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Good Neighbor Toad's Outing
The Little Helper
Hopping, hopping, hopping,
Goes good Neighbor Toad, Not a moment stopping
In the dusty road.
But I'd like to know
Where your flowers grow.
Good, and grave, and wise, That you ought to labor,
Catching bugs and flies? “Don't you think the flowers
Need to have you round,' Through the flitting hours,
To keep them safe and sound?” "Little Girl, don't worry
Soon I'm coming back. See how fast I hurry
O'er the dusty track! "I will do my duty
To each plant and flower, So they'll bloom in beauty
Under sun and shower! "But just a little outing
Though I never shirk! Makes me feel like shouting, Makes me feel like work!”
- Minnie Leona Upton
That's what I am, for every day
My grandpa calls me so,
I think he ought to know.
When they get out of sight,
And bring them out at night.
Of things to tell to him,
And his are old and dim.
With him along the street,
With people that we meet.
To be a lady true.
When I am spoken to.
And twist my bonnet-string,
As p’lite as anything.
To grandpa every day,
- Mary Hanson
A Department for Story Tellers
Animal Type I
Laura F. Kready
(Book rights reserved) "HE animal tale is one of the most interesting types when men became interested in problems of conduct, of children's stories, not only in its development, animals were introduced to point the moral of the tale
. but also in its illustrations. The beast tale is a very Then we have the fable, such as the “Fables of Æsop" or old form. It was the story of some successful primitive the "Fables of Bidpai," or later the “Fables of La Fonhunt or of some primitive man's experience with animals taine" and of “John Gray.” Associated with the fables were in which he looked up to the beast as a brother superior to Proverbs, moral truths which, because they embody the himself in strength, endurance, swiftness or cunning. Such practical bits of experience and tested wisdom of the race, are the old folk-tales, like the German “Musicians of have a universal appeal and are popular to-day. In the Bremen,” the English "Scrapefoot,” the Cossack “Straw fable, the gnomic truth of a proverb was amplified into the Ox," or the Norse "True and Untrue," printed in PRIMARY concrete action of a story that was brief and intense, by EDUCATION.
means of animal characters endowed with human traits. The animal folk-tale presents many interesting examples. With the introduction of printing into England through But the animal folk-tale must be passed over here, since the Caxton, “Æsop's Fables," which Caxton printed about most interesting tales of this class have been listed for the 1484 from the European collection of Heinrich Stainhöwel, grades and described briefly in the author's "Fairy Tale became popular in England. Naturally there followed in Studies for Elementary Teachers." This subject has been the wake of this text a popularity of the fable form, and in treated also in the first fairy-tale book, “A Study of Puritan times, of the moral tale. But the Caxton “ Æsop” Fairy Tales.” Suffice it to call to mind among animal was only one expression of the previous currency of the folk-tales some of the best, cleverest and sprightliest of fable and proverb during the Middle Ages. The monks tales, such as “Chicken Licken,” the Jataka “The Foolish of the thirteenth century made the teaching of natural Rabbit,” the French "Drakesbill,” the Scandinavian history subservient to religion. They spoke of the habits “Sheep and the Pig,” the Spanish “Medio Pollito,” the of individual animals and then found spiritual lore in them. Norse "Three Billy Goats,” and the English "Three Pigs” The works of Francois de Sales, with their fabled properties and “Three Bears” for the little children. While for the of animals, are of this sort: 'Goats are said to breathe older children, among the many might be mentioned the by the ears, not by the nostrils; so does the human heart Punjab "The Jackal and the Partridge,” which gives this by hearing the thoughts of others.” The distichs of Cato very interesting definition of a friend: "A friend is one who were used in the monastic schools, and not to know his can make me laugh, make me cry, give me a good dinner, Cato was the mark of Middle Age ignorance. A volume of or save my life if need be; but unless he have sincerity I "Moral Proverbs," by Christine de Pise, which was printed will have none of him.” “The King of the Crocodiles” and by Caxton, had also been in use as a reading book in the "The Rat's Wedding" are good Hindu tales, while among monastic schools. the Japanese tales are included "The Quarrel of the Monkey In the early Middle Ages the personality of the animals and the Crab," "The Sagacious Boar,” and “The Monkey became less prominent and the animal characters became and the Jelly-fish.” Then we have the Scandinavian types of humanity. Such was “Reynard the Fox," in “Three Dogs, Holdfast, Tear and Quick," and Andersen's which we have fable and folk-tale united with literature. "Tinder-box," the Norse "Dapplegrim” and the Russian The custom of giving names to animals, as Reynard, Bruin, "Fairy Craw-Fish," while among North American Indian and Tibert, was current in Lorraine, the province where tales, which are especially rich in animal types, two very "Reynard” is supposed to have originated, about 1150pleasing tales are “The Broken Wing,” an eagle story 1170. Other names, such as Chanticleer the Cock and displaying much humanity, and “The Legend of Mount Noble the Lion, were given because of a quality. The Rainier," an Indian tale of the Pacific Northwest, containing French artist who wrote "Reynard” gave to the personal sacred otters, published in Popular Educator for September. adventures of the beasts an underlying meaning; the classic Among animal folk-tales, too, we must not forget "The is really a novel of the adventures of a comonwealth of Uncle Remus Tales,” which in modern times have been beasts. collected in the south of this country by Joel Chandler “Reynard the Fox" shared with “Æsop's Fables" Harris.. These are humorous and so full of a sense of life Middle Age popularity. With the printing of Caxton's that they appeal to children of all ages.
