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- Play the men'-i. e. Behave like men. So in Boatswain"-Upon this scene Johnson remarks

our translation of the Bible, (2 Sam. x. 12,)—"Let us “ In this naval dialogue, perhaps the first example of

play the men for our people." sailors' language exhibited on the stage, there are, as I “Gonzalo. I have great comfort from this fellow"have been told by a skilful navigator, some inaccuracies and contradictory orders." Malone, in reply to this, good man that appears with the king, he is the only

“It may be observed of Gonzalo, that, being the only very properly pointed out that the orders should be considered as given not at once, but successively, as the

man that preserves his cheerfulness in the wreck, and

his hope on the island.”—Johnson. emergency required. In Boswell's edition, we have a highly valuable communication from the second Lord

Down with the topmast" - Lord Mulgrave has the Mulgrave, showing most conclusively that Shakespeare's following note on this direction :—“The striking the technical knowledge of seamanship must have been the result of the most accurate personal observation, or,

topmasts was a new invention in Shakespeare's time,

which he here very properly introduces. Sir Henry what is perhaps more difficult, of the power of combin

Manwaring says, “It is not agreed among all seamen ing and applying the information derived from others.

whether it is better for a ship to hull with her topmast Lord Mulgrave supposes Shakespeare must have acquired this technical knowledge "by conversation with

up or down.' In the Postscript to the Dictionary, he some of the most skilful seamen of that time." He

afterwards gives his own opinion :—- If you have seaadds, “no books had then been published on the sub

room, it is never good to strike the topmast.' Shake

speare has placed his ship in the situation in which it ject.” Lord Mulgrave then exhibits the ship in five positions, showing how strictly the words of the dia

was indisputably right to strike the topmast—where he

had not sea-rooin." logue represent these. We transcribe the general observations by which these technical illustrations are in “– Set her two courses; off to sea again"-With troduced:

the two or three later editors, we follow the punctua. “The succession of events is strictly observed in the tion of Lord Mulgrave, a sailor critic. Stevens hasnatural progress of the distress described; the expe "Set her two courses off." Captain Glascock also obdients adopted are the most proper that could have jects to this ordinary punctuation ; and explains, “ that been devised for a chance of safety; and it is neither to the ship's head is to be put leeward, and that the vessel the want of skill of the seamen nor the bad qualities of is to be drawn off the land under that canvass nautically the ship, but solely to the power of Prospero, that the denominated the two courses." shipwreck is to be attributed. The words of command are not only strictly proper, but are only such as point

“ — MERELY cheated"-i. e. Absolutely: a common the object to be attained, and no superfluous ones of mode of using the word of old. detail. Shakespeare's ship was too well manned to make it necessary to tell the seamen how they were to

to Glut him"-" To glut” is here used in its do it, as well as what they were to do. He has shown

older sense, for to swallow down, to englut; a sense in a knowledge of the new improvements, as well as the

which Milton continued to use it, ("glutted offal;") doubtful points of seamanship. One of the latter he has

though it had, even in Shakespeare's day, given way to introduced, under the only circumstances in which it the present signification. was indisputable." Mr. Campbell gives the testimony of Captain Glas.

We split, we split !- Farewell, my wife and chil. cock, R. N., to the correctness of Shakespeare in nauti

dren”—This, Collier, adhering to the folio, gives as the cal matters :-“The boatswain in the Tempest delivers

conclusion of Gonzalo's speech. Johnson applied it to himself in the true vernacular style of the forecastle."

the "confused noise within," and not as spoken by any

determinate character. These words are very obviously "fall to't YARELY”—The adverb of yare-quick, appropriate in that connection, and very much other. ready. Yare is used several times by Shakespeare as wise as part of Gonzalo's speech, in blank verse. Mr. a sea-term, (which it was,) but not exclusively so. Collier is the only editor who has thought differently.


Scene II.

The gates of Milan"-This has been supposed to "— some noble CREATURE”—“So the original; but

be a geographical blunder, or at least to intimate that

the author had no exact knowledge of Italian topography, Theobald reads creatures, which is invariably followed. Miranda means to say that, in addition to those she saw

the critics assuming that the Poet represented Milan as a suffer—the poor souls' that perished-the common

sea-port. Mr. C. A. Browne, who maintains that the sailors—there was no doubt some superior person on

accuracy of Shakespeare's allusions and references to board-some noble creature."-Knight.

