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why the butcher, who is the final and best judge, prefers the polled bullock to any other, and will buy a well-fed polled animal when crosses are a glut in the market. I have never bred polled animals for mere fancy purposes, and have never prepared them for breeding or fat-stock shows, but it has always been my practice to prepare a small lot of prime polled bullocks for the London Christmas market. I now think it would have paid me to have given rather more attention to specially preparing show animals than I have done; but I was afraid of spoiling my cattle for breeding purposes, and I have never, in the management of my herd, allowed myself to depart from commercial utility. In preparing bullocks for the London Christmas market, the first thing to attend to, after breeding from good, well-shaped, well-fleshed dams and sires, is the nursing of the calves. The calf should get milk for at least six months; but after it is six weeks old, if it is fed with the hand, the milk should be mixed twice a day with a small allowance of pottage made from bruised linseed or bruised oil-cake. The quantity may be increased as the calf grows older and stronger. After the first six weeks the calf should also have a daily supply of cut turnips and straw. For the first fortnight the calf gets a small quantity of milk four times a day. After that it gets milk three times a day, on to twelve weeks at least; and after about that age it gets milk twice a day, until it is weaned. It is then of special importance to attend to the calf well. Before it is weaned it should be learned to eat linseed-cake. It ought to receive at least 1 lb. a day of linseed-cake until it is a year old, after which decorticated cottom-cake may be used with good results. In winter, turnips should be given twice a day, and plenty of good oat straw. I give no cake either to yearlings or two-year-olds on the grass. They are pastured, and lie in the fields from about the 26th May till — in the case of yearlings — about 1st


October; but two-year-olds are tied up, to be specially prepared for the Christmas market, about the end of August or the first week of September. When two-yearold bullocks are casting their teeth, they get their turnips cut, and, along with the turnips, 2 lbs, a day of cottoncake until their teeth are up so that they can again eat the turnips, either yellows or Swedes. It is when they are rising three years old that I finally tie up my bullocks to prepare them for the Christmas market. When they are tied up at the end of August or beginning of September, before turnips are ready, I provide an abundant supply of tares mixed with oats, pease and beans, to feed with. Such a mixed food, after the oats have come into the ear, is a very valuable diet. About the middle of September, in favourable circumstances, early turnips will be ready for use, and two diets a day will improve the feed. When the tares are done, which is generally about the beginning of October, I give 2 lbs. of cotton-cake a day to each animal, and three small feeds of turnips. A fortnight or three weeks later, a feed of bruised oats is added to the cotton-cake. By the beginning of November Swede turnips are ready for use, and that, along with a slight increase of bruised oats, as the state of the animal seems to require in order to thorough ripeness of fattening, constitutes the feeding until the animals are either sold or forwarded to the London Christmas market. I thus sell my polled bullocks at two rising three years old. My weights average from 8 cwts, to 8 cwts, though I have at times had animals as high as 9 cwts, or even 10 cwts. In my experience the polled Scot is the best selling animal in good times, and the best selling animal in bad times, and, as a rule, I get £2 a head, or even more, for polled animals than for crosses of the same weight; and I am given to understand that the butcher can well enough afford that sum extra. I lately heard a statement of a leading Aberdeen butcher, that he could give 5s, more per cwt. for a fat polled animal than for a fat cross, because in shop use the polled animal, on account of smaller bone development, was a better cutting beast. This, on an animal of 8 cwts., showed a difference of value in favour of the polled bullock of £2 a head. It may be asked if bullocks could be fed off at an earlier age, and the answer is in the affirmative. By a more liberal use of concentrated foods, and especially by giving them cake on the grass, I could make black polls prime fat at two years old; but it has been my habit to prepare my best cattle for Christmas, and as a whole I find the market at that time most safe and steady. In regard to the milking qualities of the polled breed, I think breeders have rather neglected their duty. We have endeavoured to produce a model butcher's animal; and we have succeeded in that, but we have not so well attended to the fostering of the milking qualities of the