edition in 1481, the tale became current in England. Its A modern folk-tale which is a re-telling of two old folk- increased popularity is indicated by the very fine chap-book tales, is “The Cock, the Mouse, and the Little Red Hen," of 1780, which was a condensed history of the first part and by Felicité Lefèvre, illustrated by Tony Sars. Here neither by the numerous tales of Reynard that appeared following tale is given exactly as the old tale, but rather as some it, in all lands. Like "Robinson Crusoe," "Reynard the clever child with a fine imigination would improvise details. Fox" had a wonderful influence upon contemporary The bright green of the houses, the tawny yellow of the literature. Foxes, the gay feathers of the Cock, the white clouds and During the dreary period of children's literature, from blue sky, make this a delightful and beautiful book for the Caxton's printing to about 1660, the history of the proverb child just beginning to read. Indeed, the book could be and the fable is bound up with the history of the alphabet. used admirably as a supplementary reading text for first As Mrs. E. M. Field has said, in “The Child and His Book": grade children. For the pictures interpret the text so “Once this hero (Great A and his merry men) was an definitely and on so many pages, only a very little reading important and even a somewhat awful personage. Men accompanies an illustration, while the beauty of the treasured him under horn as in a glass house; they bound color-tones in the pictures would aid in training a color him up in prayer-books, and signed themselves with the sense and a taste for beauty.
sacred sign of their faith before beginning to unravel his But to return to the development of the animal tale. sacred lore. Later generations dissevered him more and Following the folk-tales, later in more civilized society, more from these holy associations; he became continually
less and less connected with the mysteries of religion, and till at last they all fell on him and tore him limb from limb, more with instructive histories of good and bad children. and as poor Tray was with him, he met with his death at Then they fixed him on square wooden blocks or joined him the same time.'' to gaudy illustrations, that he might represent Ass in an alphabet of animals, or Affability in a series of virtues, or
Moral stand for an Archer or an Apple-pie, till, finally the audaci
By this fable you see how dangerous it is to be in company ous pencil of a Cruikshank fears not to assail him, and he and his henchmen can no longer hope to inspire awe, for nobody, but, etc. - Given in "The Child and His Book.”
with bad boys. Tray was a quiet, harmless dog, and hurt they have become Comic."
Mrs. E. M. Field Children's books, during the period just spoken of, in cluded the “Horn-book,” little “ABC tracts,” the “Book
About 1770 a new departure was made by Benjamin of Hours,” and later “Battledore” and “Spelling Book."