Italy and her localities, in all except his very early plays,

is such as to show that he wrote from personal observa The FRAUGHTING souls”-i. e. Constituting the tion, replies, that it is true that “ Prospero was hurriel fraught, or freight. The common reading is freighting. from Milan, and also hurried aboard a bark; but no dis. “ – nor that I am MORE BETTER"—“More better,"

tance is specified, nor is it necessary. A man may be more sooner, and similar instances of two comparatives

hurried from Paris to the sea at Marseilles. State-pris together, are not uncommon with the old writers. oners, in close carriages, are hurried, to this day, for " Full poor," for perfectly or exceedingly poor, (as, in

hundreds of miles, across Italy, as I myself have witANTONY AND CLEOPATRA, full sorry,”) is also a com

nessed. But this is not all: a common mode of reacbmon Old-English form of speech, which has become

ing the sea, from Milan, is to travel by land merely to nearly obsolete.

Placenza, and thence in a boat down the wide, deep,

and rapid Po." Out three years old-i. e. Three years complete.

A rotten carcass of a BOAT”—In the old copies “AND princess no worse issued"-So all the folios.

this is printed “of a butt," which Rowe very naturally Many editors substitute A for “And," and give the lines presumed to be a misprint for “boat,” and so printed thus:

it in his edition, which has been followed by all the and his only heir

editors until very lately, when Messrs. Knight and Col A princess ;-no worse issued.

lier, who have agreed to differ on so many points of But the sense is clear as it is given in the text.

Shakespearian criticism, have here united in restoring - calld ANTON10"-Mr. Hunter, in his “Disquisi- butt, as describing the vessel as “even more insecure tion on the Tempest,” says—“This is another instance

than the most rotten boat.” Mr. Hunter supports the of a slight deterioration of Shakespeare's exquisite mel same reading on the principle often asserted by critics, ody by a useless alteration. A nice ear will be sensible in settling or unsettling the text of classic authors and at once that something is lost

the original Scriptures, that “Lectio durior prafe. My brother, and thy uncle, called Anthonio."

renda"-a canon which has been the excuse for much To which Knight replies—“Throughout the play we

learned extravagance, and may be interpreted thas: have the spelling of Anthonio; but are we to understand

"The more difficult (i. e. the more improbable) reading that, in an age when the Italian language was as familiar

is the most probable." If here we take butt in the as the French is now, Shakespeare meant the h to be

sense of a mere hull, something not fit to be called a pronounced ?"

boat, it may be intelligible; but the context, “Dot

rigg’d, nor tackle, sail, nor mast," seems to demand the "Be so perfidious"-"This is ordinarily pointed word boat, or vessel. The controversy on butt and boste pray thee mark me—that a brother should

has become somewhat amusing from the indignant zeal Be so pertidious !

with which Mr. Dyce (Remarks) has assailed the last The reader will observe with what admirable skill such English editors on this point, and the notice the question interjectional expressions as · Dost thou attend me?' has attracted in various quarters. • Thou attend'st not,'— I pray thee, mark me,'—are

“ – a CHERUBIN"-I have here, as in MACBETR, act subsequently introduced, to break the long continuity

i. scene 2, ("Heaven's cherubin,") restored the old of Prospero's narrative. But here, in the very begin

spelling, which many of the best editors have altered, ning of his story, for Prospero to use a similar interrup.

here and elsewhere, to cherubim. “Cherubin" is both tion quite unnecessarily, is not an evidence of the same dramatic skill. He simply means here to say, (and the

the critical and the customary old mode of spelling the

singular form of this noun, which came into our lanoriginal punctuation warrants us in believing so,) I pray thee note how a brother could be so perfidious."

guage through the Italian. Cherubim is the Hebrew

plural of cherub, and was received in English from the KNIGHT.

