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first grade. Let the pupils write on paper the combinations d Write upon the board a list of questions, each of that are so illustrated.
which is answered by one sentence in the story. 12 Write combinations on the board. Let the pupils
Have the children find the sentences which answer copy and draw pictures to illustrate each.
these questions and copy them on paper. This 13 Using the number boxes, have the pupils make all
is not to be done until the pupils have read the combinations they can with answers.
entire story (or part of it which is assigned for 14 Write combinations on the board. Pupils copy and
the new lesson) carefully at least once. write answers.
e Let the pupils illustrate the story after reading it. 15 Write on the board a list of figures below 100 in
Sometimes clay may be used, again paper cutting, promiscuous order. Instruct the pupils to copy these,
or colored crayons. Devote a few minutes to arranging them in order with the smallest number first.
discussion and constructive criticism of the drawTeacher's list on the board might be:
ings before having the story read. Select two
or three big points to emphasize in the criticisms 89 54 8 73 13 91
of the first set of pictures. At a later period, 7 44 65 32 50 18 99 58 9 80
while the criticisms are fresh in mind and the 27 79 90 66 45 21 77 83
pupils are interested in improving their pictures, 70 15 95 64 61 19 72 81
let them illustrate the story for the next day's
lesson. The criticisms can be handled in such Pupil's list:
a way that the pupils are stimulated to portray
the scenes of the story as they really occur, and 7 8 9 13 15 18 19 20 21 27 32 36
when this result is obtained, however crude the 44 45 46 50 52 54 58 61 63 64 65
pictures may be from an artistic standpoint, a 70 72 73 77 79 80 81 83 89 90
decisive victory has been gained in independent 91 95 99
power to get thought from the printed page.
This kind of seat work bears frequent repetition. New Work of the Second Year
f Sometimes the teacher may select from the story II Reading
the paragraphs which contain a distinct picture. 1 Just after the children have begun to read from the
She will go to each pupil and mark in his book second reader, a good seat work exercise and one which
the portion of the story that she wishes him to will increase interest in learning new words is this: Have
illustrate. At class time, have the pupils display the pupils turn to the vocabulary that is listed in the back
their pictures in turn, and as each picture is of the book and look over it, checking all words they know,
shown the other members of the class will search and using a different mark to indicate words which they
for the paragraph which it illustrates. The one can work out phonetically. Each day as they learn more
who finds it first may read it orally. of the words listed they should check them.
& Or sometimes the children make their own choice 2 At the close of the recitation, prepare the pupils for
of a portion of the story to illustrate and the game the next lesson by having them work out the difficult words
proceeds as described in f. In this case it is well and phrases which occur in it. Then for seat work they
to have each pupil mark in his reader the part of may read the lesson. Some means for securing concentra
the story he is going to illustrate. This will tion during silent study and for developing thought-getting
hold him within definite limits in making his power are these:
picture and will serve as a check when the class a Write on the board a short series of questions
begins to point out the part he chose. which the pupil is to answer after reading the story.
h If a pupil encounters words he cannot pronounce Formulate questions that will require some thought
during silent study, he should write them on to answer.
paper. At class time collect these papers. If b. Tell the pupils to be prepared to tell the story in
a phonetic wo: occurs there, have the child class period.
find the phonogram and help him to work c If the story is suitable for dramatization, have the
out the word. If the word is partially phonetic, pupils make a list of the characters in the story,
help him to work out that part, and then by and write after each character the name of the
using this known part in conjunction with his classmate which he wishes to play this part.
knowledge of the situation in which the word He will also make a list of the names of the places
was used, he may be able to tell what the word that occur in the story and write after each where
is. This is a very practical way of arriving at that place might be located in the schoolroom.
the pronunciation of many words, so it is worth If any "property” is needed in the play, such as
while to give some training along this line. If a wand for a fairy, he will list the things needed
the pupils are made to feel that words made up and then write after each what article in the
of known phonic elements should be worked out schoolroom might be used for it. When it is
independently during study period, and if they time for the class period, the teacher selects a
are trained to get pronunciation by using the list from the class, writes it upon the board and
context in connection with those parts of the the play will be governed by the choice of
word which may be sounded, the individual lists character and place made by this child. Since
of difficult words will be greatly reduced. any one is likely to be called on to play a part 3 If the teacher has access to a library, she will find it in the story without further preparation, it is very profitable to get simple books for her second grade necessary for each child to get a clear perception pupils to read. This forms one of the most profitable of the scenes, action, and conversation in the forms of seat work that can be given in the second grade. story during silent study. It will be understood, The pupils will doubtless meet some words which they of course, that such a plan is attempted only after cannot pronounce, but they can get the story anyway. the children have played several stories, the
It is a good plan to let pupils read stories from these books dramatization of which was prepared for by care
to the class during the time allotted to opening exercises. ful questioning and the results discussed by the 4 Paste short simple stories on manila cards. On the class and teacher with the purpose of improving back of the card write several questions concerning the the rendition of the story.
main facts of the story. Pass these cards to the children.
