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shining eyes and a bit of color in the unwholesome tint But swiftly upon the heels of encouragement came of her cheeks - and the bath nurse close at her heels with another problem. The little girl was being persecuted the request that she come again to-morrow.

because, said her tormentors, "She is so dirty she has to "I couldn't get it all off in one scrubbing," she said. take a batt every day.” “But everyone should take a "Her poor little feet are caked with dirt, and her under- bath every day,” assured the teacher. «clothes!” – she threw up her hands in despair. The batt every day?” came a shy question. “Of course teacher prevailed upon the child to ask her mother to let I do,” was the assuring answer. “Gawd!" came in her have clean clothes throughout for the next day, and an awe-hushed stage whisper from the rear of the was gratified when the girl appeared next morning so room. neat that the latent promise of future beauty was apparent. "Did your mother like you to be clean?” was asked. So, little by little, with unremitting vigilance, are the "Oh, yes,” she answered,"mine mudder will do anything little foreigners brought to the practice of American stanthe teacher says.” Thus was the thought born that even dards. And in this process of uplift toward the goal of one small teacher may become a power in at least a small godliness, the power of the primary teacher is a factor not part of the world.

to be despised.


Hygiene for Grades I and II

(A Suggestive Series of Lessons)

Mary B. Pratt

State Normal School, Worcester, Mass. OW are we to relate more closely the natural Also, as Health Education becomes an important subtendencies and interests of the child to the various ject in the lower grade curricula, it may be successfully phases of subject-matter in the primary grades? correlated with Reading, Handwork and Nature Study.

How shall we so organize CHILD and SUBJECT that in every case our aim is consciously driving us toward

Suggestive Outline education for citizenship in a democracy?

Series I I think we can all agree that real democracy is difficult to find, in spite of the fact that we read about it, think I Home interests and activities about it and want it as a universal form of government.

1 Mother's care There are too many of us who have the Kaiser temperament,

2 Care of home -- child's responsibility and who, both consciously and unconsciously, dominate

3 Food to a serious degree the personalities of the children and

a Selection permit repression rather than expression to be the key

b Preparation note of the various forms of activity in the schoolroom.

c Serving In order to meet the educational demands of to-day,

d Different foods for different seasons every lower grade schoolroom should be a social center where the aim is fullness of life, health, vigor, joy and

4 Clothing efficiency; where the individuality of each child is sacred

a Making

b Care and allowed to develop; where little laws and standards are discussed and made because they are best for the group;

c Change to suit weather and seasons where self-expression is a dominant factor, and where there

5 Family pleasures is no conflict between the natural growth and development

6 Family pets of the child and the kind of training imposed by the teacher.

7 Plants and flowers in the home Therefore, in the case of every child, in the case of every subject, and in the case of all the inter-relationships between II Lunch period at school these two, initiative and leadership, originality and good

1 Personal manners thinking, based primarily upon actual experience and envi

2 Table manners ronment, should be the point of departure for the teacher's

3 Eating slowly and why work in carrying out her fundamental aim - Education

4 Use of napkin for Democracy.

5 Care of crumbs Having attempted to show in preceding articles how

6 Articles of food Silent Reading and Project Constructive Work in the lower

Milk — care and value grades may be a means to this end, I am submitting the

7 Handling cups, crackers, etc. following suggestive series of lessons in Hygiene toward the same end.

III Autumn excursions The development of these outlines would be consistent

1 Gathering of leaves with the child's native interests and with the use of his

2 Gathering of fruits, vegetables, nuts environment. It would build up within his growing

3 Food brought from farm consciousness a knowledge of the following facts:

4 Value and use of different foods 1 The ideal citizen has a sound body.

5 Care of foods in home and market 2 The ideal citizen cares not only for himself, but he

6 Canning and preserving is interested in the public welfare.

(Emphasis of child's part in each activity)