breed. It is an undoubted fact—I remember examples myself—that the old Aberdeen unimproved polled breed were excellent milkers. There are among the breed good milkers still. I have cows that suckle two calves, and I know other breeders who have superior milkers also ; but we have, as already remarked, given ourselves more to producing the meat than the milk yielding animal, and that is the simple reason why the black polled cattle have not a better name as dairy stock.” Mr James Reid, Greystone, Alford, whose experience as a breeder, feeder, and exhibitor of polled cattle is of an extensive and exceptional kind, says truly, that while great care should be exercised in selecting and mating cows and bulls, it is also necessary that close attention should be given to the rearing of calves. The calf flesh, he says, should be retained not by too much forcing food, but by wholesome diet, and by housing in good time, so as not to allow the hair to overgrow. The skin should be kept clean by grooming. The young animal should have plenty of exercise, and all food given in such quantities and at such times as that it may be eaten at once, and no portion of it left to get spoiled. If kept in a loose court or box, the animals should have a clean, dry place to stand upon at feeding time, while the bed should be dry and soft. It is well now and again to wash cattle with warm water and soft-soap, having them thoroughly well dried and rubbed afterwards. Mr M'Combie of Easter Skene says the calves meant for commercial purposes are put on cake a month before being weaned, after which they are kept on cake all through the winter until next year's grass, which at Easter Skene comes away early. While being fed on the grass they do not get an allowance of cake; but when they come off the grass as two-year-olds, they are tied up in stalls for a few months, and are finished off with a liberal supply of turnips and straw, to which are added three or four pounds of linseed-cake, bruised grain, and limseed-meal daily. They are sold in the autumn or spring, weighing from 6 cwts, to 9 cwts, each. Mr R. C. Auld, Bridgend, states that while early calving gives advantages in the way of strong yearlings, it incurs great expense in keeping cows and calves during the winter and spring, before the grass season comes round. He says that during the period of gestation cows should be kept on good pasture when outside, and fed on good food when inside; and that some days before calving it is well to take a small quantity of blood from them, as a preventive of milk fever; and to have them closed up by themselves in a calving-box. Just after calving, the cows should be kept quiet, well “bedded" with fodder, and get a drink of milk-warm water and oatmeal. The calf should be carefully watched until it “gets its legs;” and when the cow has been milked, a small quantity of the first milking should be given to the calf. He approves of cows being allowed to “lick” their calves, and regards the process as useful to the cow herself, as a medicinal corrective. He brings up the calves upon their dams; but if the cows are heavy milkers, he milks them dry now and again, until the calf is able to do so itself. The first fortnight is a most critical time with calves, and Mr Auld states that when he sees any sign of dulness or inactivity in their system, he gives them a table-spoonful of treacle dissolved in warm water. He finds that the calves are fond of this, and that it operates beneficially. He states that his late uncle, Mr M'Combie of Tillyfour, was always most careful to have his calves muzzled during the first fortnight, so as to prevent them attempting to eat straw. As soon as they are old enough to be able to take them, they should be taught to eat cake and turnips, and should be allowed plenty of exercise. Mr Auld does not approve of cows being mated sooner than six weeks after calving. Weaning usually takes place about the end of the grass season, and after that has been done, the “cording” of the calves (putting Setons into their dewlaps) is carefully attended to. Young bulls and young heifers, he thinks, should be liberally fed, and cows kept in moderate condition. In Sir George Macpherson Grant's herd at Ballindalloch, an admirable system of management is pursued. The calving season is made up of December and three following months, but it often happens that cows fall behind. As a rule, the calves are allowed to suckle their dams for about six months. When housed, most of the cows are kept in loose-boxes, each cow having a box to herself and her calf. At weaning, calves are very carefully attended to. They are generally trained to eat linseed-cake before being weaned, and every possible effort is made to retain the calf-flesh, and not allow them to fall off after losing the milk of their dams. When the cold autumn evenings commence, care is taken to have all the cattle, at any rate all the young cattle,

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