Latin of the Church. - Trash for overtopping"-The general meaning

" — DECK'd the sea"-In the glossary of the Craven of this passage is evident; but Warburton contended that “trash” was used to express the cutting away of super

dialect, we find that to deg is to sprinkle. Ray, in his fluities, as of trees that grew too fast, and were there

catalogue of north-country words, refers us from deg to

leck, which is interpreted pour on. Nares thinks that fore“ overtopping.” And it is said to be so used in old

we must receive “deck'd" in the usual sense of books of gardening. On the other hand, there is no doubt that it was a term of the chase, and Shakespeare

adorned. Its other meaning of covered gives us a

forced idea. employs it in Othello (act ii. scene 1) in this sense, where it is said that dogs are " trashed" for their“quick By Providence divine"-To Miranda's question of hunting." Examples are also found in old authors of a “How came we ashore ?" the other editors make Prose similar use, as in Hammond—"clog and trash;" "en pero answer, “By Providence divine;" but his entire cumber and trash." The term is said still to be a narrative is the answer. sporting term, in the North of England, for checking

Now I arise"- The commentators are puzzled to the speed of a dog when he overtops (i. e. outruns) the

know why this should be said, and Blackstone would pack. A "trash," then, means a clog, or weight, fastened around the dog's neck for this purpose.

put in Miranda's mouth, “she expresses a wish to see

Gonzalo, and then observes that she may now arise, as To credit his own lie"- This is an involved sen the story is ended.". But if it be pointed as in the tence; but the meaning is clear—"who having made original, without the break in the


which sotne such a sinner unto truth of his memory as to credit his editors give, I do not see the difficulty. The Poetown lie by telling of it." There is a similar thought probably to give the scenic effect of variety, which as antithetically expressed by Tacitus :—" Fingebant might be lost in so long a dialogue between two persons simul credebantque" They invented falsehood and seated side by side-makes Prospero rise; but as the believed it themselves."

father wishes Miranda to yield to sleep, he adds, I am - in lieu"-i. e. In consideration of—in exchange rising, but do not you—sit still and hear the rest. for-a sense of the phrase not common, but found also Now my dear lady”—The antecedent is Fortune, in Beaumont and Fletcher.

now Prospero's bountiful lady.

On the curl's clouds"- This is imitated in Fletcher's ward course of empire." Still nearer to Shakespeare's “ Faithful Shepherdess :"

age, Andrew Marvell, the Puritan patriot, celebrated the tell me, sweetest,

Bermudas in a strain of exquisite poetry, blending the What new service now is meetest

descriptive splendour of Thomson with the pious feeling For the satyre; shall I stray

and simple elegance of Watts.
In the middle air, and stay
The sailing racke, or nimbly take

The Bermudas have become so much associated by
Hold by the moon, and gently make

comment and controversy with the TEMPEST, and this Suit to the pale queen of night,

piece of choice old-fashioned poetry being so little For a beame to give thee light? Shall I dive into the sea,

known, I cannot resist the temptation of placing it in conAnd bring thee coral, making way

trast with Shakespeare's “still-vex'd Bermoothes :"Through the rising waves, etc.

Where the remote Bermudas ride “ all his QUALITY"- Ariel's "quality" is not his

In th' ocean's bosom, unespy'd;

From a small boat, that row'd along, confederates, as Stevens says, but the powers of his

The list'ning winds received this song :nature as a spirit,his qualification in sprighting.

What should we do but sing his praise,

That fed us through the wat'ry maze, Perform'd TO POINT”-i. e. To the minutest article ;

Unto an isle so long unknown, literally from the French à point. So, in the “Chances”

And yet far kinder than our own?

Where He the huge sea-monsters wracks,
are you all fit!
To point, sir.

That lift the deep upon their backs.

He lands us on a grassy stage, the still-ver'd BERMOOTHES”-i. e. The Bermu

Safe from the storms and prelates' rage. das. These isles were known by both names in Shake

He gave us this eternal spring,

Which here enamels every thing; speare's age, and he chose the most solemnly poetical

And sends the fowls to us in care, in sound. They were associated, in the imagination of

On daily visits through the air. Englishmen of that day, with vague ideas of terror and

He hangs in shades the orange bright,

Like golden lamps in a green night; superstition. Smith, in his account of them, says that

And does in the pom'granates close they were “80 fearful to the world that many called

Jewels more rich than Ormus shows. them the Isles of Devils :"

He makes the figs our mouths to meet, “The epithet, here applied to the Bermudas, will be

And throw, the melons at our feet; best understood by those who have seen the chafing of

But apples plants, of such a price

No tree could evor bear them twice. the sea over the rugged rocks by which they are sur

With cedars chosen by his hand rounded, and which render access to them so dangerous.