Collins of Salisbury, printer, who began publishing the The fable did not appear among the Christ-row of the “Battledore” for children. This was a three-leaved card “Horn-book," with its Syllabarium, Creed, and Lord's which folded up into an oblong, pocket-book shape, conPrayer . Nor in the "A B C tracts,“ with the Ten Com- taining, besides
the alphabet, numerals and syllables, easy mandments, Graces, Gloria Patria, and short Catechism, reading lessons, wood-cuts, and sometimes a fable or which were printed under royal license up to 1605. Nor in
didactic story. The backs of the “Battledore” were generthe “Primer” or “Book of Hours,” which contained a
ally decorated with Dutch paper, having colored flowers on calendar marked with church holidays, Alphabets, and
a gold groand. Those by Collins, Newbery, Darton and Syllabarium, followed by counsels in verse. This was the Harvey were often illustrated with many pictures of animals. reign of “The Tragical Death of A Apple Pye,” published In “Banbury Chap-Books,” by Edwin Pearson, Reader, by Marshall. Occasionally Spelling-books, such as Coote's
London, on pp. 28, 29, 30 and 31, are given some of the " English Schoolmaster," 1597, would supplement the
animal illustrations used by Rusher in his “Banbury "Horn-Book” or “ABC” with a few simple reading lessons Battledore,” “Galloping Guide to A B C,” “Primers,” and of words of one syllable. The fable and the moral tale
“Spelling-Books." gradually crept into these, such as in later years, “The
Following later than "Reynard the Fox,” the beast tale English Spelling-Book," by William Mavor, illustrated by took the form of narratives of hunters, where the interest Kate Greenaway, which, following its word study and little
centered in the excitement of the hunt and in the victory moral stories of the division of words into syllables, contains of the hunter. This has been parodied by Randolph some “Select Tales," as “The Dog and the Shadow,"
Caldecott in "The Three Jovial Huntsmen." This is one “The Milk-woman and Her Pail,” and “The Hare and the
selection in the two volumes of his “Collection of Pictures Tortoise," a moral tale, “William and Thomas," and a
and Songs," produced in modern times. Among the other chapter of “Moral Observations.” However, there were tales of these books are included the animal types, "The editions of “Æsop” in Latin and English used in the
Frog He Would A-Wooing Go," Goldsmith's "Elegy on a schools at the same time as the “Obis Pictus” of Comenius.
Mad Dog,"" John Gilpin's Ride," and "The Farmer's Boy.' But at the time of Milton Puritan influence was very severe
With the thirst for universal knowledge in the days following with the child and all tale and fable for pure pleasure were
Bacon, there gradually grew a desire to learn about animals. cut out.
With the growth of the scientific spirit the interest in One of the first books written for boys and girls was by
natural history developed. In his “Thoughts on Educa. John Bunyan, 1628-88, the author of "Pilgrim's Progress,'
tion,” John Locke, in 1691, suggested that when a child entitled "Divine Emblems.” This was turned into a
begins to read, “some easy pleasant book like 'Æsop's Primer with additions, in 1686. The following verses
Fables' or 'Reynard the Fox, with pictures, if possible, "Upon the Frog," No. 31 of its Emblems, may well be
should be put into his hands." With the publication of taken as an example of the Puritan child's animal tale, “Perrault's
Fairy Tales" in 1697, the fairy tale
for the child with its moral appended:
was announced to the world, and with it came the fable
and the animal tale. Upon the Frog
In England John Newbery was the publisher who sensed The Frog by nature is both damp and cold,
this growth of his day and from 1744-1802 Newbery and Her mouth is large, her belly much will hold,
his successors began to publish two hundred pleasant little She sits somewhat ascending, loves to be
books for children. One of the most famous of these books Croaking in gardens tho' unpleasantly.
and an animal tale for children, was "Tommy Trip's
History of Beasts and Birds," written by Oliver Goldsmith, Comparison
published by John Newbery. The edition of 1779 by Saint, The hypocrite is like unto this frog;
of Newcastle, was illustrated with charming engravings by As like as is the Puppy to the Dog.
the famous Thomas Bewick, whose animal illustrations have He is of nature Cold, his Mouth is wide
never been surpassed. With the revival of wood-cutting To prate, and at true Goodness to deride.
which now began, and with the number of engravers who He mounts his head, as if he was above
constituted the School of Bewick, a new impetus was given The World, when yet 'tis that which has his Love, And though he seeks in Churches for to croak,
to the animal tale, as perhaps the most attractive form He neither loveth Jesus, nor His Yoke.
