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Making the Lunch Hour Count

Jennie L. Hendricks

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Principal of Training School, State Normal School, Worcester, Mass. HE lunch hour in the rural school is not always School Children," by A. W. Sandwall, published by the

made of value to the child; more often it is a Massachusetts Department of Public Health. These cards time when bad habits of hygiene and community have printed on them such rules

life are developed. In one rural school in New England which I visited, the

1. Begin the day by drinking a glass of water and drink

at least six glasses during the day. children were not allowed inside the schoolroom during the noon hour. They were made to eat their cold lunches

4 Eat slowly and chew all food well. in the untidy anterooms. With dirty hands the lunches 8 Eat bread and butter every meal; dark breads are were "gulped down,”some finishing their meal in less than

best. five minutes. No doubt this teacher was emphasizing 11 Do not drink tea or coffee: it does the body no good conscientiously during the year the necessity for proper but does it harm. mastication and cleanliness in her hygiene lessons — but

12 Do not eat or touch any food without first washing alas! the golden opportunity for actually putting this the hands. theory into practice was sadly overlooked.

15 Do not drink from a glass or cup which has been In other schools, where the children are allowed to eat

used by another person without washing it. at their own desks, I have seen the food taken out of the lunch boxes and placed on the desks - desks which, in

These rules were read and discussed for about five

minutes for several days. The children enjoyed this. many cases, have been used for many years where all minutes for several days. kinds of dirt and filth have been allowed to collect.

They could be heard discussing with their neighbors which Aside from neglecting to make use of the opportunity of these rules they already followed and which they were for training in habits of proper hygiene, a splendid oppor- going to try to follow in the future. Finally they were tunity for training children in habits of helpfulness and allowed to take these cards home, where it is hoped they thoughtfulness for others is not made use of.

will be read and used by the parents. In many rural schools to-day hot cocoa, soups, etc.,

One day early in the year the teacher told the children prepared by the children, are being served at noon. In

of an acquaintance who lived to be ninety years old. such schools more is being done along this line, but even

When asked if he knew why he had always been so well there the most is not being made of that valuable situation.

and lived to be so old, he said, “I always put my teeth In such schools with which I am acquainted, care is not

through my food thirty-two times.” At once the children taken to have those who prepare the food work with clean began to try it. From all parts of the room one could hear, hands. Very little is being done to train the children in

"I put mine through thirty-five times that time." "I the art of living with others.

put mine through thirty-eight times.” Following is an account of how the lunch hour is being

Several times during the year the children (sometimes utilized in training for citizenship in a school where the

at some suggestion of the teacher’s) have taken up this greater part of the children are obliged to carry their

“exercise" again. lunches. In this particular school the children's parents

Since a happy, cheerful atmosphere during eating aids provide them with thermos bottles, so there is no necessity greatly in the proper digestion, this half hour is made a for making hot drinks at the school.

most happy one. The children are encouraged to bring in During the first fifteen minutes the children have a

anecdotes, conundrums, and puzzles to be put on the recess, when they are encouraged to romp and play, getting board. Each of these must be told to the teacher before plenty of exercise and fresh air. While the greater part

the children hear it, in order that no possible coarseness or of the school is thus engaged, four children prepare the vulgarity may creep in. room for lunch. Chairs are placed around one large table

The types of things they bring in are: and two smaller tables. The desks and chairs are the

“A little Indian and a big Indian were walking down the movable kind. These are arranged in the form of a three

street. The little Indian was the son of the big Indian, sided square, the fourth side being left open. At each

but the big Indian was not the father of the little Indian. place is spread a fresh paper towel – a clean place for the What relation was the big Indian to the little Indian?” hands or for any food which the child wishes.

Answer Mother As soon as these preparations are completed, the other

Read this sentence: children are called in from recess. By this time they are usually very hungry, and for the first few weeks of the school year are reluctant to go and wash their hands "If the

be empty, put more :before eating. But no one escapes and it soon becomes such a habit that it is seldom that a child forgets. It is

grate be empty, put understood by all the children that they are to remain

on.) in the lunch-room for half an hour, when all leave together. When children are allowed to go out as soon as they have

“Arrange the numbers 1-9 in three rows with three in eaten, they usually eat as rapidly as possible, in order that

a row, so that when any three of the numbers in a row are they may continue their play. When they are never added, the sum will be fifteen." excused until the half hour is up, the tendency is to eat more slowly. No child is allowed to leave his place during the half

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6 hour without the permission of the teacher. This is precisely what is expected of children at a dinner table in the right kind of a home. Should any child be allowed

3 5 7 to form the impolite habit of leaving the table any time he chooses?

