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brought into a house over-night; and this also helps to maintain the condition of the stock. The young bulls require and always receive special attention. They are generally kept in an open court, where they have plenty of fresh air, but no draughts, and where they can have constant exercise. Their food consists of a liberal supply of good yellow turnips, as much oat-straw as they can eat, and about 2 lbs. of linseed-cake per day. It has been found advantageous not to allow them to lie or rest on heated dung, as that has a tendency to damage their legs. A ready demand is found for the young bulls at the highest current prices. Young heifers are treated much in the same way as young bulls, except that, unless grass or turnips are scarce, they get little or no cake. They are served when two years old. Cows, as a rule, get a small supply of turnips three times a day in winter and spring, the three meals making about 80 or 90 lbs. Latterly it has been found advantageous to give only about 40 or 50 lbs. of turnips, in two meals, supplemented by a mixture of about 1 lb. of bran, 1 lb. of crushed oats, and 1 lb. of linseed-meal, in a mash of cut straw or chaff. For about three weeks before and three weeks after calving, cows get about 2 lbs. of linseed-cake per day. The over-feeding of breeding stock is studiously avoided, and the result is that the herd has been more than ordinarily prolific. Animals intended for showing purposes are of course treated more sumptuously than the other cattle in the herd. Mr Hannay of Gavenwood says: “I give nothing to cows beyond a supply of turnips and straw until within six weeks of their calving, when they get 3 lbs. of oilcake daily, and this allowance is usually continued for a month or so after calving. I endeavour to arrange so as to have the calves dropped between the end of December and the middle of April, as the early calves generally thrive best on the grass, and as calving is less dangerous before the cows get the full flow of the grass. I try, as far as I can, never to allow the animals to lose the calf-flesh, and with this view I give a little oilcake before and after weaning. The calves here are all suckled; and after they are ten days old they are never tied up, but are allowed to run about the byre as they choose, clean straw being spread out behind the cows for them to lie upon. I have never had a calf injured by this freedom being accorded to them. Heifers here are never put to the bull till two years old. I disapprove of the practice of having them served when only yearlings, as this, as a rule, dwarfs their growth and weakens the constitution, probably both of themselves and their descendants. It is the practice here to put, at even a very early stage, the bull calves and their mothers in fields separate from the heifer calves and their mothers. I am also opposed to the use of yearling bulls beyond three or four times during the season, as tending to lesson their size and destroy their symmetry, with a risk also of unsatisfactory produce. The stock bulls here are kept each in a loose-box, opening on an open court, concreted, and boarded around to a height of 7 feet. In addition to their access all day to these open courts facing the sun, they are from time to time walked out for exercise. They are plentifully but plainly fed. We store the turnips in December, and as they are always at hand and in good condition, there is the less need for supplementing the natural foods. Care should always be

taken to keep cattle free from draughts, and to maintain

their houses in a clean airy condition. I think a breedingstock should be kept habitually from getting into what may be called poor condition, while over-feeding ought to be equally guarded against. Much caution is necessary so as not to over-fatten two-year-old heifers for showing

purposes. Indeed, it is questionable whether they should

receive any extra feeding until they are safely settled in calf.”

In reference to the rearing of calves, Mr Hannay writes:– “I find that with highly-bred animals they generally get into a frantic state when the calves are suddenly taken off, and this has occasionally caused the best of cows to slip calf. Now when weaning time comes, I always tie up the calf in sight of the mother for about a week, by which time many of the cows are dry, and all risk is avoided. Sometimes calves become dry in the hair and hard in the skin after being weaned. In such cases I cause warm oil to be rubbed well into the skin. This I have found to answer well, and also in most cases to be a complete cure for rheumatism." Mr Hannay gives special attention to the cultivation of docility and gentleness of temper, which have thus become a distinguishing feature in his herd. He says: “From the big bulls down to the calves of two months old, the animals are used to be fondled and fed by all of us—even by quite young children,_and many of them come of themselves to ‘speak’ to us in the fields.”