suited for engraving. In Goldsmith's book, the first tale Given in “The Child and His Book,” Mrs. E. M. Field
was “History of Tom Trip and His Dog Jowler.” Then
followed short sketches of lion, dog, peacock and squirrel: Another early book of special interest as to the animal The cuts of the animals were followed by suitable verses, tale, is “The Child's New Plaything, "1743, perhaps by such as this rather sly one appended to “The Monkey": Dr. Isaac Watts. After a few cheerful alphabets, etc., and simple religious precepts, it contained the following
The beau, allow'd himself to deck, little story with moral complete:
A perfect monkey would be,
But that his tail hangs from his neck, "Once on a time two dogs went out to walk. Tray was a
The monkey's where it should be. good dog, and would not hurt the least thing in the world, but Snap was cross, and would snarl and bite at all that
With “The Bison” were the following lines: came in his way. At last they came to a town. All the dogs came round them. Tray hurt none of them, but
The Bison, tho' neither Snap would grin at one, snarl at the next, and bite a third,
Engaging nor young,
Like a flatt'rer can lick you
and frequently visited him at his leisure hours with apples, To death with his tongue.
nuts, and such other presents as he could procure. Among With “The Cuckoo" were these lines of decorative
the other tricks which the monkey had been taught to spelling:
perform, he would rise upon his hind legs at the word of The cuckoo comes to cheer the spring,
command and bow with the greatest politeness to the And early every morn does sing;
company.” — From “The History of Little Jack,” in “OldThe nightingale, secure and snug,
Fashioned Tales," by E. V. Lucas
In "Sandford and Merton," 1783, Day's most famous "The Fox, when troubled with fleas, takes a bit of wool in story, written to illustrate a method of education, noted his mouth, and goes gradually down into the water till for its contribution of amusement, information, fable, story, only his nose is exposed. The fileas jump upon the wool, anecdote, science and morals, and perhaps the most popular and then he lets it drop.” The book contained also a story book of its time next to “Robinson Crusoe,” Harry and of Coryleg the great giant, and the well-known verses,
Tommy are continually having adventures with animals. “Three children sliding on the ice.”
“The History of Two Dogs" is Tommy's first reading The publication of Rousseau's "Emile” in 1762 was lesson, and Harry read “Androcles and the Lion." In the revolutionary. The direction of thought was turned to
book the boys are taught about the kite, the lion, deer, the human and an attempt made to give the child nature fox, bear, care for chickens, lamb, tame elephants, white that which was suited to it. Authors like Thomas Day bear, seal, and other animals. Two of the most amusing and the Edgeworths, who followed Rousseau's ideals and episodes are Tommy's attempt to tame wild animals and spread them to England, immediately planned to give the his catastrophe with the pig, and his attempt to go sledging, child a literature more suited to his nature. This was the Eskimo fashion, with Cæsar, and a chair for a sledge. time of the rise of the realistic story in England. But among the realistic stories written in these early days,
The History of Two Dogs while not properly beast tales, there were many which “In a part of the world, where there are many strong and show children closely associated with animals.
fierce wild beasts, a poor man happened to bring up two Thomas Day's "History of Little Jack,” 1788, was one puppies of that kind which is most valued for size and of the most interesting stories and a very popular one, courage. As they appeared to possess more than common written to teach the moral that "it is of little consequence strength and agility, he thought that he should make an how a man comes into the world provided he behaves well acceptable present to his landlord, who was a rich man and discharges his duty when he is in it." Little Jack was living in a great city, by giving him one of them, called a foundling,
nursed by a goat to whom he was very devoted, Jowler; while he brought up the other, named Keeper, to and later he obtained a pet monkey. He was reared by an guard his own flocks. old man on a common, became a blacksmith, then a soldier, "From this time the manner of living was entirely altered then a refugee cast on a desert island, and then a prisoner between the brother whelps - Jowler was sent into a of the Tartars. Among the Tartars his genius in saddlery plentiful kitchen, where he quickly became the favorite raised him to high favor with the Khan. He came home a of all the servants, who diverted themselves with his little rich man and built a house on the original common. “Little tricks and wanton gambols, and rewarded him with great Jack” was especially interesting as one of the stories quantities of pot-liquor and broken victuals; by which emulating “Robinson Crusoe,” so that altogether it is a means, as he was stuffing from morning till night, he very good typical story of its day. In spite of its moral, increased considerably in size, and grew sleek and comely. it does not lack interest and action and the character Jack He was, indeed, rather unwieldly, and so cowardly that he is very pleasing.