After the child has read his story have him write the answers 11 For greater rapidity in silent reading make out a to the questions.
list of questions based on the story that the children are 5 Make riddles such as these below. Write them on to read in their study period. Hektograph these, leaving the board. Let the children read, copy on paper and a space for each answer, and give a copy to each pupil. write the answer in the blank space left for it.
When it is time for the silent reading to be done, have all See if you can guess who I am,
the class begin at the same time. After reading ten I am asleep when you first see me.
minutes (or any other time agreed upon) have all books I am sleeping out doors in the hay field.
closed at a given signal and put away. Then without While I sleep the cows get into the com.
reference to the books, the pupils should write the answers My father's sheep are in the meadow.
to the questions. The children who read rapidly (and You are afraid to waken me, for you think I will with understanding) will be able to answer more questions cry.
than the slow readers. So the lists of answers are a good I will not cry. I will jump and blow my horn. index to the rate of silent reading of the class. If each
pupil puts a mark at the place where he stopped reading b I am an old, old lady.
when the signal was given, the teacher can compare the I have the dearest little dog.
amount of material read with the answers to the questions He follows me everywhere I go.
and so get a more accurate estimate of each pupil's rate of One day my dog was very unhappy.
thought getting. This exercise should be given once a I could find nothing for him to eat.
12 However carefully the preparatory word study may 6 Subscribe for at least one magazine for this grade. have been done, sometimes a pupil's oral reading is interThe children await eagerly the coming of the magazine rupted because he meets a word which he cannot proand enjoy reading it.
nounce. You do not wish to have the flow of thought 7 Second grade pupils may read also the page for very interrupted by having him work out the word phonetically, young children in St. Nicholas and the Youth's Companion. so you tell him the word. In preparation for these occaSuch supplementary reading makes delightful seat work. sions it is well to do some systematic work in training 8 The Little Folks' Magazine frequently contains a
pupils to supply unknown words judging from the context. story printed in large type in which small pictures are used
The following seat exercise will supplement the class work instead of words wherever possible. The children like to along this line. Write paragraphs on the board, omitting read these and supply the words represented by the pictures.
an occasional word. Have the pupils read these silently After they have read several such stories, write a short, and be prepared to supply the omitted words when the simple story on the board and let the pupils copy it, drawing paragraphs are read orally in class. a little picture instead of writing the word whenever a
13 After preparing the assigned reading lesson, let noun occurs that may be shown by a picture.
pupils turn to the lesson for the next day and list all 9 If the school does not own the picture books listed
words found in it which are difficult. Have these words below get them from the library for the children to look
worked out before assigning the lesson for study.
14 at after having finished assigned work.
Let children search in their readers for words
which belong to a certain class. Assign a different class Caldecott Hey Diddle Diddle Picture Book.
to each child. For example, one child may find all the Caldecott — Picture Book No. 2.
names of animals that he can, another flowers, another Leslie Brooke - Nursery Rhyme Picture Book. people, colors, things that we do, etc. Leslie Brooke — Golden Goose Book. Leslie Brooke - Johnny Crow's Garden.
III Phonics Palmer Cox The Brownie Books.
1 Pass to the children scissors, paste and printed pages Walter Crane - Picture Books.
taken from old readers, magazines, or typewritten letters. Kate Greenway - Under the Window.
The type should be of fair size. Let the children search Kate Greenway -- Marigold Garden.
for words containing phonograms which they know. They E. B. Smith — Farm Book. Railroad Book. Sea- will cut out these words and paste them in little books of
shore Book. The Circus and All About It. unruled paper which they made previously. The words Chicken World.
should be classified according to the basal phonogram; Lucas and Bedford — Four and Twenty Toilers. for example, all those containing am should be pasted on Jolly Mother Goose Annual, illustrated by Blanche one page, those containing ell on another, etc. Fisher Wright.