4 9 12 Each child has been given a copy of “Food Rules for

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the room, to take any vacant seat. In this way the children
are able to become well acquainted with all their school-
mates. It gives the teacher a splendid opportunity to
teach democracy, for the rich and the poor, the shy and
the bold, the good scholars and the poor ones are continually

being made near neighbors. They find out unconsciously This is all done in a most informal way and serves two

that from all kinds of people there is something to learn. purposes. The children are eating in a pleasant atmos- On days when there is no work of this kind to be done, phere, and as they are thinking about these things, they the five minutes are spent in listening to Victrola records, eat more slowly than they would otherwise.

in community singing, or in playing together in the “Lunch
The majority of the children finish their lunches in Box Band." This last they enjoy immensely. Some drum
twenty-five minutes. The last five minutes of the half with their hands on their lunch boxes or their desks. Some
hour are usually utilized in working out with the children of the boys play on their pocket combs, while others
the organization of the lunch-room. At this time the whistle.
teacher appoints the helpers, usually for a week at a time. When the half hour is up, the children get drinks and

The seating of the pupils is also arranged at this time. go out for a recess during the remainder of the hour.
For the first two weeks of the school year the children are The after-lunch helpers now clean up the room; throw
permitted each day to sit in any place they wish. Naturally away the used paper towels, brush the crumbs from the
they choose to sit near their most intimate friends. In desks and sweep the floor. There are always two sets of
order that the children may receive the training of getting helpers, one before lunch, the other after, in order that no
better acquainted with other children in the school, the children need be deprived of both the noon recesses.
teacher assigns the places for the next two weeks. She The teacher who guides such a lunch hour finds that
takes great care in making these assignments. Often a during no other time of the day has she so good a chance
shy girl is assigned to the seat next to a boy or girl who is to discover the individuality of her pupils. No other time
lively and talkative; a rough, uncouth boy put in a group during the day does she find a better time to teach the
of refined boys and girls that he may learn from them; necessity of each individual contributing his best to society.
and so on. Sometimes all the girls sit together and all the A helper is careless in preparing the room, so all are
boys.

inconvenienced. This is discussed by the group and the Occasionally the teacher draws a diagram of the seating offender has actually seen the results of his careless work. on the board. The children, one at a time, are allowed to Examples of this kind are constantly arising. Each time step to the board and write their names in the places the subject is talked over by the group. If laws or punishwhere they wish to sit.

ments are decided upon, these, too, are made and carried Again for two weeks they are allowed, as they come into out by the pupils.

Some Ways of Teaching Spelling

Mary Schwarberg

The Caswell Training School, Kingston, N. C. It is a trite saying that the more interesting a study, the with the end in view of seeing all the different articles of better the results that are gained. Illumine, illumine is interest to us. Taking the subject of the trees of the the beginning, all along the way, and the goal of a teacher's forest, the trees in the orchards, the domestic animals and best work.

the wild ones all suggest a multiplicity of subjects where There are a variety of ways of presenting spelling. Let interesting matter could be obtained for lessons. us take the subject of a bird and its life these beginning Then occasionally give the class five minutes to write spring days. Present the picture of a blue bird in color. promiscuously any words they please and it is instructive Tell of its instinct in migrating and staying in North Caro- to notice the results secured. Some will use works helterlina and Georgia for the winter and of its being the first skelter, while others will use a logical sequence growing out harbinger of spring in the North land. Give all the facts of subjects. of its makeup, spell these words, then let each child draw Once a month divide the class into two sides and take the the bird and color it and then write all the words possible subject of vegetables as a lesson. Let one side spell and about the bird. Such words as eggs, nest, feathers, sheath, suggest the name of a vegetable and then the other. A wings, fly, etc.

memory test could follow by one starting and sayin, The same way could the pussy willow be used as a lesson "In my vegetable garden grow beans," then the next and a fence or tree drawn and the pussy willow buds cut repeats that and adds another: so on all along the line, and in two and half pasted on a sheet of paper and the tail and there is fun in it and concentration and thought. Taking head of the pussy attached as below.

the names of all the animals that begin with the different

letters of the alphabet can be followed in the same manner; The words connected with the different trades or pro- for the memory test, saying, “In my zoological garden

fessions could be taught in the are found apes, etc.
same manner. Pictures of the car- The interest in the late great war is voluminous with
penter, blacksmith, with the actual words for the most delightful lessons. The new war words
tools shown, would be effective. could all be learned by following the soldier from enlistment,

A house with the articles used in to the camp, from thence, to Europe. All the activities
the kitchen, the furniture in the and work and play along the line, pictures telling of all

dining-room, bed-room, living-room this would make a never-ending source of joy to all pupils. would vary the lessons.

Then the aviation and the engineering, the Y. M. C. A. The subject of another lesson could be the things we and the Y. W. C. A., the Red Cross and all the rest could eat and buy at the grocery store, the fruit store, etc. keep the interest red hot for an indefinite time.

Then another day the articles we wear and where they The subjects are endless and one can see by these sugcome from, and how they are prepared for us, would make gestions that the whole realm of knowledge can be used to for variety in our lessons.

increase one's vocabulary in a manner that is not dry nor An excursion could be taken to these different places uninteresting.

