Imagens das páginas

English in the Grades V


Rea McCain

He whistled a tune to the window, and who should be waiting there
But the landlord's black-eyed daughter, Bess, the landlord's

daughter, What is Worth Memorizing

Plaiting a dark red love-knot into her long black hair. Any selection to be worth memorizing must be the adequate expression of some emotion already experienced

Mr. Noyes carries us on rapidly but surely. What is by the child. It must be the adequate expression, for the secret of the aid rhythm is in memorizing? I am not if, the idea alone be beautiful, why not remember the idea sure, but I suspect it is partly done by the phrasing. In and let the wording go? It must be the expression of prose we group our words by the thought contained. In emotion, for facts are concerned with thought and not the best poetry the rhythm suggests the grouping, and with their expression.

the lazy mind is relieved of part

of the burden and seizes Emotion does not imply sentimentality. The pre- upon ready-p epared units. amble to our Constitution is as truly the expression of emotion as Highland Mary. The feeling in the two is Thought Sequence very different, but, each in its way, is an emotion. To small children the thought sequence means little

The third requirement is more apt to be disputed than more than can be suggested by such questions as, What either of the others. There are those who say the child does he tell about first? What next? Older pupils may will grow into comprehension of what he learns. That realize the inevitable sequence of the different thoughts. he will have come to have a fuller appreciation of anything This is peculiarly evident in the Concord Hymn. worth learning is true, but this does not prove the time spent on what is beyond his present understanding is

By the rude bridge that arched the flood, not wasted. Most of us admit that we have forgotten

Their flag to April's breeze unfurled,

Here once the embattled tarmers stood, nine-tenths of all we were compelled to learn. Doubt

And fired the shot heard round the world. less we have retained many an impression from lines we can no longer quote, but his is not an argument for

The foe long since in silence slept; learning selections beyond our understanding. Quite

Alike the conqueror silent sleeps;

And Time the rude bridge has swept the contrary. If we lose the words and retain only the

Down the dark stream which seaward creeps. impression, or a part of the impression, made at that time, it is essential that the feeling of the selection be one which

On this green bank, by this soft stream, is rightly understood.

We set to-day a votive stone;
That memory may her dead redeem,

When, like our sires, our sons are gone.
Analysis of Aids to Memory
Those characteristics of form or thought which are

Spirit, that made those heroes dare

To die, and leave their children free, essential to the composition as it stands are natural aids

Bid Time and Nature gently spare o memory. Any chance or accidental points which are

The shast we raise to them and thee. — Emerson selected for emphasis may be called artificial aids to memory.

The setting, the deed, the death of the men, the deNatural Aids to Memory

struction of material surroundings, the reason for the There are three possible natural aids to memory, logical meeting, the purpose of their act, the prayer. sequence of ideas, rhyme and rhythm. It is impossible Stripped to this bare outline, the force and clearness to imagine any selection worth memorizing in which of the thought is evident. The Concord Hymn and none of these is found, but not all occur in equal propor- the Gettysburg Address stand unrivalled for plain dignity tion in every selection.

of thought and expression. Rhyme and Rhythm

Artificial Aids to Memory Read the Seal Lullaby:

These are so numerous that even to catalogue them is

impossible. Moreover, it is a waste of time. Some one Oh! hush thee, my baby, the night is behind us,

suggests that one word be selected from each line and And black are the waters that sparkled so green.

tha these be memorized. Great speed and accuracy The moon, o'er the combers, looks downward to find us

s announced as the result. It is probable that the poem. At rest in the hollows that rustle between. Where billow meets billow, there soft be thy pillow;

learned in this way, as a test case, was quickly and successAh, weary wee flipperling, curl at thy ease?

fully handled. Why? Not because of the merit of the The storm shall not wake thee, nor shark overtake thee, method, but because the consciousness that something Asleep in the arms of the slow-swinging seas.