2 Distribute the cards that bear the blend words
among the children. Have them sort the words according 10 For developing accuracy in reading, begin with to the phonogram contained, then copy the words so simple exercises like the following:
grouped and underline the family word in each. Or the Draw a line one inch long.
same thing may be done with a list of words written on Draw a line one inch long with blue crayon.
the board. Draw a 1-inch square with your pencil.
3 Put the perception cards bearing phonograms into Draw a 1-inch square with red crayon.
a box or basket. Pass up and down the aisles and let Gradually increase to such exercises as:
each child take a specified number of cards, perhaps a Draw a 4-inch square.
three. Require each child to write as many words as he Cut it out.
can which contain the phonograms he drew. Fold one edge over to the opposite edge.
4 Place on the chalk tray the perception cards which Unfold.
bear the consonants and phonograms that have been Lay the square on the desk so that the crease runs taught. Let the children compete to see who can make
the largest list of words by combining the elements. Fold the edge that is nearest you to the opposite edge. They write the words on paper. Let the two or three Unfold.
children who have the largest lists read them. The teacher How many squares have you now in the big square? should take the lists, look them over later, and at the Cut them apart.
next session state the rank of the pupils. How wide is each square?
5 Build phonetic words, using the small cards which How long?
have consonants and phonograms printed on them.
S t V
W у Z
6 After a new phonogram has been taught, let the bines each consonant with each phonogram that will make pupils write from memory a list of blend words containing a word, and writes the word in the space where it belongs. the phonogram. 7 Another seat exercise following the teaching of a
ell | atch edge old est ent all
b new phonogram consists in having the pupils copy from the board a list of words containing this phonogram,
d underline the known parts and work out the pronunciation
f of the words. The words selected for this should be more
h difficult than the one-syllable blend words. For example, if the new phonogram were ight, the list of words may be brighter, brighten, slightly, nightgown, frighten, lighthouse. 8 Place on the board several words of one syllable.
1 Let the pupils see how many words they can make by adding parts to these words. To illustrate, the words rain, light, rack and help may be used. The pupil's list р might be: rain light rack
help raining delight crack
helps rains lighten cracker helped rained lighter cracks helping
| rainy lightly cracked helper
amp rainbow lights cracking helpful rainstorm lighting racks helpless
b bell batch bold | best bent |ball belt camp lighted raindrop racked
d dell raindrops lightning racking
fall felt racket
jest 9 Write on the board a list of words, such as, roll,
latch (ledge llest
lamp break, mill, pond, thank, self, fin. Near them write this
Nell list of endings: ing, er, ish, ful, s, ed. Let the pupils
(pall (pelt see how many words they can make by combining the
rest rent endings with the given words. The complete list follows: sell sedge sold
(told test tent tell rolling miller thanking
vamp roller milling thankful
wedge! Iwest went wall rolled milled thanks y yell
zest breaking ponds
selfish breaker ponder
11 Exercises for application of phonics in reading are breaks thank finish
found in Section II, numbered 1, 2 h, and 13.
12 For applying knowledge of phonics in spelling. 10 Rule off on the board equal spaces like these shown a Have pupils write from memory all of the phonobelow. There should be nineteen spaces in each row
grams they can. (one for each consonant, omitting 9 and x) and as 6 Have them write “families” of words from memory. many rows as you care to use. Write a consonant in each c Have them write all of the phonograms which begin space along the left hand side and a phonogram in the
with a certain sound such as short a, or the sound space at the top of each row. Let each child rule a piece
of a that all begins with. of paper to correspond with the diagram on the board and d Let them write from memory words they saw in copy in the consonants and phonograms. Then he com
their reading lesson.
A January Snow-flake
Alice E. Allen
Had dreamed of summer posies,
The flowers are the roses.
Found all the earth was chilly,
No daffodil, no lily.
So sweet it was and rosy,
So warm it was and cozy.
I am writing to ask if you know of any American schools that would be willing to exchange letters with a Canadian school.
I am teaching in a school in Hamilton, Ont., and would like
my children to get in touch with the children of American schools. I believe that such practice gives training both in composition and in geography.