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Seasonal Problems for Grade IV I

A Trip to the Country

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Bertha M. Toelle

ascending and descending with denominate numbers; cubic
measure or volume; addition, subtraction and division of

fractions.
ARY says her uncle needs some one to help him
gather his fruit and vegetables for the winter,

Solution of Problems
before the first frost comes. How many children

1 Read the problem. would like to help him? If we can go on Saturday, he

Reason the problem. will send two large hay wagons to take us to the farm. Twenty children can get into one wagon. If there are

What do you know? thirty-eight children going, how many will have to go in

What you know will usually confine itself to two

numbers. the second wagon? We will take our lunches along, and he will give us plenty

b What do you want to find out? of fresh milk and fruit, so we will have a picnic. Be sure

This usually is the question asked in the problem,

What must I do? to wear your old clothes, as we expect to have plenty of fun, as well as work.

To answer the problem, we must do one of four If we leave at 7.30 A.M., when shall we arrive at the farm

things: add, subtract, multiply or divide. If if the distance is eleven miles and the horses travel at the

the answer is less, we subtract or divide. If rate of five and one-half miles per hour?

the answer is to be more, we will add or multiply. As there are several kinds of work to be done, we must

3 Work the problem. Be careful to see that the work

is written out neatly and correctly. divide ourselves into groups, in order that more work may be accomplished. The girls can cut the cabbage, pick the

In oral problems, simply have the pupils state the answer

after reasoning lima beans and tomatoes, and husk the corn. There are twelve rows of cabbage, with seventy-five heads

Concrete Illustration in each row. How many heads of cabbage are there? If one girl can cut 180 heads, how many girls will be

Read Problem. needed? If it takes each girl one hour to cut sixty heads,

If 150 pumpkins are picked and 38 are given away, how how long will she have to work to cut 180 heads?

many are left? The three tallest girls will be needed to pick the lima

Reason Problem. beans. There are thirty-six hills and each one will yield about one quart of beans. How many pecks will they pick? given away. I must find out how many pumpkins are ləft.

I know 150 pumpkins were picked and I know 38 were How much would these be worth at $.20 a quart? The small girls can pick the tomatoes

. "If they pick My answer will be less, therefore I will subtract. twelve pecks, how many bushels will they have? What Work Problem. would the farmer receive for them at $.95 a peck?

150 Pumpkins were picked Four rapid workers will be needed to husk the corn. -38 Pumpkins were given away If they husk enough to fill a bin 6 feet long, 4 feet wide and 4 feet deep, how many bushels will that be, allowing 112 Pumpkins were left li cubic feet to a bushel? We have left the heavy work for the boys. They can

Suggested Method for Solution of Problems in dig potatoes, pick the apples, bury the turnips and gather

the Grammar Grades. the pumpkins.

Four boys will be needed to dig the potatoes. If Jack Steps for the logical analysis of a problem (“Teaching digs 11 bushels, Harry 17 bushels, Frank 1 bushels and

of Arithmetic" — Smith) Robert it bushels, how many bushels will they all dig?

1 What is required? How many more pecks will Harry pick than Jack? What 2 What is given to help find this? is the average number of pecks for each boy?

3 How does what is given compare with what is required? All of you would like to pick apples, but we must select

4 What is the process or statement of the work to be six of the smallest boys. If they pick 16 bushels, how

done? many barrels can be filled if each barrel holds 4} cubic feet.

5 Process indicated in arithmetical form. (1 bushel=14 cubic feet.)

6 Is the result reasonable? (Approximation of result) The celery bed needs banking. If it is seventy-five feet

7 Operation performed. long and six feet wide, how many cubic feet of earth will be

8 Check or proof. required to raise it six inches? Six boys may work on the celery bed and the remaining

Concrete Example six boys may gather the pumpkins. If they gather 150 If some boys husk enough corn to fill a bin 6 ft. long, pumpkins, and each child is given one to take home, how 4 ft. wide, and 4 ft. deep, how many bushels will that be, many would be left?

allowing if cubic ft. to a bushel? If the remaining ones are sold to a canning factory at $.25 each, how much money will the farmer receive? 1 Required — How many bushels of corn are contained When all this work is finished we shall be tired and

eager in given bin? to eat our lunches. If the farmer gives each one of us 2 Given Dimensions of bin and number of cubic feet a pint of milk, how many gallons of milk shall we drink? which a bushel of corn occupies. After we have finished our lunches, we may enjoy ourselves 3 The number of bushels of corn will be less than the until five o'clock, when the wagons will be ready to bring number of cubic feet in the bin. us home. I am sure we shall all feel very tired, but satisfied 4 Process - First, I will multiply to find out how many with our day's outing.

cubic feet are in the bin. Then I will divide the number of

cubic feet by the number of cubic feet occupied by one The problems given above vary in character and difficulty. bushel of corn. The following phases of arithmetic are involved: Applica- 5 Process indicated tion of subtraction, division and multiplication; reduction 6X4X4+11= no. of bushels in bin

Lettering for 1 B and A-Squares, 2", 3", 4". Fold into 16 small squares. Cut, freehand, from pattern drawn on the board.

Apply to illustrated alphabet or words.

OUD CTH PBN SAK

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Lettering for 2B and A- 3B and A-If folded papers are used, cut off one row of squares, using the remaining oblong, three spaces in width and four spaces in length. Allow the children to rule the squares, using measurements learned in the super

vised manual training lessons. Apply to illustrated alphabet, word or booklets.

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