new was being tried acted as a spur. The mind, alert,

went at the matter eagerly. For a device it worked; The thought analysis is not difficult; the darkness

as a method to be regularly employed, it is plainly only around, the moon over them, the seals in the hollow,

an aggravation of the labor. he dangers guarded against. The thought, we say, is

Wash-Ad-Jeff --so we learned them, and supposed it plain, but the order is not inevitable, and yet the poem

helped. When I studied kings of England I didn't try is easy to learn. Kipling has such mastery of rhythm

the method. Did you? tha the swing of the line carries one on, The rhyme, too, helps. We do not consciously think that pillow follows

Children's Reasons for Memorizing billow, but the suggestion is made all the same. Rhythm may be of many kinds. We happen to have

Many fairly vital motives may be found for little chiltaken an example of slow and balanced motion, Quick and

dren, to repeat the poem at home, to take part in a probroken lines are just as easy to learn.

gram before the school, etc. Perhaps they need the exact words in dramatization, although extemporaneous work

is better 'n he lower grades. It may be they will sing Over the cobbles he clattered and clashed in the dark in n-yard, And he tapped with his whip on the shutters, but all was locked

the poem when it is learned. “Sweet and Low" has and barred;

done duty many times. The more definite and individual


the motive that is assigned, the better the work will be, it is more permanent than any later study. A hild much but it must never be forgotten that willing eagerness to older than these tots was told to learn Portia's speech. take part in all exercises is characteristic of a well-governed She began to study it. school. The motive assigned on a lesson plan may be a dead thing, only an added and useless cog in cumber

The quality of mercy is not strained. some machinery if the teacher cannot tactfully employ it so as to make the whole operation move rapidly. Be

There was no ommentary, but she reasoned it out ware of the artificial motive. Above all, beware of the easily. She had seen her father strain milk. That was pause when the child contemplates the incentive and the only straining she knew. Don't laugh at her stupidity. decides he doesn't want to.

It worked out well. The milk was strained to keep back

foam, which is undesirable. Mercy isn't like that.None Reasons for Requiring Memorizing

of it has to be kept out. It is all good, therefore, it does

not need to be strained. The child is a woman now, Repeating the writing of others means using words

but the milk bucket has held its place in Shakespeare's which one is not in the habit of employing. If the selec

lines. tion is rightly made, these words should be well within the power of comprehension but slightly beyond habitual

Analysis use. This increase in vocabulary is the weakest and poorest of the reasons for committing to memory.

Next, line by line, analyze the stanz?s, hav: the chilAnother reason is finding expression for one's own feel- dren describe the various scenes visualizing is most ings. A famous teacher is in the habit of speaking of important. A poem means to man or to child just as our great writers as the Articulate Ones. He says they much or as little as it suggests. Far-fetched meanings are give words to what others feel. It is much for anybody, bad, but there can never be too clear an understanding. child or man, o find words for the gropings toward truth Don't dwell always on the same point. Let each going of which we are all conscious.

over mean the addition of a new thought. The strongest reason is the last. One paragraph which has become thoroughly familiar is a center which attracts Poem as a whole to itself much which would otherwise be forgotten. “This reminds me of” — and we remember, because of its parallel

When the discussion has been carried as far as you significance, what we might otherwise have passed over.

can profitably take it, stop analyzing. The child's thought

of the poem is as full and complete as you can make it. Study of Poem

He has gone from the first impression, when his liking

was of the most importance, to the last, when he has Suppose we glance over Stevenson's "Young Night brought to it and taken away from it all that he could Thought:"

carry. You are through.
All night long and every night,
When my mamma puts out the light,

I see the people marching by,
As plain as day before my eye.

Is it desirable that much study of authors should be

undertaken? No, mankind is curiously alike. The mention Armies and emperors and kings, All carrying different kinds of things,

of birth and death serves only to employ words which are And marching in so grand a way,

already familiar. Only those details about the writer You never saw the like by day.

are worth while which had some influence upon the writing.