From Lebanon, he stores the land;

And makes the hollow seas that roar, It was in our Poet's time the current opinion that the Ber

Proclaim the ambergrease on shore. mudas were inhabited by monsters and devils. Sete

He cast (of which we rather boast) bos, the god of Caliban's dam, was an American devil,

The Gospel's pearl upon our coast, worshipped by the giants of Patagonia."-Henley.

And in these rocks for us did frame It is worthy of remark, that these wild and gloomy

A temple where we sound his name.

Oh! let our voice his praise exalt associations rapidly gave way to others not less poetical,

Till it arrive at heav'n's high vault, but of an entirely opposite character. In the next cen

Which then, perhaps, rebounding may tury, the Bermudas had been selected by the excellent

Echo beyond the Mexique Bay. Bishop Berkeley as the site of a great American col

Thus sung they, in the English boat,

An holy and a cheerful note; lege; and, in his noble verses on the Advent of Science

And all the way, to guide their chime,' and Art to America," he hailed from thence “the west- li

With falling vars they kept their time

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" the Mediterranean FLOTE"-i. e. Wave. (Flot, “ - SETEBos"_" The giants when they found them French.)

selves fettered roared like bulls, and cried upon Sete. Dost thou forget"-" That the character and con

bos to help them."-Eder's Hist. of Tratayle, (1577.) duct of Prospero may be understood, something must Foot it featly here and there"-“We follow the be known of the system of enchantment which supplied punctuation of the original; and this is one of the many all the marvellous found in the romances of the middle instances of a poetical idea being utterly destroyed by ages. This system seems to be founded on the opinion false punctuation. In all modern editions the passage that the fallen spirits, having different degrees of guilt, stands thus :had different habitations allotted them at their expul.

Courtsied when you have, and kissid, sion, some being confined in hell, some (as Hooker,

(The wild waves whist,) who delivers the opinion of our Poet's age, expresses it)

Foot it featly here and there. dispersed in air, some on earth, some in water, others Stevens explains the lines in parenthesis as the sild in caves, dens, or minerals under the earth. Of these, waves being silent. Tben, of course, the spirits bave some were more malignant and mischievous than others. courtsied (paid courtesies to) themselves, and kissed The earthly spirits seem to have been thought the most

themselves. But look at the exquisite beauty of the indepraved, and the aerial the least vitiated. Thus Pros. vocation, as written by the Poet: When you have courtpero observes of Ariel

sied to the wild waves, and kissed them into silence thou wast a spirit too delicate

Foot it featly here and there." KNIGHT. To act her earthly and abhorr'd commands. Over these spirits a power might be obtained by certain

[Dispersedly"]—This is the stage-direction of the rites performed, or charms learned. This power was

folios, meaning that the Burden is to be heard in several

places at the same time. The songs are given as in the called the Black Art, or Knowledge of Enchantmentthe enchanter being (as King James observes in his

old copies, from which there seems no sufficient reaso Demonology') one who commands the devil, whereas

to depart. Later editors, except Knight, have arranged

the lines otherwise. the witch serves him. Those who thought best of this art (the existence of which was, I am afraid, believed " If you be Maid”—This is the reading of the three very seriously) held, that certain sounds and characters earliest folios. Ferdinand has supposed Miranda a god bad a physical power over spirits, and compelled their dess, and now inquires if she be really a mortal; not a agency ; others who condemned the practice, which in celestial being, but a maiden. “Maid” is used in its reality was surely never practised, were of opinion, with general sense. Miranda's answer is to be taken in the more reason, that the power of charms arose only from same sense as Ferdinand's question. In the foarh compact, and was no more than the spirits voluntarily folio, “maid" is altered to made, which Warburton, allowed them for the seduction of man. The art was Farmer, and others, take in the sense of created, ser held by all, though not equally criminal, yet unlawful; tal, as opposed to goddess; and it is thus printed in and therefore Casaubon, speaking of one who had com.

very many editions. merce with spirits, blames him, though he imagines him T'U manacle thy head and feet together"-We sub ! one of the best kind, who dealt with them by way of command. Thus Prospero repents of his art in the last | than any description.

join an engraving, which explains this threat better scene. The spirits were always considered as in some measure enslaved to the enchanter, at least for a time, and as serving with unwillingness; therefore Ariel so often begs for liberty; and Caliban observes, that the spirits serve Prospero with no good will, but hate him rootedly.—Johnson.




used in the sense of formidable, terrible, dreadful, like head they are.” He has also fearful wars, fearful

atists were understood at the Restoration, that Dryden

" — in ARGIER”—“Argier" is the old name of Algiers: the letters r and I are frequently exchanged for each other, according to the genius of the language adopting the word in which they occur.

