History of Labour in the United States

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III
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IV
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V
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VI
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VII
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VIII
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IX
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XVIII
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XIX
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XX
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XXI
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XXIII
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XI
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Página 27 - The sum total of these relations of production constitutes the economic structure of society — the real foundation, on which rises a legal and political superstructure and to which correspond definite forms of social consciousness.
Página 79 - I have considered that, among artisans, good apprentices are most likely to make good citizens, and, having myself been bred to a manual art, printing, in my native town, and afterwards assisted to set up my business in Philadelphia by kind loans of money from two friends there, which was the foundation of my fortune, and of all the utility in life that may he ascribed to me, I wish to be useful even after my death, if possible, in forming and advancing other young men that may be serviceable to...
Página 80 - ... to afford to every one some Assistance. These aids may therefore be small at first; but as the Capital increases by the accumulated Interest, they will be more ample. And in order to serve as many as possible in their Turn, as well as to make the Repayment of the principal borrowed more easy, each Borrower shall be obliged to pay with the yearly Interest...
Página 80 - These aids may therefore be small at first, but as the capital increases by the accumulated interest they will be more ample. And in order to serve as many as possible in their turn, as well as to make the repayment of the principal borrowed more easy, each borrower shall be obliged to pay, with the yearly interest, one-tenth part of the principal, which sums of principal and interest so paid in shall be again let out to fresh borrowers. And...
Página 62 - Sometime afterward [1799], my little capital being laid out in stock, and no way of mending it at home, an idea struck me of going to the southward, and endeavor to force a sale. I went to Charleston at the risque of my life, for the vessel in which I went had like to have been lost at sea. I put my articles at an extremely low price, by which I had but little profit, in order to induce people to deal with me. I got two customers at Charleston; from there I went to Norfolk, Petersburg, Richmond and...
Página 4 - The condition which seems to distinguish most clearly the history of labour in America from its history in other countries is the wide expanse of free land. As long as the poor and industrious can escape from the conditions which render them subject to other classes, so long do they refrain from that aggression on the property rights or political power of others, which is the symptom of a

Acerca do autor (1918)

John R. Commons was an American economist, educator, and social investigator who believed strongly in the ideal of human equality. He is regarded as an institutionalist because of his interest in how institutions including trade unions, governments, and businesses evolved and interacted in a capitalistic system. As a labor economist, he developed a theory of labor struggle in which the collective actions of unions would lead to human betterment without the dire consequences of a Marxist revolution. Commons studied at Oberlin College and Johns Hopkins University. His interest in real-world institutions began when he joined the typographers' union as a student. Later, while teaching at Wesleyan, he often discussed current issues with his students and took them on field trips to examine issues firsthand. Commons took a chair of sociology at Syracuse University, where he developed the theory that owners of private property use their power to encroach on the rights and welfare of others. The wealthy benefactors at Syracuse, uncomfortable with this analysis, withdrew their financial support for the chair. Commons then spent several years working on various government commissions before he joined the faculty of the University of Wisconsin in 1904. There, in conjunction with his students, he published his classic 11-volume Documentary History of American Industrial Society (1910). It was followed by his best-known work, The History of Labor in the United States (1918), which chronicled the role of unions working for equality of the "economic classes" of workers and owners.

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