Stevenson thought more in the dark than other children
So fine a show was never seen
At the great circus on the green;

because he lay awake long hours. He was ill, and made For every kind of beast and man

of bed and dreams his playthings. He was a courageous Is marching in that caravan.

little man. He thought of kings and armies and great

processions. Such are the items about an author for
At first they move a little slow,
But still the faster on they go,

which children care and need to know.
And still beside them close I keep
Until we reach the town of Sleep.

List of poems suitable to memorize as wholes or in

part: Preparation

Mother Goose Melodies To use the technical language of an author, it is

Baa, Baa, Black Sheep Bye, Baby Bunting necessary first to create an atmosphere. The introduc

Sing a Song of Sixpence Simple Simon tion need not be long, but it should be clear. Especially

Humpty Dumpty

There was an Old Woman with small children is it necessary to make sure of a re- Hickory, Dickory, Dock The Queen of Hearts ceptive mood. Know yourself what you wish to call

Hey Diddle Diddle

Jack Be Nimble
Wee Willie Winkie

Litte Jack Horner forth. “What do you imagine you see in the dark?”

Bean Porridge Hot

Jack and Jill might give a “goblin 'll get you” feeling or call forth the

Little Boy Blue

Little Bo-peep
horrors of “seeing things at night.” The little boy of
the poem had the nicest possible time as he lay there.

Robert Louis Stevenson
Bed in Summer

My Shadow
So fine a show was never seen

Young Night Thought The Cow
At the great circus on the green.

Foreign Lands

The Wind

Foreign Children
Let the little folks shut their eyes and try to see the

A Good Play

The Sun's Travels

The Land of Counterpane My Bed is a Boat biggest procession they ever read about, then repeat to

The Land of Nod

The Swing them the poem. They know what is coming because you have prepared them, they enjoy it, for Stevenson

Eugene Field wrote what they think, only a thousand times better

With Trumpet and Drum The Night Wind expressed.

The Sugar-Plum Tree Jest 'Fore Christmas
Norse Lullaby

The Drum

Wynken, Blynken and Nod The Duel
Fairy and Child

Seein' Things
It is important that the first presentat on be clear, for Hushaby, Sweet, My Own

Longfellow The Children's Hour

Nuremberg The Arrow and the Song Sandalphon Village Blacksmith

Excelsior Hiawatha

Paul Revere's Ride Evangeline

The Builders Bell of Atri

Study of Patriotism
To be read in connection with memorizing of brief

The Perfect Tribute — Andrews
How They Brought the Good News from Ghent to Aix--Browning
Incident of the French Camp Browning
Man Without a Country Hole
Old Ironsides Holmes
Battle Hymn of the Republic - Howe
Star Spangled Banner — Key
Recessional - Kipling

Gettysburg Address Lincoln
Building of the Ship - Longfellow
Paul Revere's Ride - Longfellow
Breathes There a Man Scott
Farewell Address — Washington
O Captain! My Captain! — Whitman

Lady Moon

Lord Houghton
Daisies -- Frank D, Sherman
Pippa Passes — Browning
How the Leaves Came Down Susan Coolidge
Spring -- Celia Tharter
October's Bright Blue Weather -- Helen Hunt Jackson
November - Alice Cary
The Barefoot Boy - John Greenleaf Whittier
Four Things Henry Van Dyke
The Landing of the Pilgrims Felicia Dorothea Hemans
The Rising - Thomas Buchanan Read
Lays of Ancient Rome — Thomas Babington Macaulay
The Concord Hymn — Ralph Waldo Emerson

Arithmetic as Seat Work


Alden Hewitt

Normal Supervisor, Litchfield, Minn. EAT WORK should always be correlated with pre- Adopt one written form and insist on its use. Neatness ceding lessons in arithmetic, language, word drill is a most necessary requirement. or reading. Arithmetic seat work, it should be A uniform manner of explanation helps the atmosphere remembered, is for drill, not presentation.

of the school. Beginning arithmetic may be assisted by having chil

Example -- Subtraction dren string red haws, rose hips, basswood seeds, or corn,

872 in groups of two, of three, of four, etc. Basswood seeds

358 (monkey nuts), strung with a piece of corn between each, make a treasured necklace in the fall when the beginners

514 are still puzzled over school life.

