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regularly. Mayflower 2376, calved in 1865, produced her first calf when two years old, and bred every year afterwards up to 1881, when she was sold to the butcher at sixteen years old. With one exception, Captain Beedie has never had a cow that missed calf.
Among herds that have contributed most substantially to the improvement and extension of the breed, that at Portlethen occupies a high position. The first bull used in the herd was Colonel 145, calved prior to 1818, being the oldest animal, the date of whose birth is given in the ‘Herd Book.’ It was some years later, however, before the late Mr. Robert Walker established the pedigree herd, which rapidly acquired a great reputation not only in Scotland, but also in France. Mr George J. Walker, the present owner of the herd, furnishes us with the following note regarding it —“The first known to me about the herd is the fact that in 1818 the bull in use was called Colonel, a prize bull of his day, and Porty his son. At that time there appears to have been two distinct tribes —the Nackets, a short-legged, neat, black animal; and the Brown Mouths, a lengthy beast, and coloured as named. These are all gone. Bulls were got, as far as I can see, from Mr Walker, Fintray, and Mr Hector, Fernyflatt—that is, from 1826 to 1836. Later, they were obtained from Crathes and from the produce of females brought from Ardestie, Mains of Kelly, Kinnaird, etc. All our best bulls of late years—say since 1856—have been home-bred. Within my recollection none but polled cattle have been kept at Portlethen. The first draft sale I remember was in 1847. There was one, I think, in 1843, but I have no record of it. Banks of Dee 12; the Andrews—Andrew 8 and Young Andrew 9; Raglan 208, for whom the late Emperor Napoleon offered £230 at the Paris show in 1856; Marquis 212, who there had second prize; Fox Maule 305, and Palmerston 374, were perhaps the crack bulls. The herd at one time numbered 120 head. It is now only a little more than half, close on 70. A famous old cow called Duchess went to America when, I think, fifteen years old. This must have been about 1850. The first regular ‘Herd Book’ kept is dated 1840, at least this is the first of which I can find any trace.” Mr H. H. Dixon, when collecting information in 1865 for “Field and Fern, visited Portlethen and gleaned some facts about the herd. He says: “We were just in time to see the last of Fox Maule, by universal consent the best Angus bull that has been seen in Scotland for many a long year. He was by Mr Watson's Marquis 212, from Mr Bowie's Matilda Fox, by Cupbearer 59, a dam which never failed. Mr Martin had been there the day before, and declared that he never killed a heavier beast, save one, as he proved, at 13% cwt. plus 13 imperial stones of fat. It was a rare treat to see him come out, with every point so beautifully fitted into each other and bevelled off, and that “neat IRoman head set on like a button;' but he was nearly five years old, and had been sadly chary of his duplicates; and therefore the second-prize two-year-old bull at Stirling, the blood-like Jehu by Duke of Wellington 219, from Young Jean 295, by Captain of Ardovie 63, was captain in his stead. The herd was commenced by Mr Itobert Walker in 1826, by Brown Mouths and Nackets, which were left him by his father. Porty by Colonel 145, from the tribe of Rosie, ‘a dowry cow, whose milking sort had been in the family since 1778, crossed well with both these tribes. Colonel was a Nackets bull, with rather a brown back, and so crusty that he had three years of penal servitude at the plough. There was no Aberdeen show in Porty's day, but, although he was rather small, his nice shape and peculiarly fine bone brought him up first at Inverurie, and a cross with his own sister helped not a little to improve the quality of the herd. It was with Marquis 212 and Raglan 208, by Young Andrew 9, that Portlethen stood second and third to Mr. M'Combie's Hanton at Paris; and he valued the blood of Raglan so highly in consequence of his dam Young Miss Alexander (who died from inflammation of the brain through the scratch of a thorn) having only left one other calf behind, that he declined the imperial offer of £230, and priced him at £400.” In the period that has elapsed since the establishment of the herd, many strains that were cultivated at Portlethen have become extinct. Mr. Walker has informed us of the disappearance of the Nackets and Brown Mouth sorts. It is gratifying to find, however, that at least a dozen families associated with the Portlethen herd are still represented. The oldest of these trace from Old Maggie 681, Miss Scott 679, and Miss Alexander 678. The descendants of Old Maggie are known as the Mayflowers, latterly at Easter Tulloch. The