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highly-bred bull from Kinnochtry, after Shah 680, and out of 2nd Baroness of Kinnochtry 3293, of Mr Ferguson's Baroness family. The Earl of Carysfort and Mr. Farrell, Moynalty, have also had some polled cattle. Although the number of polled herds in Ireland is comparatively small, the breed has had a considerable influence in improving the cattle of the country. Mr Owen, for example, has allowed farmers the use of his bulls, and their produce
shows great improvement as compared with the ordinary stock of the country.
Probable distribution of the breed – Introduction to America—Polled bulls on the Kansas prairies—High quality of their produce—Prospects of the breed in America—Chief foreign herds and importation —Herds in the United States—Herds of Messrs F. B. Redfield, A. B. Matthews, Anderson & Findlay, J. J. Rodgers, Gudgell & Simpson, G. W. Henry, J. W. Farwell, etc.—In Canada — The Ontario School of Agriculture, Mr Mossom Boyd, Hon. J. H. Pope, Hon. M. H. Cochrane, Mr George Whitefield, Mr Geary—Importations to New Zealand—Mr Robertson's herd at Waimea.
THE Northern polls seem destined to have a wide distribution. Ten years ago little was known of them except by reputation beyond the limits of their native country. Within the past few years, however, large numbers of them have been scattered over many foreign countries, including the United States of America, Canada, South America, New Zealand, France, Denmark, Germany, and other parts of the European Continent. The breed was first introduced into the grassy regions of the Far West by the late Mr George Grant, who in 1873 sent three polled bulls to his ranche on the Colony of Victoria, founded by him in Ellis County, Kansas. These bulls were taken from the herd of the late Mr George Brown, Westertown, Morayshire, and were for several years used at Victoria among mixed lots of native cows. In 1877 the writer saw two of them (one had died previously) browsing near Mr Grant's residence, and well they seemed to enjoy their prairie life. They were most prolific sires, and the great improvement in their produce as compared to the ordinary cattle of the country created no little sensation. All the cows were horned, and yet a very large majority of the young stock were polled. The choice quality and the early maturity of Mr Grant's polled grades attracted considerable attention, and for his surplus stock there was always a keen demand. By degrees the fame of the polled breed made its way throughout America, and the demand which has there sprung up for them is so great that it would not be satisfied even if every one of the race remaining in this country were sent across the Atlantic. Probably over 500 head have gone to the United States and Canada during the past two years, and every month brings fresh commissions to the buyers on this side. The polls, we believe, have bright prospects in America. Their excellent grazing, fattening, and maturing properties, and their hardy constitution, fit them admirably for the country, while the absence of horns also counts in their favour. American cattle have long boat and railway journeys to accomplish, and it is found that in these, horned animals often inflict damage upon each other by goring and bruising. From nearly every one who has had any experience of the Scotch polls in America we have received most favourable accounts, both as to the thriving of the cattle and their future prospects on the farms and ranches of the New World. As evidence of the interest aroused in the breed on the Western Continent, it may be mentioned that steps are being taken to start a ‘Polled Herd Book' for America. This movement has been taken up heartily by Mr F. B. Redfield and others, and is likely to be carried out successfully. The introduction of the Northern Scotch polled cattle into Canada may be dated from 1876, when Professor Brown, of the Ontario School of Agriculture at Guelph, secured some very good specimens for that excellent institution, with which he has been long and creditably connected. There they have bred well, and for the young animals which are offered for sale periodically there is an active demand. From the other countries in which the breed has been tried encouraging reports have also been received. We append a few notes regarding the chief foreign herds and importations.
United States of America.
Mr F. B. Redfield's choice herd at Wigwam Farm, Batavia, New York, was founded in 1879 by the purchase of three heifers and a bull from Mr Ferguson, Kinnochtry. The purchase was made at the Highland Society's show that year at Perth. The animals were—the bull Field Marshal 1778, of the Baroness family, after the Pride of Aberdeen bull Shah 680; and the heifers Princess 8th 3298, of the Princess family; 3rd Baroness of Kinnochtry 3294, of the Baroness family; and Favourite 9th 3295, of the Favourite family, all after Shah 680. In March 1881, Mr Redfield imported sixteen additional animals— nine bulls and seven heifers, as follows:—Bulls—Fandango, of the Favourite family; Proud Knight, of the Daisy or Vine branch of the Queen tribe ; Favonius, of the Favourite family; Falerino, of the Favourite family; Manfred, of the Castle Fraser Mina family; Falconer, of the Favourite family; Prince of Batavia 1898, of the Princess family; Angus-bred Baron 1899, of the Baroness family; and Manrico, of the Mina family. Heifers—Princess 10th 4339, Princess 12th 4345, 6th Baroness of Kinnochtry 4341, Favourite 10th 4336, Favourite 12th 4606, Maid of the Mist 4344, and Mountain Mist 4346, these representing the Princess, Baroness, Favourite, and Mina families. They were all bought from Mr Ferguson, Kinnochtry. The three heifers Mr Redfield first imported were mated in Scotland with the Princess bull Prince of the Realm 1695. In 1880 he used Field Marshal 1778. This bull, now on a ranche in Kansas, left some very good stock, including several excellent grades out of Shorthorn cows. On the ranche he has proved most useful, and has thriven admirably, keeping his condition well under severe climatic trials. He was exhibited at the Fair at Hay's City last year, and was greatly admired. For the bull calves dropped to him by native cows, there was a spirited demand among neighbouring ranche men. In 1881 and 1882 Mr Redfield used Manrico 1900. The herd numbered in April 1882 eleven head—four Princesses, three Baronesses, three Favourites, and the stock bull Manrico 1900, a son of the Erica bull St Clair 1160 a Highland Society firstprize winner, and the Mina cow Mina 4th of Melville 3843, one of the best breeders at Kinnochtry. Mr Redfield's principal sales have been as follows:–In June 1881, the bull Field Marshal 1778, went into the ranche of Mr I'obbins, Battell, Victoria, Ellis Co., Kansas. Shortly after, the bulls Fandango and Proud Knight were sold to Mr Jos. B. Eldridge, of Norfolk, Connecticut, for his ranche in Ellis Co., Kansas. About the same time, Professor E. M. Shelton, of the Kansas Agricultural College, visited Wigwam Farm, and purchased the bull Falerino for the College Farm at Manhattan, taking with him also a cow purchased at the Ontario Experimental Farm, Guelph. In addition to the above, Mr Redfield, sold in the summer and fall of 1881, three bull calves bred from his imported heifers—one to Mr J. J. Rodgers, Abingdon, Knox County, Illinois; one to Messrs D. E. Fenn & Son, Tallmadge, Ohio; and the third to Mr J. G. Tayler, Burlington, Kansas. In January 1882 he also sold to Messrs D. E. Fenn & Son, the heifers Maid of the Mist 4344, and Mountain Mist 4346, with heifer calves. The only other sale was that of the bull Falconer to Messrs D. J. & G. F. Whitmore, West Union, Iowa, in February last. Prices have