“Eight hundred seventy-two less 358. The 8 is more Do not hesitate to use the things all around the school. than 2; take 1 from 7 and put with 2, making it 12; 8 and With so many counters growing about, beginning arithmetic 4 are 12; write the 4; 5 and 1 are 6; write the 1. Three may be play.

and 5 are 8; write the 5. The difference is 514.” Beginning arithmetic must be chiefly oral; it should be Much simple work is better than a little very difficult work. largely in story form and deal with those things found in One of the best drills possible in the fifth or sixth grade children's daily experiences.

is to present one simply worded problem concerning some Do not hesitate to use all possible material in your everyday matter and then request five other origina primary arithmetic.

problems of like type from pupil. Remember it is better to know a little well than to half know a great deal.

Presentation Example Never attempt more than one step in advance at one time. There are 100 hens in a flock. Sixty-five eggs are A successful teacher once said, “The keys to teaching gathered in one day. What fraction of the whole flock is arithmetic are three: drill — and drill and drill.

laying? Never teach a child to count by repeating the mere words. Let your beginning class count the chairs, the Original Example children, the erasers, the windows, etc. Help if necessary. We have 40 hens. Mother gathered 30 eggs this morning. Two minutes of this at the opening of each session does What fraction of our flock laid to-day? wonders.

The four fundamental processes are the most necessary Calendar numbers, pasted on tagboard, to be arranged from first to eighth grades. in order, are easier to handle than the small card numbers and also more attractive. These may be used later to

Outline of Work by Grades make sums, etc.

First Grade Picture arithmetic, made by letting third graders draw around carded patterns and blacken them in, to form To teach successfully one must have a quiet voice, a groups, makes excellent first grade seat work toward the controlled manner, concentration and attention of children. end of the term.

Counting to 100, first with objects, then without. Write The clock face device is one of the best drills for lower numbers to 20. Teach signs, +, -, and grade work.

Memorize processes within 4, as 1 + 2, 3 —2, 2 two's Never attempt a drill till you have fully presented and 4,2 + 2, 1 of 1. There are 2 two's in 4. of 4. discussed the topic in view.

Processes within five and six Make learning the various number combinations pure memory work. If the pupil hesitates at all give the answer 3 + 3, 6 3, 6 4, 5 2, 3 two's 6, 3 + 3, or have another pupil give it.

6 2, 5 3, 2 three's 6. Teach subtraction by the Austrian or change system. Example 8-5 = Five and what make 8?

Processes within seven and eight Begin at the bottom of a column when adding. Add 2 + 6,3 + 5,8 + 3,8 – 6,7 – 4,3 + 4,4 + 4,8 - 4, in what is carried. This does away with writing the 7--2,7 – 5,2 + 6,8-2,8-5,7 – 3, 4 two's = 8, carried number.

1 of 2, 3 of 6, of 8, 5 of 1, 2 four's = 8, 1 of 8.


4 + 2,


Make rulers from tagboard and mark off inches. Have Processes within nineteen, twenty, twenty-one, twenty-two, flat cushions stuffed with sawdust and stick pins into them and twenty-three. to form number groups. Have calendar numbers mounted on tagboard, to be

Thorough study of 24, including t, 1, 1, , and of 24. arranged in order. Prick and sew the numerals traced on

Study 25, 50 and 100. tagboard squares.

Seat Work After the lessons on – and + are presented, have the children make and pick out the different signs.

Measuring pints, quarts and gallons. Use all the outdoor material possible.

Measuring yards, feet and inches.

Building forms with square inches and then writing the Second Grade

statement: This figure (draw it) contains 12 squares or

12 square inches. Processes within twelve

Making up stories about the number lesson example. 2 + 10,6 + 6, 12 — 5,12 —8,2 six's 12, 3 + 9, The lesson was processes within 12. “There were 12 12- 2,12 — 6, 12-9,3 four's = 12, 4 + 8, 12 – 3,

chickens; three ran away.” “Nine were left.' “Three 13 - 6,12 — 10,5 + 7, 12-7,4 three's = 12, 6 two's

more ran away.' "There were 4 of them gone."