strain had the crosses of the Portlethen bulls Porty 50, Stanley 14, and Duke of Wellington 219, the cow Bamba 1200 having been acquired by Mr Scott, Easter Tulloch. Young Andrew 9, referred to by Mr Walker as one of the crack bulls at Portlethen, was of this family; and its most distinguished representative in modern times was Witch of Endor 3528, one of the Tillyfour Paris group. The Miss Scott family is still reared at Portlethen, the early sires in the pedigree being the prize bull Banks of Dee 12, bred by Sir Thomas Burnett, and Young Andrew 9. From Miss Alexander 678 descends the well-known Lucy family at Drumin and Mains of Kelly, Lucy of Portlethen 287, got by Fyvie 13, a son of Old Jock 1, having been purchased by Mr Bowie. The famous bull Raglan 208 was out of Young Miss Alexander 16, the dam of Lucy of Portlethen 287. The other families connected with the Portlethen herd trace from animals bought by the late Mr Walker. Flora of T
Portlethen 244, bred by the Earl of Southesk after Balnamoon 36, and out of Fanny of Kinnaird 330, was purchased from her breeder in 1855 for £27, 10s. She has left a large number of meritorious descendants, this being one of the best branches of the Kinnaird Fanny family. Mr Walker purchased at Sir A. Burnett's sale at Crathes in 1856 the cow Nightingale 262, and her daughter Princess Philomel 269, representing the old herd at Wester Fintray. Nightingale won the first prize of the Highland Society as a cow at Glasgow in 1857. She was subsequently sold to Mr M.Combie of Tillyfour. Her daughter Princess Philomel 269, was sold to the Earl of Southesk; and Mr Walker purchased at the Kinnaird sale in 1861 Princess Philomel's daughter Perdita 848, by Druid 225, a highly commended heifer at Battersea. It is by Perdita's descendants that this family is now preserved, and its excellence is sufficiently attested by the fact that the two first-prize Highland Society's bulls Palmerston 374 and Adrian 439, bred at Portlethen, were both produced by it. The Lively family was founded by Lively 256, bred by the late Mr Fullerton, Ardestie, after Earl o' Buchan 57. Jean 264, bred by Mr Ruxton, Farnell, after the Keillor bull Adam 39, founded the Julia family. The Pansy family had its origin in the cow Panmure 278, bred in 1853 at Keillor after Old Jock 1. The Balwyllo Victoria family is represented by the descendants of Alice Maud 724, out of Princess Royal 444, purchased from the trustees of the late Mr Scott, Balwyllo. The Idas spring from Ida 651, a daughter of Inchmarlo Maggie 301, bred by the late Mr Patrick Davidson of Inchmarlo, Madge of Portlethen 1217, a descendant of the Keillor cow Favourite 2, was bought by Mr. Walker at Tilly four, and going into the possession of the Marquis of Huntly, established a rather famous strain in the Aboyne Castle herd. At the Honourable Charles Carnegie's sale at Arratsmill, Japonica 864 was bought and has founded a family. Among the familles that are extinct in the female line we may note that of Matilda Fox. The cow Matilda Fox 302, bred by Mr Bowie, Mains of Kelly, had been sold to Mr. M'Combie of Tillyfour, and in 1857 was bought by Mr Walker, in whose herd she produced the bull Fox Maule 305, one of the most renowned animals of the breed. It would be difficult to enumerate the whole of the sires used at Portlethen during the sixty years the herd has been in existence, but a few additional facts may be given regarding some of the more celebrated animals. As already stated, the first bull owned by Mr Walker was Colonel 145, whose pedigree is thus recorded in the ‘Herd Book:’-“Sire, an Aberdeenshire bull, bred by Mr Williamson at Portlethen Mains, dam Old Nackets.” Another early sire was Porty 50. Andrew 8 was bred at Ardestie, being after Captain 2nd 156, and out Betsy of Ardestie 143. His son, Young Andrew 9, out of Young Duchess 2nd 32, was a useful stock sire. Banks of Dee 12, a famous show bull of his time, was bred by Sir Thomas Burnett. Fyvie 13, of whose calves eleven are registered, was bred at Fyvie, and was after Old Jock 1, his dam having been bred by Mr Watson, Keillor. Marquis 212 was a very impressive sire. Bred at Keillor, he was got by Old Jock 1, and there are no fewer than twenty-eight calves of his registered in the ‘Herd Book.’ He gained the second prize at Paris in 1856, and second at the Highland Society's show at Glasgow in 1857. Raglan 208, after Young Andrew 9, and out of Young Miss Alexander 16, gained a great number of prizes, and competing at Paris in 1856 against aged bulls when only a two-year-old, won the third prize. Duke of Wellington 219, after Marquis 212, and out of Lively 256, was a Highland Society's first-prize bull. His son Jehu 362 won three second prizes at Highland Society's shows, Fox Maule 305 was one of the best bulls bred at Portlethen,