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8 to 83 cwt. Two-year-old polled bullocks, reared and
fed in the ordinary way—that is to say, without any
special forcing—usually bring, on an average, from £28 to
f32 a-head.
Half a century ago the northern polled cattle were
noted for their great milking-powers. Youatt mentions
that the polled cows of Buchan, small as they then (1832-
35) were, gave from 3 to 4 gallons — from 12 to 16
quarts—of milk per day, and sometimes even as much as
7 gallons, or 28 quarts. The improvers of the breed
have as a rule aimed chiefly at developing beef-producing
properties; and thus the cultivation of milking-powers
has to some extent been neglected. As a rule, however,
the northern polls give a good account of themselves in
the dairy. Several tribes are excellent milkers, over 16
quarts per day being obtained from many cows; and we
feel convinced that, with a little care on the part of
breeders, the race might be brought into a prominent
position among dairy cattle. The milk of the breed is
noted for its quality, which is superior to that of the
milk from several other breeds. The late Earl of Airlie,
writing to the “North British Agriculturist’ on December
26, 1879, in reference to the milking-properties of the
breed, says: “I have at present seventeen pure polled Angus
milch-cows in my dairy. The greater number of these
give from 12 to 14, and sometimes 16, Scotch pints for a
considerable time after calving. The milk is admitted to
be much richer than that of either the Shorthorn or the
Ayrshire. As regards the length of time for which they
will continue to give milk, my cow Belle of Airlie 1959,
dam of Belus 749, as pure a polled animal as any in
the ‘Herd Book, used to be milked all the year round.
Last year when I was from home they left off milking
her about a month before she calved, and she died of
milk fever, induced, as I believe, by the circumstance
that she had not been relieved of her superabundant

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milk. The cow, Miss Macpherson 1252, of the Erica tribe, which I purchased recently of Mr Adamson, is now giving 6 Scotch pints a day, more than nine and a half months after calving.” Writing at a later date on the same point, the Earl of Airlie says: “The Scotch pint to which I referred is a measure of 12 gills, equal to 3 imperial pints, or 1% imperial quarts. When I wrote on this subject I had some cows that (newly calved) gave 14 Scotch pints or 21 English quarts; and one cow, I think, 15 pints or 22} English quarts. I have now some cows that are giving as much as 12 Scotch pints, or 18 English quarts, daily, though quite three months calved. The cows are milked three times a-day, which I believe to be the usual practice in Scotland. I do not know the weight, as the pint and quart are measures of capacity, so that of course the weight depends on the specific gravity of the milk. But it is admitted, I believe, that the milk of the polled Angus is richer in cream than that of either the Shorthorn or Ayrshire.” The northern polls have risen rapidly in public estimation within the past ten or fifteen years. Their reputation may now be said to be world wide. Animals of the breed have been exported to the Australian colonies, to the Continent of Europe, to South America, and to Canada and the United States. In the two latter countries an exceedingly keen demand has sprung up for them, and it is probable that within the past eighteen months more than 500 specimens of the breed have crossed the Atlantic. The cry from the United States is still for more polls, and it is probable that although every animal of the breed now in this country were sent across to them, the wants of our transatlantic cousins would still be unsatisfied. This great expansion in the demand for the northern polls has of course brought forth a corresponding increase in their market value. About twelve months ago good polled cows, with ordinary pedigrees, would have sold at Erica is now a half On the sh pint , equal When (newly rts; and I have 2 Scotch ite three tes a-day, fland. I are méâ’ t depends admitted s richer in shire." lic estima: reputation f the breed to the Con'anada and an exceed. d it is pro re than 500 ultic. The olls, and it breed no" ants of our

e northern 19. increas? ag0 good we sold at

from 30 to 45 guineas; while females of the better bred and more distinguished families gave from 50 to 100 guineas on an average. Since then, prices have risen by at least 50 per cent, and still higher figures could be obtained for choice animals if their owners could be induced to part with them. The highest sum yet paid for one animal was that (270 guineas) given for Pride of Aberdeen 9th 3253, by Mr R. C. Auld, Bridgend, at

the Tilly four dispersion sale in 1880.

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Inaccurate entries in vol. i. of ‘Polled Herd Book’—Statement by the late Mr Fullerton, Mains of Ardestie, on breeding of cow Black Meg 766, and bull Panmure 51—Communication from Dr Simpson, Marykirk, regarding sire of Panmure 51—Mr Collier, Hatton, on the breeding of Panmure 51–Errors in entries of Keillor cattle—Confusion as to bulls Old Jock 1 and Grey-breasted Jock 2–Account of the Keillor Jocks—The Keillor cows Favourite and Beauty—Supplementary information respecting the pedigrees of the bulls Monarch 44 and the Tilly four Victors.

HAVING traced the progress and improvement of the polled breed, we might now proceed to notice the leading herds. In order, however, to render the account of them intelligible, it is necessary to interpose some remarks regarding a few of the early celebrated polled cattle whose pedigrees have been inaccurately or imperfectly recorded in vol. i. of the ‘Herd Book.” In stating the unquestionable fact that the ‘Herd Book’ entries of several of the animals that were most employed to effect the early improvement of the breed are in a state of confusion, we have not the slightest intention of reflecting on the way in which Mr Ravenscroft performed the duties of editor of vol. i. There is evidence that he discharged his work with care, and that he put himself to a good deal of trouble in endeavouring to secure accuracy. We believe the errors have been caused in great measure by the untoward circumstances that attended the

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production of the first volume. The collection of materials for vol. i. was commenced in 1842. The whole of the documents were deposited for safety in the Museum of the Highland and Agricultural Society in Edinburgh, and when the fire took place in the buildings there in 1851, they were unfortunately all destroyed. The loss was irreparable. Mainly through the instrumentality of the Earl of Southesk the work was again begun in 1857, but it was not until 1862 that the first volume of the ‘Herd Book’ was actually published. In the interval, several of the finest polled herds in the country were attacked with rinderpest or pleuro-pneumonia. In some cases only a wreck of formerly magnificent herds remained after the devastation wrought by these fell diseases, and more than one of the fragments had been finally dispersed ere the first volume made its appearance. It must also be said that private notes of pedigrees were not systematically retained by many breeders; and Mr Ravenscroft has stated that “in some cases where assistance was naturally looked for, obstacles were thrown in the way of procuring information.”

If in 1862 it was not easy to obtain reliable details regarding the breeding of several of the early registered polled cattle, we need scarcely remark that the task is now much more difficult of accomplishment. We are pleased to say, however, that after the most careful investigations, we have succeeded in procuring information which we think clears away several of the more glaring inaccuracies in vol. i. It is to be hoped that breeders may not long be without a revised edition of the first volume of the ‘Herd Book,' with corrections made under the authority of the Polled Cattle Society. The interests of the breed demand that this should be undertaken without undue delay, and it is rendered more necessary by the fact that the first volume is out of print. We shall refer in the first place to—

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