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Series II

d Fresh air I A Study of Home Pets

e Right breathing The cat

s Keeping our hands in the right place

& Cheerful disposition
1 Food

6 Fur
2 Teeth
7 Cat's care of herself

2 How to keep clean and orderly at school

(Need emphasized)
3 Feet
8 Our care of her

Care of books and other material
4 Tongue 9 Cat's use to us

b Care of plants and pets 5 Whiskers

c Clean and orderly desks

d Clean floor (make children responsible for To briefly illustrate a type discussion on these points:

these matters) 4 Tongue

3 How little children may become good citizens How is the cat's tongue different from yours? She can

@ Correlate with 1 and 2 fold her tongue and make it spoon-shaped. I wonder who

6 Obedience and helpfulness at home can tell me why?

( Responsibility of each child toward making

school a healthful, happy place 3 Feet Who has seen kitty jump? How does she land? Why

This series of lessons need not be used necessarily in the are her feet padded? Why doesn't she need shoes? Can order in which they are given here. Always plan lessons we walk as softly as she? Can we jump, as lightly? The

in view of the specific need. next time you go out of doors shov me how the kitty jumps,

Materials used for illustrative purposes and for concrete runs and walks.

needs in the development of these lessons may be as follows:

1 A miniature house given to the children to furnish 8 Care

and keep clean. Your cat not only takes good care of herself, but she

2 Dressing dolls. takes care of her kittens. What does she do that mother

3 Weaving blankets. does for the baby? She feeds them, washes them, brushes 4 Excursions to country, city, markets, factories, etc. their hair, and sometimes carries them from one place to

5 Reproducing home interests and activties in dramaanother. Who knows how she carries them?

tization, drawing, construction project work, oral and How can we take care of kitty? There are a great many silent reading ways. Give her plenty of good food. Do not use her 6 Seasonal interests-reproduced through various other dish for any other purpose and always keep it clean. Never school activities. let her eat out of your dish or with your fork and spoon. 7 Animals in the room for a few days at a time Teach her not to jump on the table or touch food which dog, cat, rabbit, squirrel, hen and chickens. is not meant for her. Teach her to be clean about the

8 Games. house, and give her a comfortable, clean bed to sleep in. 9 Stories. How does mother take care of your bed? You must take 10 Pictures. care of kitty's bed in the same way. Always be kind to 11 Luncheon activities — picnic parties, etc. your kitty.

12 Making of illustrative scrap-books. Similar lessons may be given on the dog, horse, cow,

13 Construction project work on the floor. rabbit and squirrel. In each case care, responsibility,

(See article in February number) cleanliness should be emphasized.

There are no books written on hygiene simple enough Series III

for the lower primary grades, so the work has to come from 1 Jack Frost

upper grade books adapted and simplified to meet the needs 1 Water

of little children. Its uses

A book which particularly lends itself to the needs of the (1) For drinking

teacher for adaptation is "Healthy Living," by C. E. A. (2) What it gives us

(2) For cooking

(4) Its dangers
2 Frost, ice, snow
b Their uses

E. H. C.
(1) Winter sports

See, 'tis Night, (2) Jack Frost and Mother Nature

Magic Night! II Jack Frost's relation to the children's lives

Now to wander fancy free, 1 Winter clothes

Now the Land of Dreams to see; 2 Warm underwear

Visions strange shall charm my sight,
3 Heavy shoes

For 'tis Night.
4 Leggings
5 More food

Ah, 'tis Night,
6 Fresh air
When Jack Frost is dangerous

Mystic Night!
III Seeds, Plants, Germination

Now in Fairyland to walk,

Now with fairy folk to talk, 1 Need for good light, good soil, air and moisture

Now to roam with elf and sprite,
2 Emphasis upon concrete work and actual

For 'tis Night.
Series IV

Yes, 'tis Night
I_The Meaning of Health

Eerie Night! 1 How to keep well and happy

Listen! hush! the weird winds moan, a Daily bath

Here I stand alone, alone, 6 Care of hands, feet, hair, teeth

Waiting in the dim starlight, c Proper food, exercise, rest

What brings the Night?

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Outlines and Finished Figures Illustratingf“ The[Boy and His Goats.” (See “The Story Stand-upa," page 175)

The Rabbit

The wolf

The for

Outlines for “The Boy and His Goats"

Graded Course in SeatjWork for First and

Second Grades VIII

Belle Brady

Primary Critic, State Normal School, Superior, Wis. V Writing

longest list of words in a given time, perhaps twenty 1 A small number of pupils may be sent to the board minutes. At the close of the time the pupils may count to work upon some letter form which they find difficult. their words and each one state to the class how many he The teacher should write the letter in correct form for has, but the winner will not be known until the teacher has each child and also write one or two easy words in which time to look over the lists and find out who has the greatest the letter occurs. This provides the child with a correct number of correct words. Then she will announce the model of the letter to guide his practice and shows him winner to the class. how to combine it with other letters.