“How = 12.

many were gone?” “If we sold of the 12 we should have Table of two's: addition, subtraction, multiplication and

8 left." division.

Make domino cards to illustrate processes. Make toy Columns of numbers less than 3

money and play store. 2

Let the children measure everything in the room. 2

Have the children draw and name the square, rectangle, 1

triangle, oblong, cube, sphere, cylinder, prism, pyramid. 2 1

Fourth Grade 1

The fourth is essentially a review grade in arithmetic. 2

That is why third and fourth arithmetic may so easily be 2


Drill on the 36 addition combinations and on the 36 Count to 100 by 10's. Count backward by l's.

subtraction combinations.

Addition of columns of figures for speed and accuracy. Processes within nine and ten

Show how to write dollars, cents and dimes. 2 + 7,3 + 6,4 + 5,9 — 2,9 -3,9 – 4,9 - 5,9 - 6, Take up the carrying of figures. 9—7,3 three's = 9, 1 of 6, 1 of 1, { of 9,2 +8, 3 + 7, Review the tables and teach the 11's and 12's. 4+ 6,5 + 5, 10 - 2, 10-3, 10 - 4.10 — 5, 10 – 6, 10 Take up examples in denominate numbers. - 7, 10 - 8, 10 – 9,5 two's = 10, 2 five's = 10, } of 1. Two's -- Quarts changed to pints. of 2, } of 10.

Three's - Yards changed to feet.

Four' – Gallons changed to quarts and bushels to Seat Work


Five's - Nickels changed to pennies.
Pasting pictures in groups to tell number stories.
Stringing beads by three's, two's, four's, etc.

Six's - Rectangle with one dimension 6.

Seven's — Weeks to days.
Working out examples with splints.
Make simple geometrical figures with sticks: the tri-

Eight's — Pecks to quarts.

Nine's — Square yards to square feet. angle, square and oblong, telling how many sticks it takes

Ten's — United States money. to make each.

Twelve's Make these forms by folding and cutting paper.

Years to months.

Do not forget the making of number stories. This Give a pattern to the child to trace around to make a number story of any combination he has trouble with.

correlates language and arithmetic.

Teach the ounce and pound. Set a time limit for all mathematical work.

The children should understand the difference between Third Grade

cubic, square and linear feet and inches.

Keep up lower grade work by much rapid drill. Teach orally, using the Key statements, i.e.: 2 + 8, etc. Use these in such addition as 14 + 5, 24 + 5, 54 + 5, Seat Work up to 100; do same with all other Key statements given Marking off a square foot of paper into square inches. below.

Building with bits of pine board and estimating results. 2 + 2 3 + 2 3 +7 3 + 8


4 + 2 (These blocks may be made by the older boys in the manual 5 + 2 7 + 3 8 + 3 9 + 3 9 + 5 6 + 2 training work.) 7 + 2 4 + 6 4 +7 4 + 8

+ 5

3 + 3 Draw, on enlarged scale, plan of a room from blackboard 4 + 3 4 + 9 6 + 4 7 + 4 7 + 5 5 + 3 sketch. Children copy sketch on board, making theirs 4 6 + 3 8 +4 9 + 4 5 + 5 6 + 5 4 + 4 times or twice as large. 5 + 4 5 + 6 5 + 7 5 + 8 5 + 9 6 + 6 Make chart of schoolroom, using t" to the foot, etc. 6 + 7 6 + 8 6 + 9 9 + 6 8 + 6 7 + 6 7 + 7 7 + 8 7+9 9 + 7 8 + 7 8 + 8 New Work 8 + 9 9 + 8

Multiplication with two figures in multiplier. Division Teach the subtraction Key statements and use with

table (reversing multiplication table). Much of this can combinations to 100.

be seat work. Oral division with a remainder, as 100 + The tables of 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9; count by 4, 5, 6, 78, 9 = 11 and 1 over. 9, to 100, or as nearly as possible to 100.