would run away from a dog only half as big as himself
He was also much addicted to gluttony, and was often “About this time the poor goat which had nursed Jack beaten for the thefts he committed in the pantry; but as so faithfully grew ill and died. He tended her with the he had learned to fawn upon the footmen, and would stand greatest affection and assiduity during her illness, brought upon his hind legs to beg, when he was ordered, and, her the freshest herbs for food, and would frequently support besides this, would fetch and carry, he was much caressed her head for hours together upon his knees. But it was all by all the neighborhood. in vain; he lost his poor mammy, as he used to call her, ‘Keeper, in the mean time, who lived at a cottage in the and was for some time inconsolable; for Jack, though his country, neither fared so well, looked so plump, nor had knowledge was bounded, had an uncommon degree of learned all these pretty little tricks to recommend him; gratitude and affection in his temper. He was not able but as his master was too poor to maintain anything that to talk as finely about love, tenderness, and sensibility as was not useful, and was obliged to be always in the air, many other little boys that have enjoyed greater advantages subject to all sorts of weather, and laboring hard for a of education, but he felt the reality of them in his heart, livelihood, Keeper grew hardy, active, and diligent. He and thought it so natural to love everything that loves us was also exposed to incessant danger from the wolves, that he never even suspected it was possible to do otherwise. from whom he had received many a severe bite, while The poor goat was buried in the old man's garden, and guarding the flocks. These continual combats gave him thither little Jack would often come and call upon his such intrepidity, that no enemy could make him turn his poor mammy Nan, and ask her why she had left him.
back. His care and assiduity so well defended the sheep
of his master, that not one had ever been missing since “After a variety of questions and conversations, the they were placed under his protection. His honesty too showman, who probably wanted to be rid of his monkey,
was so great that no temptation could overpower it; and proposed to Jack to purchase him for half a crown. Jack though he was left alone in the kitchen while the meat was could not resist the temptation of being master of such a
roasting, he never attempted to taste it, but received with droll, diverting animal, and therefore agreed to the bargain.
thankfulness whatever his master chose to give him. But when he was left alone with his purchase, whom he led
From living always in the air, he had become so hardy along by a chain, he soon began to repent his haste, and
that no tempest could drive him to shelter, when he ought knew not how to dispose of him. As there was, however, to be employed in watching the flocks; and he would no remedy, Jack brought him carefully home and confined plunge into the most rapid river, in the coldest weather of him safe in an outhouse which was not applied to any use.
the winter, at the slightest sign from his master. In this situation he kept him several days without accident,
“About this time it happened that the landlord of the
poor man went to examine his estate in the country, and “In the meantime, Keeper, instead of hunting wild brought Jowler with him to the place of his birth. On his beasts, or looking after sheep, did nothing but eat and arrival there he could not help viewing the rough, ragged sleep, which he was permitted to do from a remembrance appearance of Keeper, and his awkward look, which dis- of his past services. As all qualities of mind and body are covered nothing of the address he so much admired in lost, if not continually exercised, he soon ceased to be that Jowler. This opinion, however, was altered by means of hardy, courageous animal he was before; and he acquired an accident which happened to him. As he was one all the faults which are the consequences of idleness and day walking in a thick wood, with no other company than gluttony. the two dogs, a hungry wolf, with eyes that sparkled like “About this time the gentleman went again into the fire, bristling hair, and a horrid snarl that made the gentle country, and, taking his dog with him, was willing that he man tremble, rushed out of a neighboring thicket, and should exercise his prowess once more against his ancient seemed ready to devour him. The unfortunate man gave enemies, the wolves. Accordingly, the country-people havhimself over for lost, especially when he saw that his ing quickly found one in a neighboring wood, the gentleman faithful Jowler, instead of coming to his assistance, ran went thither with Keeper, expecting to see him behave as sneaking away, with his tail between his legs, howling with he had done the year before. But how great was his fear. But in this moment of despair, the undaunted surprise, when, at the first onset, he saw his beloved dog Keeper, who had followed him humbly and unobserved, run away with every mark of timidity! At this moment, at a distance, flew to his assistance, and attacked the wolf another dog sprang forward, and seizing the wolf with the with so much courage and skill, that he was compelled to greatest intrepidity, after a bloody contest, left him dead exert all his strength in his own defence. The battle was upon the ground. The gentleman could not help lamenting long and bloody; but, in the end, Keeper laid the wolf the cowardice of his favorite, and admiring the noble spirit dead at his feet, though not without receiving several of the other dog, whom, to his infinite surprise, he found severe wounds himself, and presenting a bloody and to be the same Jowler that he had discarded the year before. mangled spectacle to the eyes of his master, who came up 'I now see,' said he to the farmer, 'that it is in vain to at that instant. The gentleman was filled with joy for his expect courage in those who live a life of indolence and escape, and gratitude to his valiant deliverer; having repose; and that constant exercise and proper discipline are learned by his own experience, that appearances are not frequently able to change contemptible characters into always to be trusted, and that great virtues and good good ones." "-- From "The History of Sandford and Merton," dispositions may sometimes be found in cottages, while by Thomas Day they may be totally wanting among the great. “The gentleman was so pleased with the noble behavior
Among “Maria Edgeworth's Tales," contemporary with of Keeper, that he requested the poor man to make him a
“Sandford and Merton,” giving very good portrayals of the present of the dog. With this request, though with some
life of the times, and the best literary realistic tales that reluctance, the farmer complied. Keeper was therefore have been written for children, were a few tales in which taken to the city, where he was caressed and fed by every
animals played a conspicuous part in close association with body; and the disgraced Jowler was left at the cottage, children, "Little Dog Trusty," "Rosamund and Her with strict injunctions to the man to hang him up, as a
Rabbit," and "Simple Susan and Her Pet Lamb." "The worthless, unprofitable cur.