“We cannot miss him”-i. e. We cannot do without him: a provincialism (says Malone) of the midland

1 counties of England.

1 ti thou tortoise ! when ?"-A common form of ex. pression in the old dramatists, indicative of impatience.

“ – vast of night"—i. e. Space of night. So, in Hamlet—“In the dead waist and middle of the night;"

1 nox vasta, midnight, when all things are quiet and still, making the world appear one great uninhabited waste. In the pneumatology of ancient times, visionary beings had different allotments of time suitable to the variety and nature of their agency.

Fill all thy bones with aches”—The word “aches” is evidently a dissyllable here, and in two passages of

- and not FEARFUL"_" Fearful” was sometimes Timon of Athens. Scott gives an amusing account of the clamour that was raised against Kemble for his adhe

the French épouvantable; as may be seen. rence to the text of Shakespeare, in thus pronouncing

ing Cotgrave, or any of our old dictionaries. Shakeit as the measure requires. Ake (says Baret, in his

speare almost always uses it in this sense. In King • Alvearie') is the verb of this substantive Ache ; ch be

HENRY VI., (act iii. scene 2)—"A mighty and a fearfu ing turned into k.” And that “ ache” was pronounced in the same way as the letter h, is placed beyond doubt

bravery, etc. The verb to fear is most commonly by the passage in Much ADO ABOUT Nothing, in which

used for to fright, to terrify, to make afraid. Mr. Gifford

remarks, as a proof" how little our old drama Margaret asks Beatrice for what she cries Heigh ho ! and she answers, For an h, (i. e. ache.) (See the “Epigram" of Heywood, adduced in illustration of that censures Jonson for an improper use of this word, the passage.) This orthography and pronunciation con

sense of which he altogether mistakes." tinued even to the times of Butler and Swift. It would My foot my tutor"-i. e. Shall my heel teach my be easy to produce numerous instances.

head? Shall that which I tread upon give me law?

by consult


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ACT II.-SCENE I. “ — HINT of woe"-Gonzalo calls it hint of woe," in reference to its comparative triflingness.

The masters of some MERCHANT”-“Merchant" is here used for merchant-vessel-merchantman. Dryden employs it in a similar way—“As convoy-ships either accompany or should accompany their merchants." The “masters of some merchant" signifies, therefore, the owners of some trading-vessel ; but in the second instance, the “merchant" must mean the trader, whose goods are ventured in the merchantman. It has been suggested that “masters" is a misprint for mistress, which is not improbable, and would take away the harshness of thus using "merchant” in two different senses in the same breath.

The visitor"-" Visitor" is to be taken in the sense of one who visited the sick and poor—a phrase familiar in the habits of ancient piety.

“— you're paid”-i. e. You are paid by having obtained the laugh. There is no need of change, yet Stevens altered it to “ you've paid," and Knight proposes to assign the speech to Sebastian.

“TEMPERANCE was a delicate wench"- Adrian uses

temperance" for temperature, and Antonio jokes upon it by adverting to the fact that Temperance was also a woman's name. In puritanical times, as Stevens remarks, it was not unusual to christen female children by the names of any of the cardinal virtues.

How lush and lusty"_" Lush” is juicy, or lvruriant, as applied to vegetation. Todd and Nares cite passages from old authors showing that it means juicy, succulent.

"- an Eye of green"-An "eye” means a small shade of colour; as in Sandys's “ Travels," (lib. i. :) • Cloth of silver, tissued with an eye of green."