Short division. Some drill on aliquot parts. There

should be no remainders. Processes within eleven, twelve, thirteen, fourteen, fifteen

This new work may, much of it, be drill seat work after

the first careful presentation. Do not make the mistake 4 of 12, 4 of 12, } of 12, ở of 12, 1 of 16, 1 of 16, s of 16. of drilling before the subject is fully presented,


Popular Ballad Studies for Grade II

Laura F. Kready
Author of "A Study of Fairy Tales"

(Book rights reserved)

Part II
The Children in the Wood

two ruffians. The traditional burial place of the children “The Children in the Wood” was taken from the second

is pointed out in Norfolk. part of an old play entitled, “Two Lamentable Tragedies;

The traditional ballad was appreciated by Addison, the one of the murder of Maister Beech, a chandler in who, when his contemporary writers failed to value the Thames street. The other of a young child murthered ballads, expressed his estimate in his Spectator paper, in a wood by two ruffians, with the consent of his unkle.

No. 85. By Robert Yarrington, 1601. In the play the scene is

“ 'Two Children in the Woods' is one of the darling laid in Padua, so that originally it may have been based songs of the common people, and has been the delight on Italian romance.

of most Englishmen in some part of their age. Several chap-books have been made out of the ballad; “This song is a plain simple copy of nature, destitute of these are enumerated in Halliwell's “Popular Histories" all the helps and ornaments of art. The tale of it is a (Percy Society), No. 18. The ballad form of the story pretty tragical story, and pleases for no other reason has been presented in "The Percy Reliques." From this but because it is a copy of nature. There is even a version Joseph Jacobs takes his tale in “More English despicable simplicity in the verse; and yet, because the Fairy Tales," choosing to retain the ballad form, as the sentiments appear genuine and unaffected, they are able story in ballad form has become a nursery classic. Ac- to move the mind of the most polite reader with inward cording to Allingham, “The Children in the Wood” is meltings of humanity and compassion. The incidents the best of the ballads of the pedestrian order and the best grow out of the subject, and are such as are the example of undying popularity.

most proper to excite pity, for which reason the whole The Percy copy was taken from two ancient copies, narration has something in it very moving, notwithone in black letter in Pepys collection. Its title is "The standing the author of it (whoever he was) has delivered Children in the Wood,” or “The Norfolk Gentleman's it in such an abject phrase and poorness of expression, Last Will and Testament. To the tune of Rogero," etc. that the quoting any part of it would look like a design I suppose it was this ballad which was licensed at Sta- of turning it into ridicule. But though the language is tioner's Hall, London, 1595. The oldest edition now mean, the thoughts, as I have before said, from one end known in print dates from 1670, and is called "The to the other are natural, and therefore cannot fail to Cruel Uncle.” A chap-book facsimile given in Ashton's please those who are not judges of language, or those who, "Chap-Books of the Eighteenth Century” is dated 1700. notwithstanding they are judges of language, have a true It contains three illustrations: THE DEATHBED SCENE; and unprejudiced taste of nature. The condition, speech, THE DEPARTURE FOR THE Wood; and THE CHILDREN IN and behavior of the dying parents, with the age, innocence, THE WOOD. An old song, “The Children in the Wood," and distress of the children, are set forth in such tender is identical with the earliest copy of the British Museum, circumstances, that it is impossible for a reader of common dated 1640, and is the standard ballad. Another ballad humanity not to be affected with them. As for the cirof 1720 has been corrected from this model. In the cumstances of the Robin-red-breast, it is indeed a little chap-books the names of the characters are: Androgus, poetical ornament; and to show the genius of the author the wicked uncle; Pisaurus, his brother, who married Eu- amidst all his simplicity, it is just the same kind of fiction genia — the parents of the children; Cassander and Jane which one of the greatest of the Latin poets had made or Kate, the two children; Rawbones and Woudkill, the use of upon a parallel occasion; I mean the passage in

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