CHARLES D. JONES
Studies in Art Appreciation IV
C. Edward Newell
Dignity and Impudence — Edwin Henry Landseer
(For the benefit of those who begin a new subscription to PRIMARY He was so fond of drawing them that he came to be called
the little "dog boy." Edwin, his two brothers and three
sisters were allowed all the pets they wished, dogs, rabbits It is the purpose of this series of articles on art appre
and pigeons. ciation to set forth a few simple methods for the teach
When Edwin was only thirteen years old two of his ing of well-known pictures. Every great picture has pictures were exhibited at the Royal Academy in London. a message. This message must be understood by the One was a painting of a mule and the other was of a dog teacher before she attempts to interpret a picture to little
and puppies. Many of the little boy's drawings are children. In order to better understand the pictures carefully saved in the South Kensington Museum, Lonunder consideration a few general instructions should
don. Wher. Landseer was but a lad a lady once asked be observed.
him how he came to know so much about dogs and he Study the picture yourself until you are thoroughly replied, “By peeping into their hearts, madam. interested in it. Ask yourself the questions and note Edwin was a bright, gentle boy with blue eyes and light the suggestions. When you have made the picture yours, curly hair. He thought that animals understood, felt, take it before the class and make it theirs in the same and reasoned just like people and so all through his life way. The enthusiasm of the teacher will mean much
he painted them as happy, sad, gay, dignified, proud, to the child. If she enjoys the picture and makes the or saucy. For many years Sir Edwin lived and painted children feel that she does, their interest and apprecia- as a poor man, but as his pictures became known he had tion will respond to hers. Respect the pupil's individual
more orders than he could fill. He was a rich and famous suggestions. They will always be valuable to him and artist when he painted the picture of Paul Pry. It is sometimes to you. While it is hoped that the suggestions said of this man that he could draw with one hand the herein given will be helpful to those teachers who are head of a horse, at the same time drawing a deer's head less experienced in the work, it is recognized that they with the other. involve a certain danger. If the teacher takes them, not as suggestions but as a formula, to be absolutely followed,
Suggestive Method of Study they will wholly defeat their purpose. For this purpose What do you see in this picture? Are the two dogs the following suggestions are offered:
the same size? What kind of dogs are these? Where Ask no questions of which you do not see the point or are they? Of what is the kennel built? Why is there give information which is meaningless or uninteresting a chain and ring at the side of the kennel door? Have to you. Almost every question should be followed with, you studied other pictures of animals? What pictures? "Why do you think so?” or “How do you know?" or Who painted them? Have you a dog of your own? What “What tells you that?"
kind of a dog is it? Which one of these dogs do you
like Tell the pupil nothing that he can learn from the picture. the better? Where is the larger dog looking? What Question him and make him hunt, even though you have sort of nose has he? What sort of eyes, mouth, ears, to tell him the answer in the end.
and paws? What part of the smaller dog can you see? You cannot interest pupils by calling attention toward Where is he looking? Are they both apparently looking unimportant suppositions. You cannot teach pictures at the same thing? Are they looking at you? What by studying unrelated things. The more the pupil respects sort of nose, eyes, mouth, and ears has the smaller dog? and loves his picture, the more easily he will get its message. Compare the coats of these two dogs. Can you tell where
Aim to lead the children to form the habit of carefully the light seems to come from in this picture? observing pictures, to read a picture for its story, then to talk freely, telling what they have seen. A few welldirected questions will soon open the children's eyes to
The Story of the Picture see that everything in the picture helps to tell the story
Almost any picture by Landseer might be called a the artist wants them to know.
"famous picture,” for his popularity has hardly ever It is sometimes best to ask the questions based on the been rivaled. All classes love his pictures, especially picture and so develop the story and meaning of the is pictures of dogs. In “Dignity and Impudence" we whole. Aga
Again it is wise to first read the story, or better, have a noble mastiff, looking almost directly at us from tell the story of the picture, afterwards questioning the
the doorway of his wooden kennel. We say almost directly class on its meaning.
at us, but not quite so, for the dog seems to be looking The pictures selected for this series are such as appeal at something a trifle back of us and to our left, yet our to all children — animal, child, and family life, happy interest is held by the dog's eyes. This is rather strange incident and mother love.
but true. How dignified this noble dog looks! His
smooth we would like to stroke them. The dark recess
of the kennel causes the dog's head to stand out clearly Sir Edwin Landseer (lånd' sēr) (1802-1873) was the
in every detail. artist who painted "Dignity and Impudence." He A saucy little rough-coated spaniel has had the imlearned how to draw from his father and when he was pudence to go into the kennel beside the great hound. but five years old he could draw very well. When he How saucy the spaniel looks with his little black eyes, was seven, bis father would take him to the fields to sketch pointed ears, and snub nose. He is looking at the same the cows and sheep grazing there. Little Edwin did thing as the mastiff, whatever that may be. The spaniel not care for books and often hid from his teachers. He probably well knows the hound's amiable nature or he had three dogs of his own and they were always with him. would never have dared venture into the kennel.