Letters should not be known"-Our author (says Malone) has here closely followed a passage in Montaigne's “ Essayes,” translated by John Florio, (1603 :)— “ It is a nation, would I answere Plato, that hath no kinde of trafficke, no knowledge of letters, no intelligence of numbers, no name of magistrate, nor of politike superioritie; no use of service, of riches, or of poverty; no contracts, no successions, no dividences, no occupation, but idle; no respect of kinred, but common; no apparell, but naturall; no manuring of lands; no use of wine, corne, or mettle. The very words that import lying, falsehood, treason, dissimulation, covetousness, envie, detraction, and pardon, were never heard amongst them." (Book i. chap. xxx.) The verbal coincidences show that he used this translation, and not the French original. A copy of Florio's “ Montaigne," bearing the undoubted autograph of Shakespeare, has been discov. ered within these few years.

To excel the golden age"-So Montaigne, just before the passage already quoted : :-“Me seemeth that what in those [newly discovered] nations wee see by experience, doth not onlie exceede all the pictures wherewith licentious poesie hath prowdly embellished the golden age, and al hir quaint inventions to faine a happy condition of man, but also the conception and desire of philosophie.”

Hazlitt remarks that, in this scene, “Shakespeare has anticipated nearly all the arguments in the Utopian schemes of modern philosophy."

Trebles thee o'er"-i. e. Makes thee three times what thou now art.

TU teach you how to flow"-"Sebastian introduces the simile of water. It is taken up by Antonio, who says he will teach his stagnant water to flow. “It has already learned to ebb,' says Sebastian. To which Antonio replies— O, if you but knew how much even that metaphor, which you use in jest, encourages the design which I hint at; how, in stripping it of words of their common meaning, and using them figuratively,


you adapt them to your own situation.'"-Edinburgh Magazine, (Nov. 1786.)

"- from Naples"-Stevens has treated this as a remarkable instance of Shakespeare's ignorance of geog. raphy; but though the real distance between Naples and Tunis is not so immeasurable, the intercourse in early times between the Neapolitans and the Tunisians was not so frequent as to make it popularly considered other than a formidable voyage.

"A Chough of as DEEP char"-i. e. I could make a jackdaw talk as profoundly.

- if it were a KYBE"-i. e. If conscience were a chilblain, it would mar my activity.

That's VERITY"-The folio has verily, which, as a misprint, has been corrected into “verity,” in all succeeding editions since Pope's, except Collier's, which retains verily. The sense indicates the propriety of the correction.

SCENE II. “- a foul BOMBARD'-A“bombard" was the name of a large vessel for containing drink, as well as a piece of artillery.

I have no long spoon"-Shakespeare gives his characters appropriate language :-" They belch forth proverbs in their drink ;" “Good liquor will make a cat speak ;” and “He who eats with the devil had need of a long spoon.The last is again used in the COMEDY OF ERRORS, (act iv. scene 2.)

Young SEA-MALLS from the rock—The old copies have scammels from the rock-a word not found in any other place, nor known as belonging to any obsolete or provincial idiom. It has been conjectured to mean some sort of scollop, or shell-fish; but to these this epithet young would have no special application as recommending them. Sea-mall, or sea-mell, is the reading proposed by Theobald, which is the popular English name for the sea-gull; which birds, when young, (says an old writer,) “ were accounted a good dish at the most plentiful tables.” Dyce conjectures staniels to have been the author's word, (i. e. young mountain-hawks)-a word used in the Twelfth Night. Either reading may be the right one, and will make little difference in the general sense and poetry.

ACT III.-SCENE I. “ - I FORGET"_This is to be understood as reminding himself that he forgets his task, to which he must now return. 2. Jackson ("Shakespeare's Genius," etc.) ingeniously conjectures “forget” to be a misprint for forgive't, which would make a more connected sense. The change is not necessary, though he may possibly have hit upon the original word.

Most busy, LEAST when I do it"-With Collier, wo return to the old reading; for busy-less seems to make the sense no clearer. I understand the old text to say, that his thoughts are most busy when he is least em. ployed in his labours.

SCENE II. What a Pied ninny's this! Thou scurvy PATCH!". Trinculo, as a jester, would be dressed in motley, and hence Caliban's allusion to his particoloured appearance.

Pied" was an epithet applied to fools, and “patch" a name by which they were often called.

" He's but a sor"- Modern usage has so limited the word “sot" to the sense of a sluggish, dull drunkard, that the general reader may mistake its meaning here. But in its older use, it corresponded with the French sol, from whence it is derived; and meant merely a stupid, dull person.

Be not afeard; the isle is full of noises"-"In conducting Stephano and Trinculo to Prospero's cell,

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