Mr Alexander Smith, manager to Mr Tayler of Glenbarry, says calves are dropped at Rothiemay from December to May, the best calving months being December, January, and February. The calves suckle their dams, and are weaned at from six to ten months. They get a full allowance of turnips and straw, with 1 lb. of best linseed-cake daily for the first winter. Young bulls are sold from ten to fourteen months old, and if calved in December and January they are quite fit for use in March of the following year. Mr. Smith gives young heifers the first winter after being weaned a full allowance of turnips, straw, and 1 lb. best cake daily. They run on the grass in summer, and the following winter they receive a limited quantity of turnips, straw, and water, with a run in a grass field daily if the weather is dry, as they are apt to lay on fat too quickly before the season of being mated, which is done in the latter end of

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February or 1st of March. The cows get grass in sum-
mer; turnips and straw in winter, until within two weeks
of calving, when they get 2 lbs. cake daily; and after
calving an addition of a good feed of bran with a little
nitre three times a week for three weeks. Bullocks
are fed at two years old, and are sold off in the
end of April or 1st May.
Mr George Wilken, Waterside of Forbes, Aberdeen-
shire, has conducted a few experiments in crossing. He
has had heifer crosses from a polled cow with Shorthorn
bull, from a cross cow with polled bull, and from a West
Highland cow with Shorthorn bull. He had heifers from

these three breeds in 1874, all calved at the same time,

and he crossed the three heifers with a polled bull. The heifers were all fairly good, that from the polled cow and Shorthorn bull being the best, the one from the West Highlander next, and the one from the cross cow rather the worst. He served them all when one year old, and the result in calves was not very encouraging. The calf from the polled cow's offspring was best, that from the cross cow's offspring nearly as good, and the one from the West Highlander's offspring was a “weed.” He did not manage to continue the experiment, as two of the heifers became too fat for breeding. In 1878 Mr Wilken bought three Ayrshire heifers, and served them with a polled bull. The result in 1879 was three very pretty black polled heifer calves. One of the cows was sold in 1879. Mr Wilken has had two calves every year from the other two Ayrshires, or in all nine calves. With the exception of one this year that had a white spot on its side, all have been black and polled. One is now in the dairy, a fair milker, not so good as her dam, and is a very pretty polled animal. “In fact,” Mr Wilken says, “last year she went in the field with other nine pedigreed heifers, and not one single polled breeder could point her out, although all who visited the field or byres were asked to do so. A cow-dealer one day was asked to point her out, and without any hesitation did so. I have known her all along by the different shape from the back down to the flank or udder.” These general notes, obtained from leading breeders, indicate fully the system of management generally pursued, both as regards breeding and fattening animals. It will have been gathered that calves are, as a rule, dropped between the 1st of December and the end of April; and that the prevailing custom is to let the calves suckle their dams for six or eight months. A small quantity, from half a pound to a pound, of linseed meal is usually given to calves each day for some time before they are weaned; and after weaning, the allowance is increased Young bulls are generally allowed 1 or 2 lbs. of linseed cake daily, along with turnips and fodder or grass, until they are sold, at the age of from twelve to eighteen months. Heifers are similarly treated, except that they get less cake. In fact, in many cases after they have got beyond the stage of calves, they never taste cake until they commence to breed. Most breeders give their cows 2 or 3 lbs. of cake, or some equivalent, for a few weeks before and after calving; while stock bulls are always well fed during their active season. In some herds heifers are mated when about eighteen months old, but the prevailing plan is to delay serving another six months. Too early breeding undoubtedly checks the growth of animals. We also think it would be advisable not to use yearling bulls quite so freely as they are used at present. In other portions of the work the method of breeding pursued in the more celebrated herds has been set forth pretty clearly. It has been shown that in several cases the deeper and more subtle principles of breeding have been employed judiciously and successfully in developing and maturing fixed and well-considered purposes. The

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