from Scotland to England, Galloway participated to a large extent. By the end of last century as many as 20,000 head of cattle were annually sent from Galloway to England—chiefly to Norfolk—to be fattened there for the southern markets. It is stated that the English buyers preferred the hornless cattle; and no doubt, this fact had induced the enterprising Galloway farmers—who had been taking advantage of the new outlet for the produce of their herds—to strive more anxiously than ever to get rid of the horns and to enlarge the ranks of their polled stocks. About twenty-five or thirty years ago, mainly through the encroachments of those excellent dairy cattle, the Ayrshires, and the changing of grazing-lands into tillage farms, the Galloway polled breed became greatly reduced in numbers. Indeed had not some enterprising gentlemen, who knew well the value of the race, taken active steps in the matter, it might have soon become extinct. Since the commencement of the ‘Polled Herd Book” in 1862, the breed has regained much of the popularity it worthily enjoyed in bygone days. It is now reared extensively, and with much success, in Dumfriesshire, Kirkcudbrightshire, and elsewhere. In general appearance the Galloway resembles the polled Aberdeen or Angus breed, although we believe the one to be almost, if not indeed quite, as far removed from the other in kinship as from any of the other British breeds. The Galloways are handsomely formed, all black in colour, slightly ranker and coarser in the hair, rather thicker and stiffer in the skin, and also somewhat slower in maturing than the polled Aberdeen or Angus cattle. They are, however, justly celebrated as graziers, and are well deserving of the increased and growing attention now being bestowed upon them. They are noted for remarkable fixity of type. The origin of the Norfolk and Suffolk polled breed has been the subject of considerable discussion. By some it is regarded as indigenous to the district it now occupies.

Others believe that it had sprung from Galloway polled cattle introduced in the last century, probably soon after the union of England and Scotland, when, as has already been stated, a large number of cattle were driven every year from Galloway and elsewhere in the south of Scotland into Norfolk and other parts of England. Youatt in particular adopted the latter notion as to the origin of the breed. He says that the polled cattle which he found in both Norfolk and Suffolk (about 1832 to 1835), and which are recognised as one breed, had “undoubtedly sprung from the Galloway.” It has been stated that in 1765 a herd of semi-wild polled cattle was introduced to Gunton Park, Norfolk, from Lancashire. These wild cattle became domesticated in Norfolk ; and it is believed by some that they also have had a share in the building up of the improved Norfolk and Suffolk polls. In a volume published a few years ago at ‘The Field' Office, London, Mr John Coleman—the editor of the work, who is himself a Norfolk man, and one of the best living authorities upon the subject—in his article on this breed, admits the probability of the Galloway polls being in the main its progenitors, but claims part of the credit to an “old native race.” He says: “From a very early period large numbers of polled Galloway cattle were brought into the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk. There can be little doubt that these were crossed with one or other (probably both) of the native races, and that thus the present breed of Norfolk and Suffolk red polled cattle was called into existence.” The characteristic colour of this breed is a deep blood-red. Formerly, according to Youatt, some were black, some red mixed with white, and some black mixed with white, all having a “golden circle about the eye.” In recent years the breed has been greatly improved, and it now ranks creditably among English cattle.

s believe that it had sprung from Galloway polled introduced in the last century, probably soon after nion of England and Scotland, when, as has already stated, a large number of cattle were driven every from Galloway and elsewhere in the south of Scointo Norfolk and other parts of England. Youatt articular adopted the latter notion as to the origin le breed. He says that the polled cattle which he d in both Norfolk and Suffolk (about 1832 to 18%). which are recognised as one breed, had “ undolely ng from the Galloway." It has been stated that in a herd of semi-wild polled cattle was introduce unton Park, Norfolk, from Lancashire. These will e became domesticated in Norfolk; and it is lo one that they also have had a share in the build. up of the improved Norfolk and Suffolk o In lume published a few years ago at ‘The Field’ Office, don, Mr John Coleman—the editor of the work, who imself a Norfolk man, and one of the best living orities upon the subject—in his article on this o is the probability of the Galloway polls being in the its progenitors, but claims part of the credit o native race.” He says: “From a Yely early per numbers of polled Galloway cattle were * the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk There o 6 doubt that these were crossed with one or o ably both) of the native races, and that thus o it breed of Norfolk and Suffolk red polled C8 o alled into existence." The characteristic o reed is a deep blood-red. Formerly, according l ack, some red mixed with * "...ised with white, all having a “golden “”. k o recent years the breed has been greatly ranks creditably among English

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CHAPTER III.

ORIGIN AND EARLY HISTORY OF THE POLLED ABERDEEN OR ANGUS CATTLE.

Scotch domestic cattle derived from aboriginal wild breed—All one variety —Differing according to conditions of life—Origin of polled Aberdeen or Angus breed—Natives of their present home–Loss of horns— When –Probably centuries ago—Polled cattle in Angus in 1752, in 1757, in 1797, and in 1813—Youatt on Angus polled cattle–Polled Galloways in Angus–Polled cattle in Aberdeenshire in last century— Keith and Williamson on Aberdeenshire cattle—Youatt on ditto— “Native low country” and “Buchan humlies” the same breed— Letter from Mr Macpherson, Huntly, in 1832–Polled Galloway cattle in Aberdeenshire–Early polled breeders in Aberdeenshire—Improved breed direct descendants of Angus doddies and Buchan humlies—The

latter two same variety—Loss of horns.

WE have already indicated that, among naturalists and other persons of distinction, there has been much discussion upon points connected with the origin of domestic British cattle. It has been disputed whether they should be regarded as the degenerate descendants of the great urus, the magnified progeny of the slender longifrons, or the composite product of these two. There has also been discussion as to whether they have been derived solely from the aboriginal wild cattle of ancient Britain, or partly from these and partly from domesticated cattle introduced from the continent of Europe. There would seem to be strong reason to believe that the latter idea may be applied correctly to several of

the English breeds. With the more truly Scotch races, however, the case is different. It is hardly possible, we think, for any one who has become acquainted with the early history of the country, and with the works and circumstances bearing upon the origin and domestication of British farm stock, to avoid arriving at the conclusion that the foreign element could have had but very little to do with the formation of the existing races of Scotch cattle. At present four distinct breeds have their headquarters in Scotland—namely, the Ayrshire, the polled Galloway, the polled Aberdeen or Angus, and the Highland or horned breed. The first—a valuable dairy breed—has undoubtedly been to a large extent, if not wholly, derived from the introduction of foreign cattle, probably either of the Alderney or Holderness races. The other three are in the fullest sense of the term native Scotch cattle. It is right, we think, to regard them as the true lineal descendants of those wild aboriginal cattle that roamed through the forests and marshes of ancient Caledonia. Whether those wild aboriginal Scotch cattle, from which the existing races were derived, were of the urus or the long frons type we need not, perhaps could not, determine. It is at any rate tolerably clear that they had all been of one variety. No one, we imagine, who investigates the subject fully and impartially, can escape the conviction that the three existing breeds of pure Scotch cattle had all originally been of one type, had all sprung from one common source. Differing in minor points in accordance with the variances in the climate and other conditions under which they had been reared, they would still seem to have been so nearly alike in all the chief characteristics which distinguish races from each other, that they ought to be viewed as belonging to one large well-defined group or type. Even yet, after having passed through long ages of widely different treatment, they present such strong similarities as afford substantial proof of their reputed common origin

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