White Pigeon" is a very interesting story of a carrier-pigeon "As soon as the gentleman had departed, the poor man
belonging to a boy, Brian O'Neill, of their adventures, and was going to execute his commission; but, considering how the service of the pigeon and the boy's honesty finally the noble size and comely look of the dog, and, above all,
won for the poor boy's father the hostelry of a new inn being moved with pity for the poor animal, who wagged hiš bearing a beautifully painted sign, "The White Pigeon.” tail , and licked his new master's feet, just as he was putting
In "Evenings at Home," by Mrs. Barbauld, 1743-1825, the cord about his neck, he determined to spare his life,
and Dr. John Aiken, 1747-1822, a collection for the inand see whether a different treatment might not produce struction of children and a book which formed part of the different manners. From this day, Jowler was in every library of the child of its time, are many stories of animals, respect treated as his brother Keeper had been before. fables, etc. Among the most interesting might bé menHe was fed but scantily; and, from this spare diet, he soon
tioned “The History and Adventures of a Cat,” “The grew more active and fond of exercise. The first shower he
Travelled Ant," "The Goose and the Horse," "The Mouse," was in, he ran away as he had been accustomed to do, and “Lapdog,” and “Monkey,” “The Council of Quadrupeds," sneaked to the fireside; but the farmer's wife soon drove "The Rat with a Bell," etc. “The Transmigrations of him out of doors, and compelled him to bear the rigor of the Indur," one of its most noted tales, shows a life spent as weather. In consequence of this, he daily became more
different animals, changing to antelope, whale, bee, and vigorous and hardy, and in a few months regarded cold mastiff. One of its numbers is “The Farmyard Journal," and rain no more than though he had been brought up in also quoted in "Forgotten Tales of Long Ago," by E. V.
Lucas. "Changed as he already was, in many respects, for the
Journal better, he still retained an insurmountable dread of wild “June 10th. Last night we had a dreadful alarm. A beasts; till one day, as he was wandering through a wood violent scream was heard from the hen-roost; the geese alone, he was attacked by a large and fierce wolf
, who, all set up a cackle, and the dogs barked. Ned, the boy jumping out of a thicket, seized him by the neck with fury. who lies over the stable, jumped up and ran into the yard, Jowler would fain have run, but his enemy was too swift when he observed a fox galloping away with a chicken in and violent to suffer him to escape. Necessity makes even his mouth, and the dogs in full chase after him. They cowards brave. Jowler being thus stopped in his retreat, could not overtake him,
and soon returned. Upon further turned upon his enemy, and, very luckily, seizing him by examination, the large white cock was found lying on the the throat, strangled him in an instant. His master then ground, all bloody, with his comb torn almost off, and his coming up, and having witnessed his exploit, praised him, feathers all ruffled, and the speckled hen and three chickens and stroked him with a degree of fondness he had never lay dead beside him. The cock recovered, but appeared done before. Animated by this victory, and by the appro- terribly frightened. It seems that the fox had jumped bation of his master, Jowler, from that time, became as over the garden hedge, and then, crossing part of the yard brave as he had before been pusillanimous; and there was behind the straw, had crept into the hen-roost through a very soon no dog in the country who was so great a terror broken pale. John the carpenter was sent for, to make all
fast, and prevent the like mischief again."
to beasts of prey.