2 Write at the top of one of the blackboards a complete VII Language alphabet in capital letters. Using this as a guide the pupils 1 After a story has been retold by the children, give may practice writing the capital letters at the board for them patterns of the characters in the story. Let the busy work. However, it is not advisable to let them children trace these on colored paper and cut them out. practice writing any capital letter that has not first been They may be used in making a blackboard border, or each studied and practiced under the teacher's direction in a child may use his in making a poster. regular clasis period.

2 Let the children make original posters to illustrate 3 Write words beginning with capital letters guided by the poems that they memorize, or the story they have had models written on the board by the teacher. Also sen- in language class. This should not be done until after tences.

posters have been made as class work.

3 After the children have memorized or read a little VI Spelling

poem, write it on the board omitting certain of the important 1 Procure a copy of a spelling list which has been worked

words. Let the children copy it and supply the omitted

words. out for the grades, such as the Ayres or the Kansas City list. Hektograph that portion of it which should be taught in the


“The north wind doth blow, second grade, being careful to write clearly and form all

And down comes the snow. letters correctly. Give each child a copy of it. Mount these on stiff paper and fasten togther a set for each child.

Oh, what will the robin do now, poor thing! Now they have a list of words which every second grade

He will sit in the barn, child should be able to spell and write correctly at the close

And keep himself warm, of the second year. For seat work the pupils may work on

And hide his head under his wing, poor thing!" these lists. Since they are in script the children may

(Omit the italicized words.) practice writing them. When a pupil thinks he has mas

4 Make hektographed copies of a poem that has just tered a specified portion of the list, he may write his name

been memorized. Cut each copy apart by lines and put on a piece of paper and put it into a box on the teacher's

it into an envelope. Give an envelope to each child, and desk which is labeled "Spelling.” As soon as a number of

let him arrange the lines as they should be and paste them names are there, the teacher tests these pupils on this group

on mounting paper. of words by dictating easy sentences containing the words.

5 Let each child make a book in which to keep the Those pupils who write all of the words correctly in the poems that have been memorized. Have covers of dark sentences, may be assigned a new portion of the list to

colored mounting paper and leaves of lined writing paper. study independently, whereas, if any child shows by his en the book together with brass brads so that new test that there was any word he hadn't learned, he works

leaves may easily be inserted from time to time. The further on it and takes the test again with the next group.

covers may be suitably decorated during the drawing This device will greatly stimulate pupils to independent period. When a poem is being memorized, write it on the effort in mastering the list of words during seat work

board for the children to copy as seat work. If well done, periods, and consequently more class time will be left for it may be put into the book. Illustrations may also bé application of the words in written sentences, which is the added. real test of spelling ability,

6 Original illustrating of stories is good seat work. 2 Besides this list of required words, the children will

7 Let the children make plans for dramatization of be greatly interested in keeping a little book in which they stories as suggested in II, 2, c. write all words they have learned to spell which are not

8 Place on the board a short list of words related in found in the required list. These words may come from thought. Let the children make a simple story, using any source, either in or outside of school. It will make the these words. Mount the best ones and fasten them up pupils more observant of the letter order in words they see

where good work is displayed. and will have the effect of greatly increasing the spelling words which they have been trying to learn to use cor

9 a Have the children copy sentences containing vocabulary.

3 Cut slips of paper and write a letter on each. Pass rectly, as ore for is, saw for seen, etc. down the aisles placing one of these slips on desk of each

b Fill blanks with such words. pupil who is to do seat work during the next period. Have c_Write original sentences containing these words. each child write as many words as he can which begin with

10 Each child may write statements, naming things the letter he has. The letters e, i,j, k, n, 0,9, u, v, x, y and %

or children that are at the right of him as he sits in school. are not good to assign for this work because of the small

Also those at his left. number of words in a child's vocabulary which begin with Example these letters.

May sits at my right. 4 Writing lists of phonetic words is good work to

Edward sits at my right. supplement work in spelling.

The book case is at my right. 5 Have a race to see which child can write correctly the

The windows are at my left.

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